Abstract

We present an experimental investigation of the energy statistics of the linear polarization components of pulses from a Nd:YAG laser that is repetitively Q-switched with an acousto-optic modulator. Varying the modulator-induced diffraction losses leads to changes in the pulse polarization state and the energy statistics of the polarization components. For conventional Q-switching there is no laser oscillation during the low-Q intervals, and we find that the orthogonal components of the pulses can display large relative energy fluctuations even though the total pulse energy is quite stable. In the prelase mode, a weak continuous-wave background seeds the Q-switched pulses and results in the emission of highly linearly polarized, single-longitudinal-mode pulses with small relative energy fluctuations.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. V. J. Newell, F. W. Deeg, S. R. Greenfield, M. D. Fayer, “Tunable subpicosecond dye laser amplified at 1 kHz by a cavity-dumped, Q-switched, and mode-locked Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 257–263 (1989).
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1995

1994

J. -C. Cotteverte, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Glorieux, “Vectorial nonlinear dynamics in lasers with one or two stable eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2868–2880 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. He, D. K. Killinger, “Dual-polarization modes and self-heterodyne noise in a single-frequency 2.1-μm microchip Ho, Tm:YAG Laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 396–398 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993

1991

F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “Laser eigenstates in the framework of a spatially generalized Jones matrix formalism,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 230–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “The dynamics of spatially-resolved laser eigenstates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1451–1454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

G. T. Maker, A. I. Ferguson, “Single-frequency Q-switched operation of a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 461–463 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. Sizer, I. N. Duling, “Neodymium lasers as a source of synchronized high-power optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 404–410 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1985

J. -M. Liu, Y. -C. Chen, “Digital optical signal processing with polarization-bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298–306 (1985).

1982

1973

D. J. Kuizenga, D. W. Phillion, T. Lund, A. E. Siegman, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in the CW Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 9, 221–226 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Aissaoui, B.

Besnard, P.

Bollig, C.

Bretenaker, F.

J. -C. Cotteverte, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Glorieux, “Vectorial nonlinear dynamics in lasers with one or two stable eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2868–2880 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “Laser eigenstates in the framework of a spatially generalized Jones matrix formalism,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 230–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “The dynamics of spatially-resolved laser eigenstates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1451–1454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, Z.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Cha, B. H.

Chen, Y. -C.

J. -M. Liu, Y. -C. Chen, “Digital optical signal processing with polarization-bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298–306 (1985).

Chen, Y. M.

Chow, W. W.

Clarkson, W. A.

C. Bollig, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Stable high-repetition-rate single-frequency Q-switched operation by feedback suppression of relaxation oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1383–1385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cotteverte, J. -C.

J. -C. Cotteverte, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Glorieux, “Vectorial nonlinear dynamics in lasers with one or two stable eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2868–2880 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crout, A.

Dalgliesh, R.

Deeg, F. W.

Duling, I. N.

T. Sizer, I. N. Duling, “Neodymium lasers as a source of synchronized high-power optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 404–410 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, R. W.

Eberly, J. H.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 11, pp. 354–359.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Fayer, M. D.

Fen, X. Q.

Ferguson, A. I.

Glorieux, P.

J. -C. Cotteverte, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Glorieux, “Vectorial nonlinear dynamics in lasers with one or two stable eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2868–2880 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfield, S. R.

Hanna, D. C.

C. Bollig, W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Stable high-repetition-rate single-frequency Q-switched operation by feedback suppression of relaxation oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1383–1385 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

He, C.

Hendow, S. T.

Hu, G. Q.

Hu, W. T.

Jia, X.

Juhasz, T.

Kalisky, Y.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

Kim, S. -H.

Ko, D. -K.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 8, pp. 430–437, and references therein.

Kuizenga, D. J.

D. J. Kuizenga, D. W. Phillion, T. Lund, A. E. Siegman, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in the CW Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 9, 221–226 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Le Floch, A.

J. -C. Cotteverte, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Glorieux, “Vectorial nonlinear dynamics in lasers with one or two stable eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2868–2880 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “Laser eigenstates in the framework of a spatially generalized Jones matrix formalism,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 230–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “The dynamics of spatially-resolved laser eigenstates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1451–1454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Li, Z. S.

Lim, G.

Lin, J. T.

J. T. Lin, M. Y. Yao, “Polarization control of diode-pumped Nd:YAG by external fields at various pumping wavelengths,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1040, 103–108 (1989).

Liu, J. -M.

J. -M. Liu, Y. -C. Chen, “Digital optical signal processing with polarization-bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298–306 (1985).

Liu, Y.

Lowrie, C.

Lund, T.

D. J. Kuizenga, D. W. Phillion, T. Lund, A. E. Siegman, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in the CW Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 9, 221–226 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Maker, G. T.

May, A. D.

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 11, pp. 354–359.

Montgomery, D. C.

D. C. Montgomery, G. C. Runger, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap. 5, p. 261.

Mueller, R. E.

Newell, V. J.

Phillion, D. W.

D. J. Kuizenga, D. W. Phillion, T. Lund, A. E. Siegman, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in the CW Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 9, 221–226 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Runger, G. C.

D. C. Montgomery, G. C. Runger, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap. 5, p. 261.

Shen, L. Q.

Shimony, Y.

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

D. J. Kuizenga, D. W. Phillion, T. Lund, A. E. Siegman, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in the CW Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 9, 221–226 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 26, pp. 1004–1040, and references therein.

Sizer, T.

T. Sizer, I. N. Duling, “Neodymium lasers as a source of synchronized high-power optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 404–410 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Small, J. G.

Stephan, G.

Thompson, J. R.

Turi, L.

Yao, M. Y.

J. T. Lin, M. Y. Yao, “Polarization control of diode-pumped Nd:YAG by external fields at various pumping wavelengths,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1040, 103–108 (1989).

Yin, Z. W.

Zhou, F. Z.

Zygmunt, A.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Y. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895–912 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, Y. Kalisky, “Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738–1741 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Sizer, I. N. Duling, “Neodymium lasers as a source of synchronized high-power optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 404–410 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. -M. Liu, Y. -C. Chen, “Digital optical signal processing with polarization-bistable semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 298–306 (1985).

F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, “The dynamics of spatially-resolved laser eigenstates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1451–1454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

W. A. Clarkson, D. C. Hanna, “Acousto-optically induced unidirectional single mode operation of a Q-switched miniature Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 81, 375–378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kuizenga, D. W. Phillion, T. Lund, A. E. Siegman, “Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in the CW Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 9, 221–226 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

J. -C. Cotteverte, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Glorieux, “Vectorial nonlinear dynamics in lasers with one or two stable eigenstates,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2868–2880 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. T. Lin, M. Y. Yao, “Polarization control of diode-pumped Nd:YAG by external fields at various pumping wavelengths,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers II, G. Dube, ed., Proc. SPIE1040, 103–108 (1989).

Staff, Meadowlark Optics, Longmont, Colo. 80504 (personal communication, 1995).

D. C. Montgomery, G. C. Runger, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap. 5, p. 261.

Burleigh PLSA-3500 Manual (Burleigh, Fishers, N.Y., 1995).

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 11, pp. 354–359.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 26, pp. 1004–1040, and references therein.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 8, pp. 430–437, and references therein.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nd:YAG laser system: HR, high reflector; OC, output coupler; L1, lens; LPF, long-pass filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Apparatus for measuring the pulse polarization component energies: NDF, neutral-density filter; PBS, polarizing beam-splitter cube; LP, linear polarizer with a vertical transmission axis; PD’s, fast photodiodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Polarization ratio for Q-switched pulses versus AOM drive voltage. (b) Ratio of horizontal to vertical pulse energy highlighting the polarization switching behavior.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy histograms for the (a) vertical and (b) horizontal components of 1000 Q-switched pulses with the rf drive of the AOM adjusted above the cw hold-off voltage. The absolute excursions in the pulse area are comparable for both components, but the relative noise is much larger for the lower energy horizontal component.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy of the (a) vertical component, (b) horizontal component, and (c) total for 1000 Q-switched pulses with the rf drive of the AOM adjusted to the cw hold-off voltage. The relative noise in the total pulse area is much smaller than for the highly anticorrelated components.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Apparatus for measuring the pulse energy and pulse spectrum for the horizontal component of the Q-switched pulses below the cw hold-off voltage of the AOM: LP, linear polarizer with a horizontal transmission axis; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Energy of the horizontal component for 1000 Q-switched pulses with the rf drive voltage of the AOM adjusted below the cw hold-off voltage. The relative energy noise is only 1.3% of the mean. (b) Average spectrum for the horizontal component of the pulses just below the cw hold-off voltage, showing single-longitudinal-mode operation of the laser.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectrum of the horizontal component of the cw background just below the cw hold-off voltage of the AOM. This single-mode cw background seeds the forming pulses.

Equations (2)

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C h v = ( h - h ) ( v - v ) σ h σ v ,
P pulse P total = P QS - P cw P QS ,

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