Abstract

We describe the development and testing of a holographic projection system that is used to produce micro-optical devices. The projector uses a two-dimensional two-phase-level diffraction grating to produce multiple coherent beams and an interferometric optical system behind the grating to recombine the beams to produce interference patterns that have been recorded within a photosensitive substrate. The two different substrates that we used are a diazo imaging material and a bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB) polymeric resin for fabrication of surface relief microstructures. After the exposed photosensitive substrate is developed, the recorded interference pattern forms a micro-optical device. The analysis and testing of these micro-optical devices show promise that this technique can form patterns uniformly over a region of several centimeters in diameter on flat or curved substrates. The experimental testing results of these micro-optical devices demonstrate that this method is a simple and energy efficient system to produce microstructures compared with other methods. These devices may be used as a new generation of directional light filters or monolithic microlenslet arrays that may have applications in communications, display, and components technologies.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Cowan, “Method and apparatus for exposing photosensitive material,” U.S. Patent4,496,216 (29January1985).
  2. J. J. Cowan, “The recording and large scale replication of crossed holographic grating arrays using multiple beam interferometry,” in Application, Theory, and Fabrication of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena II, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE503, 120–129 (1984).
  3. J. J. Cowan, “The holographic honeycomb microlens,” in Applications in Holography, L. Huff, ed., Proc. SPIE523, 251–259 (1985).
  4. T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, H. Mizutani, “Focusing plate,” U.S. Patent4,421,398 (20December1983).
  5. W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Laser beam reshaping system used in holographic projectors,” in Seventh Annual Alabama Material Research Conference, Normal, Alabama, 21–22 September 1993.
  6. W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Design and testing of a laser beam profile reshaping system,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 8.
  7. K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Holographic pattern generation with binary optics,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 170.
  8. W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Optical design and testing of a holographic projection system,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 224–252 (1994).
  9. P. W. Rhodes, D. L. Shealy, “Refractive optical systems for irradiance redistribution of collimated radiation: their design and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3545–3553 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, “Optical analysis of the performance of a laser beam shaper,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  11. W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, J. C. Martin, “Design and testing of a refractive reshaping system,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering III, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2000, 62–74 (1993).
  12. K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Directional light filters: three-dimensional azo dye formed micro-honeycomb images within optical resins,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 144–158 (1995).
  13. Applied Optics Research, 59 Stonington Dr., Pittsford, New York 14534.
  14. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 261.
  15. “Processing Guide for Photo-Imageable BCB,” available from the Dow Chemical Company, 2030 Dow Center, Midland, Mich. 48674.
  16. C. F. Kane, R. R. Krchnavek, “Photodefinable benzocyclobutene as an optical waveguide material,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects II, R. T. Chen, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. SPIE2153, 200–207 (1994).

1980 (1)

Baker, K. M.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Laser beam reshaping system used in holographic projectors,” in Seventh Annual Alabama Material Research Conference, Normal, Alabama, 21–22 September 1993.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Design and testing of a laser beam profile reshaping system,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 8.

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Holographic pattern generation with binary optics,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 170.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Optical design and testing of a holographic projection system,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 224–252 (1994).

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Directional light filters: three-dimensional azo dye formed micro-honeycomb images within optical resins,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 144–158 (1995).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 261.

Cowan, J. J.

J. J. Cowan, “Method and apparatus for exposing photosensitive material,” U.S. Patent4,496,216 (29January1985).

J. J. Cowan, “The recording and large scale replication of crossed holographic grating arrays using multiple beam interferometry,” in Application, Theory, and Fabrication of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena II, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE503, 120–129 (1984).

J. J. Cowan, “The holographic honeycomb microlens,” in Applications in Holography, L. Huff, ed., Proc. SPIE523, 251–259 (1985).

Iizuka, K.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, H. Mizutani, “Focusing plate,” U.S. Patent4,421,398 (20December1983).

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Laser beam reshaping system used in holographic projectors,” in Seventh Annual Alabama Material Research Conference, Normal, Alabama, 21–22 September 1993.

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Holographic pattern generation with binary optics,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 170.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Optical design and testing of a holographic projection system,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 224–252 (1994).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Design and testing of a laser beam profile reshaping system,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 8.

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Directional light filters: three-dimensional azo dye formed micro-honeycomb images within optical resins,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 144–158 (1995).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, “Optical analysis of the performance of a laser beam shaper,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, J. C. Martin, “Design and testing of a refractive reshaping system,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering III, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2000, 62–74 (1993).

Kane, C. F.

C. F. Kane, R. R. Krchnavek, “Photodefinable benzocyclobutene as an optical waveguide material,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects II, R. T. Chen, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. SPIE2153, 200–207 (1994).

Krchnavek, R. R.

C. F. Kane, R. R. Krchnavek, “Photodefinable benzocyclobutene as an optical waveguide material,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects II, R. T. Chen, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. SPIE2153, 200–207 (1994).

Martin, J. C.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, J. C. Martin, “Design and testing of a refractive reshaping system,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering III, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2000, 62–74 (1993).

Mizutani, H.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, H. Mizutani, “Focusing plate,” U.S. Patent4,421,398 (20December1983).

Ohtaka, K.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, H. Mizutani, “Focusing plate,” U.S. Patent4,421,398 (20December1983).

Rhodes, P. W.

Shealy, D. L.

P. W. Rhodes, D. L. Shealy, “Refractive optical systems for irradiance redistribution of collimated radiation: their design and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3545–3553 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Optical design and testing of a holographic projection system,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 224–252 (1994).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Design and testing of a laser beam profile reshaping system,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 8.

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Holographic pattern generation with binary optics,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 170.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Laser beam reshaping system used in holographic projectors,” in Seventh Annual Alabama Material Research Conference, Normal, Alabama, 21–22 September 1993.

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Directional light filters: three-dimensional azo dye formed micro-honeycomb images within optical resins,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 144–158 (1995).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, J. C. Martin, “Design and testing of a refractive reshaping system,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering III, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2000, 62–74 (1993).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, “Optical analysis of the performance of a laser beam shaper,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, H. Mizutani, “Focusing plate,” U.S. Patent4,421,398 (20December1983).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 261.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (15)

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, “Optical analysis of the performance of a laser beam shaper,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, J. C. Martin, “Design and testing of a refractive reshaping system,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering III, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE2000, 62–74 (1993).

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Directional light filters: three-dimensional azo dye formed micro-honeycomb images within optical resins,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 144–158 (1995).

Applied Optics Research, 59 Stonington Dr., Pittsford, New York 14534.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), p. 261.

“Processing Guide for Photo-Imageable BCB,” available from the Dow Chemical Company, 2030 Dow Center, Midland, Mich. 48674.

C. F. Kane, R. R. Krchnavek, “Photodefinable benzocyclobutene as an optical waveguide material,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects II, R. T. Chen, J. A. Neff, eds., Proc. SPIE2153, 200–207 (1994).

J. J. Cowan, “Method and apparatus for exposing photosensitive material,” U.S. Patent4,496,216 (29January1985).

J. J. Cowan, “The recording and large scale replication of crossed holographic grating arrays using multiple beam interferometry,” in Application, Theory, and Fabrication of Periodic Structures, Diffraction Gratings, and Moire Phenomena II, J. M. Lerner, ed., Proc. SPIE503, 120–129 (1984).

J. J. Cowan, “The holographic honeycomb microlens,” in Applications in Holography, L. Huff, ed., Proc. SPIE523, 251–259 (1985).

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, H. Mizutani, “Focusing plate,” U.S. Patent4,421,398 (20December1983).

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Laser beam reshaping system used in holographic projectors,” in Seventh Annual Alabama Material Research Conference, Normal, Alabama, 21–22 September 1993.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Design and testing of a laser beam profile reshaping system,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 8.

K. M. Baker, D. L. Shealy, W. Jiang, “Holographic pattern generation with binary optics,” in OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 170.

W. Jiang, D. L. Shealy, K. M. Baker, “Optical design and testing of a holographic projection system,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 224–252 (1994).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Holographic projection system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser beam reshaping system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Holographic diffraction grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prototype of the holographic projection system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy intensity distribution of an interference pattern.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interference system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Microstructure within the diazo film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Structure of the diffraction grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Scanning electron microscope picture of a microlenslet array.

Equations (2)

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D = λ / ϕ ,
d sin ( θ ) = m λ ,

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