Abstract

The validation of fascod3 and modtran3 against ground-based and airborne high-resolution Michelson interferometer measurements under clear-sky conditions is presented. Important considerations including water vapor continuum, frequency-dependent sea surface emissivity in the IR window region, and spectral resolution of modtran3 in the comparison of model calculations with high-resolution interferometer measurements are discussed. Our results indicate that it is not adequate to assume sea surface emissivity of 1.0 [ɛ(ν) = 1.0] or a constant in the simulation of upwelling radiance observed by the airborne Michelson interferometer. The use of spectral emissivity (frequency-dependent emissivity) leads to much better agreement between model calculations and interferometer measurements in the IR window region from 750.0 to 1050.0 cm−1. This could have important implications for the retrieval of sea surface temperature, thin cirrus properties, and aerosol parameters because of the sea surface emissivity of 1.0 assumption commonly used by many researchers. Comparisons of modtran3 calculations with interferometer measurements show that the agreement might not be adequate at the nominal resolution of 2.0 cm−1, and further spectral degradation might be necessary to improve the agreement between measurements and modtran3 calculations. modtran should be used with caution for relatively high spectral resolution remote-sensing applications.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, FASCOD3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).
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  4. F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.
  5. R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  6. R. G. Isaacs, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, J. L. Moncet, W. O. Gallery, “Advanced spectral modeling development,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2231 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).
  7. S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davis, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for water vapor: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, S. C. Lee, “Validation of FASCOD3P using University of Wisconsin HIS data,” Tech. Rep. under contract F19628-91-K-0007 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1993).
  11. H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.
  14. W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “FFTSCAN: a program for spectral smoothing using Fourier transforms,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2131 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).
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  18. A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).
  19. L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).
  20. K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).
  21. K. Stamnes, S. -C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
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1995 (1)

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

1992 (1)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Acharya, P. K.

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

Adler-Goldern, S. M.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Anderson, G. P.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, FASCOD3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, J. Wang, “FASCODE: an update and recent validations/applications,” presented at the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 7–8 June 1994.

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Berk, A.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Best, F. A.

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Brown, J. H.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Buijs, H.

Chetwynd, J. H.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, J. Wang, “FASCODE: an update and recent validations/applications,” presented at the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 7–8 June 1994.

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, FASCOD3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. (personal communication, 1994).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “FFTSCAN: a program for spectral smoothing using Fourier transforms,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2131 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

R. G. Isaacs, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, J. L. Moncet, W. O. Gallery, “Advanced spectral modeling development,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2231 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davis, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for water vapor: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

Conant, J. A.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

Davis, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davis, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for water vapor: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

Davis, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dedecker, R. G.

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Dirkx, T. P.

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Duff, J. W.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Edwards, D. P.

D. P. Edwards, “GENLN2: A general line-by-line atmospheric transmittance and radiance model,” Tech. Note NCAR/TN-367 (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992).

D. P. Edwards, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, 1994).

Gallery, W. O.

W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “FFTSCAN: a program for spectral smoothing using Fourier transforms,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2131 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

R. G. Isaacs, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, J. L. Moncet, W. O. Gallery, “Advanced spectral modeling development,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2231 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Gamache, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davis, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for water vapor: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

Grunninger, J. H.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Hall, L. A.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

Healey, R. J.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Herbsleb, R. A.

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Hoke, M. L.

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

Howell, H. B.

Iacono, M. J.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Isaacs, R. G.

R. G. Isaacs, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, J. L. Moncet, W. O. Gallery, “Advanced spectral modeling development,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2231 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Jayaweera, K.

Kimball, L. M.

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davis, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for water vapor: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

Knuteson, R. O.

H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, S. C. Lee, “Validation of FASCOD3P using University of Wisconsin HIS data,” Tech. Rep. under contract F19628-91-K-0007 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1993).

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Laporte, D. D.

Lee, S. C.

H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, S. C. Lee, “Validation of FASCOD3P using University of Wisconsin HIS data,” Tech. Rep. under contract F19628-91-K-0007 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1993).

Masuda, K.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Matthew, M. W.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Minschwaner, K.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

Moncet, J. L.

R. G. Isaacs, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, J. L. Moncet, W. O. Gallery, “Advanced spectral modeling development,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2231 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Moncet, J.-L.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, S. C. Lee, “Validation of FASCOD3P using University of Wisconsin HIS data,” Tech. Rep. under contract F19628-91-K-0007 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1993).

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

Rusch, D. W.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

Selby, J. E.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Sharma, R. D.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Short, J. F.

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Smith, W. L.

H. E. Revercomb, H. Buijs, H. B. Howell, D. D. Laporte, W. L. Smith, L. A. Sromovsky, “Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the high resolution interferometer sounder,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3210–3218 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

Sromovsky, L. A.

Stamnes, K.

K. Stamnes, S. -C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, “Upgrade of FASCODE and MODTRAN to full soar capability including multiple scattering and spherical geometry,” Final Rep. (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 1994).

Sundberg, R. L.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Takashima, T.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

Tipping, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davis, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for water vapor: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

Tsay, S. -C.

Wang, J.

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, J. Wang, “FASCODE: an update and recent validations/applications,” presented at the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 7–8 June 1994.

Wiscombe, W. J.

Worsham, R. D.

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

R. G. Isaacs, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, J. L. Moncet, W. O. Gallery, “Advanced spectral modeling development,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2231 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Res. (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Minschwaner, G. P. Anderson, L. A. Hall, J. H. Chetwynd, R. J. Thomas, D. W. Rusch, A. Berk, J. A. Conant, “Scattered ultraviolet radiation in the upper stratosphere 2: models and measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,165–11,171 (1995).

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sensing Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

H. E. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, T. P. Dirkx, R. A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” presented at the Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, AMS 73rd Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 17–22 January 1993.

W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “FFTSCAN: a program for spectral smoothing using Fourier transforms,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2131 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

D. P. Edwards, “GENLN2: A general line-by-line atmospheric transmittance and radiance model,” Tech. Note NCAR/TN-367 (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992).

D. P. Edwards, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. (personal communication, 1994).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “MODTRAN: a moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989).

L. S. Bernstein, A. Berk, P. K. Acharya, D. C. Robertson, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. M. Kimball, “Very narrow band model calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates,” J. Atmos. Sci. (to be published).

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, FASCOD3P User Guide (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, J. Wang, “FASCODE: an update and recent validations/applications,” presented at the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 7–8 June 1994.

F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, M. L. Hoke, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, E. P. Shettle, “Status of PL/GP high resolution radiance-transmittance model: FASCODE,” presented at the 15th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 2–3 June 1992.

R. L. Sundberg, J. W. Duff, J. H. Grunninger, L. S. Bernstein, R. D. Sharma, M. W. Matthew, S. M. Adler-Goldern, R. J. Healey, J. H. Brown, D. C. Robertson, “SHARC: a model for calculating atmospheric infrared radiation under non-equilibrium conditions,” AGU Monograph for the Chapman Conference on the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1992).

R. G. Isaacs, S. A. Clough, R. D. Worsham, J. L. Moncet, W. O. Gallery, “Advanced spectral modeling development,” Tech. Rep. PL-TR-92-2231 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1992).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davis, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for water vapor: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Deepak, ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

S. A. Clough, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. (personal communication, 1994).

H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, S. C. Lee, “Validation of FASCOD3P using University of Wisconsin HIS data,” Tech. Rep. under contract F19628-91-K-0007 (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1993).

K. Stamnes, “Upgrade of FASCODE and MODTRAN to full soar capability including multiple scattering and spherical geometry,” Final Rep. (U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory/Geophysics Directorate, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, 1994).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of fascod3 calculations and the AERI spectrum from the FIRE Cirrus II experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation plot of the residual caused by ozone only and the total residual from the AERI minus the fascod3 calculation with the supplied ozone profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Residual between the AERI spectrum and fascod3 calculation with the supplied ozone profile increased by 10%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the HRIS spectrum and fascod3 calculation with unit sea surface emissivity for the Eastern Pacific flight.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emissivity of sea water at a zenith angle of 0° and zero surface wind speed in the IR window region. The best fit with a three-parameter polynomial for input to fascod3 is represented by the solid curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the HIS spectrum and fascod3 calculation with frequency-dependent sea surface emissivity in the IR window region for the Eastern Pacific flight.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Residual between the HIS measurement and fascod3 calculation with a revised SST of 287.50 K and frequency-dependent sea water emissivity described in Table 3 and Fig. 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the HIS band II spectrum and fascod3 calculation for the Eastern Pacific flight.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the HIS band III spectrum and fascod3 calculation for the Eastern Pacific flight.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

modtran3 calculations and the AERI band I spectrum degraded to 2.0 cm−1 (upper panel); residuals are also shown (lower panel).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the modtran3 calculation and the AERI band II spectrum from the FIRE Cirrus II experiment at a 2.0-cm−1 resolution.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Residuals between modtran3, fascod3 calculations, and the AERI measurement degraded to a 4.0-cm−1 resolution for bands I and II.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

modtran3 calculation and the HIS band I spectrum degraded to 2.0 cm−1 (upper panel); the residual is also shown (lower panel).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

HIS band II spectrum and the modtran3 calculation at a 2.0-cm−1 spectral resolution for the Eastern Pacific flight on 14 April 1986 (upper panel); the residual is also shown (lower panel).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of the HIS band III spectrum and the modtran3 calculation at a 2.0-cm−1 spectral resolution for the Eastern Pacific flight on 14 April 1986.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison of the HIS band III spectrum and the modtran3 calculation with a sea surface albedo of 0.05, a solar zenith angle of 38°, and a day number of 104, corresponding to the day and time (see Table 4) when the HIS spectra was taken.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the AERI and Spectra Used in the fascod3 Comparison

Tables Icon

Table 2 Atmospheric Temperature and Profiles of Radiatively Important Trace Species at 45 Levels from 0.0 to 30.0 km

Tables Icon

Table 3 Spectral Resolution and Maximum Optical Path Difference of the HIS for the Eastern Pacific Flight on 14 April 1986

Tables Icon

Table 4 Condition and Profiles of Temperature, Water vapor, and Ozone of the HIS Eastern Pacific Experimenta,b

Tables Icon

Table 5 Emissivity of Sea Water at Zero Zenith Angle and Zero Surface Wind Speed in the IR Window Regiona

Metrics