Abstract

Inexpensive devices to measure solar UV irradiance are available to monitor atmospheric ozone, for example, total ozone portable spectroradiometers (TOPS instruments). A procedure to convert these measurements into ozone estimates is examined. For well-characterized filters with 7-nm FWHM bandpasses, the method provides ozone values (from 304- and 310-nm channels) with less than 0.4% error attributable to inversion of the theoretical model. Analysis of sensitivity to model assumptions and parameters yields estimates of ±3% bias in total ozone results with dependence on total ozone and path length. Unmodeled effects of atmospheric constituents and instrument components can result in additional ±2% errors.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. World Meteorological Organisation, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Rep. No. 37 (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1995), and references therein.
  2. M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Armbach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(1), 53–56 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. M. Mims, “How to measure the ozone layer,” Sci. Probe 2, 45–51 (1992).
  4. J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing 24(2), 258–266 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. I. The measurements,” Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1984) pp. 611–617.
  6. D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–790 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Ahmed, V. Kumar, “Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of SO2 at 188–231 and 278.7–320 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 359–373 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. J. Labow, L. E. Flynn, M. A. Rawlins, R. A. Beach, C. A. Simmons, C. M. Schubert, “Estimation of ozone with total ozone portable spectroradiometer instruments. II. Practical operation and comparisons,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6084–6089 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. De Muer, H. De Backer, “Revision of 20 years of Dobson total ozone data at Uccle (Belgium): fictitious Dobson total ozone trends induced by sulfur dioxide trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(D5), 5921–5937 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Compare results of Ahmed and Kumar7 with those of T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Extrapolation of theoretical calculations for four polydispersions in Fig. 5 of J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the estimation of total ozone in an atmospheric column from the measurements of its ultraviolet radiance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 899–911 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, “A numerical solution to the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 559–566 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, J. A. Reagan, “An analytic study of the solar aureole,” presented at the International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo., August 11–16, 1980.
  16. L. Elterman, “UV, visible and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km,” AFCRL-68-1053 (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1968).
  17. R. W. Spencer, J. R. Christy, “Precision lower stratospheric temperature monitoring with the MSU: technique, validation and results 1979–1991,” J. Clim. 6, 1194–1204 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. For example, see equations on p. C24 in The Astronomical Almanac, for the Year 1986 (Nautical Almanac Office, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1985).
  19. See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).
  20. See Appendix B of A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 5, 671–683 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. T. DeLand, R. P. Cebula, “The composite Mg II solar activity index for solar cycles 21 and 22,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12809–12823 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

1996 (2)

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Labow, L. E. Flynn, M. A. Rawlins, R. A. Beach, C. A. Simmons, C. M. Schubert, “Estimation of ozone with total ozone portable spectroradiometer instruments. II. Practical operation and comparisons,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6084–6089 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Armbach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(1), 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. W. Spencer, J. R. Christy, “Precision lower stratospheric temperature monitoring with the MSU: technique, validation and results 1979–1991,” J. Clim. 6, 1194–1204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. T. DeLand, R. P. Cebula, “The composite Mg II solar activity index for solar cycles 21 and 22,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12809–12823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

D. De Muer, H. De Backer, “Revision of 20 years of Dobson total ozone data at Uccle (Belgium): fictitious Dobson total ozone trends induced by sulfur dioxide trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(D5), 5921–5937 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Mims, “How to measure the ozone layer,” Sci. Probe 2, 45–51 (1992).

S. M. Ahmed, V. Kumar, “Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of SO2 at 188–231 and 278.7–320 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 359–373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

See Appendix B of A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 5, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Compare results of Ahmed and Kumar7 with those of T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing 24(2), 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Extrapolation of theoretical calculations for four polydispersions in Fig. 5 of J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the estimation of total ozone in an atmospheric column from the measurements of its ultraviolet radiance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 899–911 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, “A numerical solution to the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 559–566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Ahmed, S. M.

S. M. Ahmed, V. Kumar, “Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of SO2 at 188–231 and 278.7–320 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 359–373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. D.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armbach, W.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Armbach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(1), 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bass, A. M.

A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. I. The measurements,” Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1984) pp. 611–617.

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Beach, R. A.

Bhartia, P. K.

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Blumthaler, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Armbach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(1), 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bluth, G. J. S.

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Browning, S. B.

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, “A numerical solution to the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 559–566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, J. A. Reagan, “An analytic study of the solar aureole,” presented at the International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo., August 11–16, 1980.

Brueckner, G. E.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burris, J.

Compare results of Ahmed and Kumar7 with those of T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cebula, R. P.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. T. DeLand, R. P. Cebula, “The composite Mg II solar activity index for solar cycles 21 and 22,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12809–12823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Christy, J. R.

R. W. Spencer, J. R. Christy, “Precision lower stratospheric temperature monitoring with the MSU: technique, validation and results 1979–1991,” J. Clim. 6, 1194–1204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crane, P. C.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahlback, A.

See Appendix B of A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 5, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dave, J. V.

Extrapolation of theoretical calculations for four polydispersions in Fig. 5 of J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the estimation of total ozone in an atmospheric column from the measurements of its ultraviolet radiance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 899–911 (1978).
[CrossRef]

De Backer, H.

D. De Muer, H. De Backer, “Revision of 20 years of Dobson total ozone data at Uccle (Belgium): fictitious Dobson total ozone trends induced by sulfur dioxide trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(D5), 5921–5937 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De Muer, D.

D. De Muer, H. De Backer, “Revision of 20 years of Dobson total ozone data at Uccle (Belgium): fictitious Dobson total ozone trends induced by sulfur dioxide trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(D5), 5921–5937 (1992).
[CrossRef]

DeLand, M. T.

M. T. DeLand, R. P. Cebula, “The composite Mg II solar activity index for solar cycles 21 and 22,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12809–12823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “UV, visible and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km,” AFCRL-68-1053 (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1968).

Evans, W. J. F.

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

Fast, H.

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

Floyd, L. E.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, L. E.

Forester, A. J.

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

Henderson, G. S.

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

Herman, B. M.

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing 24(2), 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, “A numerical solution to the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 559–566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, J. A. Reagan, “An analytic study of the solar aureole,” presented at the International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo., August 11–16, 1980.

Herman, J. R.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Herring, L. C.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenrath, E.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Armbach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(1), 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

Knapp, D. G.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krotkov, N. A.

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, A. J.

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Kumar, V.

S. M. Ahmed, V. Kumar, “Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of SO2 at 188–231 and 278.7–320 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 359–373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Labow, G. J.

London, J.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T. J.

Compare results of Ahmed and Kumar7 with those of T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R. D.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Mims, F. M.

F. M. Mims, “How to measure the ozone layer,” Sci. Probe 2, 45–51 (1992).

Oaks, A.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Palmer, J. M.

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing 24(2), 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pankratz, C. K.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paur, R. J.

A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. I. The measurements,” Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1984) pp. 611–617.

Prinz, D. K.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rawlins, M. A.

Reagan, J. A.

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing 24(2), 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, J. A. Reagan, “An analytic study of the solar aureole,” presented at the International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo., August 11–16, 1980.

Reiser, P. A.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rottman, G. J.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, B. M.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Schnetzler, C. C.

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C. M.

Simmons, C. A.

Spencer, R. W.

R. W. Spencer, J. R. Christy, “Precision lower stratospheric temperature monitoring with the MSU: technique, validation and results 1979–1991,” J. Clim. 6, 1194–1204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sprod, I.

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

See Appendix B of A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 5, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Taylor, S. L.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

Thomason, L. W.

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing 24(2), 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Torres, O.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

VanHoosier, M. E.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vupputuri, R. K. R.

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

Walter, L. S.

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D. I.

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

Wellemeyer, C. G.

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

White, O. R.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woods, T. N.

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Armbach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(1), 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing (1)

J. A. Reagan, L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, J. M. Palmer, “Assessment of atmospheric limitations on the determination of solar spectral constant from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing 24(2), 258–266 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

Extrapolation of theoretical calculations for four polydispersions in Fig. 5 of J. V. Dave, “Effect of aerosols on the estimation of total ozone in an atmospheric column from the measurements of its ultraviolet radiance,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 899–911 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, “A numerical solution to the equation of radiative transfer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 559–566 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim. (1)

R. W. Spencer, J. R. Christy, “Precision lower stratospheric temperature monitoring with the MSU: technique, validation and results 1979–1991,” J. Clim. 6, 1194–1204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

T. N. Woods, D. K. Prinz, G. J. Rottman, J. London, P. C. Crane, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, G. E. Brueckner, M. D. Andrews, O. R. White, M. E. VanHoosier, L. E. Floyd, L. C. Herring, D. G. Knapp, C. K. Pankratz, P. A. Reiser, “Validation of the UARS solar ultraviolet irradiances: comparison with the ATLAS 1 and 2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9541–9570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. De Muer, H. De Backer, “Revision of 20 years of Dobson total ozone data at Uccle (Belgium): fictitious Dobson total ozone trends induced by sulfur dioxide trends,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(D5), 5921–5937 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Krueger, L. S. Walter, P. K. Bhartia, C. C. Schnetzler, N. A. Krotkov, I. Sprod, G. J. S. Bluth, “Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 14057–14076 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. T. DeLand, R. P. Cebula, “The composite Mg II solar activity index for solar cycles 21 and 22,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12809–12823 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

S. M. Ahmed, V. Kumar, “Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of SO2 at 188–231 and 278.7–320 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 359–373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Compare results of Ahmed and Kumar7 with those of T. J. McGee, J. Burris, “SO2 absorption cross sections in the near UV,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 37, 165–182 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (2)

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785–790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

See Appendix B of A. Dahlback, K. Stamnes, “A new spherical model for computing the radiation field available for photolysis and heating at twilight,” Planet. Space Sci. 5, 671–683 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Probe (1)

F. M. Mims, “How to measure the ozone layer,” Sci. Probe 2, 45–51 (1992).

Other (7)

A. M. Bass, R. J. Paur, “The ultraviolet cross-sections of ozone. I. The measurements,” Atmospheric Ozone, C. S. Zerefos, A. Ghazi, eds. (Reidel, Norwell, Mass., 1984) pp. 611–617.

World Meteorological Organisation, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Rep. No. 37 (World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, 1995), and references therein.

For example, see equations on p. C24 in The Astronomical Almanac, for the Year 1986 (Nautical Almanac Office, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1985).

See Appendix D of R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, A. Oaks, Z. Ahmad, R. P. Cebula, B. M. Schlesinger, T. Swissler, S. L. Taylor, O. Torres, C. G. Wellemeyer, Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User’s Guide, NASA Ref. Pub. 1323 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993).

B. M. Herman, S. B. Browning, J. A. Reagan, “An analytic study of the solar aureole,” presented at the International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo., August 11–16, 1980.

L. Elterman, “UV, visible and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km,” AFCRL-68-1053 (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1968).

W. J. F. Evans, H. Fast, A. J. Forester, G. S. Henderson, J. B. Kerr, R. K. R. Vupputuri, D. I. Wardle, Stratospheric Ozone Science in Canada: An Agenda for Research and Monitoring, Internal Rep. ARD 87–3 (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 1987).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Filter-related information for the 298-nm channel. The solid curve is the transmittance Tλ in percent, and the scale is on the right. The dashed curve is the product of the transmittance and the extraterrestrial solar irradiance TλFλ in W/(cm3), and the scale is the near axis on the left. The dotted curve is the irradiance iλ (0.3, 1.5, 1) in W/(cm3) (i.e., the modeled irradiances for s = 1.5, Ω = 0.3 atm cm, and P0 = 1 atm), and the scale is on the far left. (b) Filter-related information for the 304-nm channel. The labeling and axes are as described for Fig. 1(a). (c) Filter-related information for the 310-nm channel. Labeling and axes are as in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Important physical data for the 290–320-nm range. The solid curve is the extraterrestrial solar irradiance Fλ in W/(cm3), and the scale is on the right. The dash–dot curve is the Rayleigh-scattering coefficient βλ in atm−1, and the scale is on the near axis on the left. The dotted curve is the SO2 absorption cross section γλ, and the dashed curve is the O3 absorption cross section αλ, both in atm cm and sharing the scale on the far-left axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

All six contour plots show the percent error in column ozone estimates versus s and Ω. (a) Errors from the use of 9-term multinominal to approximate model results. (b) Errors from a −1% error in R. (c) Errors from a −5% error in P0. (d) Errors from 0.001 atm cm of S02. (e) Errors from −10 K error in atmospheric temperature. (f) Errors from a −1% error in s.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters in a Nine-Term Fit to Model and Linear Corrections for Pressure, SO2, and Temperature Errors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Error Sources, Sizes, and Effects

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I [ λ ] ( Ω , s , P 0 ) F ¯ λ T ¯ λ D ¯ λ exp [ - ( β ¯ λ P 0 + α ¯ λ Ω ) s ] ,
i λ ( Ω , s , P 0 ) = F λ T λ exp [ - ( β λ P 0 A 1 ( s ) + α λ Ω A 2 ( s ) ) ] ,
I [ Λ ] = m Λ λ M Λ i λ ,
R I [ 304 ] / I [ 310 ] = N [ 304 ] / N [ 310 ] ,
log [ R ( Ω , s ) ] C 0 + C 1 s + C 2 Ω + C 3 s 2 + C 4 Ω 2 + C 5 Ω s + C 6 Ω 2 s + C 7 Ω s 2 + C 8 s 3 ,
C i ( P ) = C i + ( P - P 0 ) d p i / 0.05 ,
D λ = exp { - τ [ 1 + 0.01 ( λ - 300 ) / 6 ] s } ,
C i ( T ) = C i + ( T - 223 ) d t i / 10 ,

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