Abstract

Relief holograms are obtained on Agfa 8E56HD holographic emulsions by a Russian chemical-processing technique that is developed for their PE-2 holographic emulsion. We have shown that the three-dimensional surface profiles can easily be visualized by applying atomic force microscopy to measurement of the relief depth and relief spacing on holographic emulsions. The relief depth and thus diffraction efficiency decreases with increasing exposure time.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Altman, “Pure relief images on type 649-F plates,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1689–1690 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  3. H. Hannes, “Interferometric measurements of phase structures in photographs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 140–141 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. M. Smith, “Photographic relief images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 533 (1968);“Production of relief images with arbitrary profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1492–1494 (1969).
    [Crossref]
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  6. A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).
  7. E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristics of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).
  8. S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photo-emulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).
  9. H. J. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Springer Series in Optical Sciences Vol. 66 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Bennet, J. JaLanmir, J. C. Podlesny, T. L. Balter, D. T. Hobbs, “Scanning force microscope as a tool for studying optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 213–230 (1995).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. M. Bennet, J. JaLanmir, J. C. Podlesny, T. L. Balter, D. T. Hobbs, “Scanning force microscope as a tool for studying optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 213–230 (1995).

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photo-emulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

1989 (1)

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristics of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

1988 (2)

1986 (1)

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

1985 (1)

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase-relief holograms on silver-halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

1972 (1)

M. Agaki, T. Kaneko, T. Ishiba, “Electron micrographs of hologram cross sections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 93–95 (1972).
[Crossref]

1968 (2)

1966 (2)

J. H. Altman, “Pure relief images on type 649-F plates,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1689–1690 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Cathey, “Spatial phase modulation of wavefronts in spatial filtering and holography,” J. Soc. Opt. Am. 56, 1167–1171 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, G.

Agaki, M.

M. Agaki, T. Kaneko, T. Ishiba, “Electron micrographs of hologram cross sections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 93–95 (1972).
[Crossref]

Altman, J. H.

Balter, T. L.

J. M. Bennet, J. JaLanmir, J. C. Podlesny, T. L. Balter, D. T. Hobbs, “Scanning force microscope as a tool for studying optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 213–230 (1995).

Bennet, J. M.

J. M. Bennet, J. JaLanmir, J. C. Podlesny, T. L. Balter, D. T. Hobbs, “Scanning force microscope as a tool for studying optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 213–230 (1995).

Bjelkhagen, H. J.

H. J. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Springer Series in Optical Sciences Vol. 66 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).

Borges, A. M.

Brui, E. B.

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristics of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

Cathey, W. T.

W. T. Cathey, “Spatial phase modulation of wavefronts in spatial filtering and holography,” J. Soc. Opt. Am. 56, 1167–1171 (1966).
[Crossref]

Chidley, C. M.

Coelho, L. F. S.

de Baros, S.

Eichler, J. P. F.

Ermolaev, M. M.

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase-relief holograms on silver-halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Galpern, A. D.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase-relief holograms on silver-halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Gil, S. V.

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photo-emulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

Hannes, H.

Hariharan, P.

Hobbs, D. T.

J. M. Bennet, J. JaLanmir, J. C. Podlesny, T. L. Balter, D. T. Hobbs, “Scanning force microscope as a tool for studying optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 213–230 (1995).

Ishiba, T.

M. Agaki, T. Kaneko, T. Ishiba, “Electron micrographs of hologram cross sections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 93–95 (1972).
[Crossref]

JaLanmir, J.

J. M. Bennet, J. JaLanmir, J. C. Podlesny, T. L. Balter, D. T. Hobbs, “Scanning force microscope as a tool for studying optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 213–230 (1995).

Kalinina, I. V.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase-relief holograms on silver-halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Kaneko, T.

M. Agaki, T. Kaneko, T. Ishiba, “Electron micrographs of hologram cross sections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 93–95 (1972).
[Crossref]

Koreshev, S. N.

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photo-emulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristics of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

Kubota, T.

Podlesny, J. C.

J. M. Bennet, J. JaLanmir, J. C. Podlesny, T. L. Balter, D. T. Hobbs, “Scanning force microscope as a tool for studying optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 213–230 (1995).

Selyavko, L. V.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase-relief holograms on silver-halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Smaev, V. P.

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase-relief holograms on silver-halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Smith, H. M.

Wolf, H. E.

Wolff, W.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Agaki, T. Kaneko, T. Ishiba, “Electron micrographs of hologram cross sections,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 93–95 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Soc. Opt. Am. (1)

W. T. Cathey, “Spatial phase modulation of wavefronts in spatial filtering and holography,” J. Soc. Opt. Am. 56, 1167–1171 (1966).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (3)

A. D. Galpern, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Obtaining relief-phase holograms on PE-2 photographic plates and their copying,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 60, 644–645 (1986).

E. B. Brui, S. N. Koreshev, “Characteristics of use of thin layers of PE-2 photoemulsion for obtaining low frequency relief structures,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 67, 403–405 (1989).

S. N. Koreshev, S. V. Gil, “Profile of low frequency relief hologram structures obtained on thin layers of PE-2 photo-emulsion,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 247–249 (1990).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

A. D. Galpern, M. M. Ermolaev, I. V. Kalinina, L. V. Selyavko, V. P. Smaev, “Investigation of the possibility of producing phase-relief holograms on silver-halide photographic materials,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 52, 256–257 (1985).

Other (1)

H. J. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Springer Series in Optical Sciences Vol. 66 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic setup for the recording diffraction grating: SF, spatial filter; CL, collimator; BS, beam splitter; M, plane mirror; HP, holographic plate; 2θ, interbeam angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiencies of gratings as a function of exposure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in the relief depths of gratings with exposure time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Surface image of the holographic grating for set A exposed for 1 s. (b) Surface image of the holographic grating for set A exposed for 5 s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Surface image of the holographic grating for set B exposed for 1 s. (b) Surface image of the holographic grating for set B exposed for 5 s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tip and profile dimensions in the same scale.

Equations (4)

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η = I 1 / I 0 ,
DE J q 2 ( ϕ ) ,
ϕ = 2 π L ( n n o ) λ ,
Q = 2 π λ d n Λ 2 ,

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