Abstract

By use of a common primary-production model and identical photosynthetic parameters, four different methods were used to calculate quanta (Q) and primary production (P) at depth for a study of high-latitude North Atlantic waters. The differences among the four methods relate to the use of pigment information in the upper water column. Methods 1 and 2 use pigment biomass (B) as an input and a subtropical, empirical relation between Kd (diffuse attenuation coefficient) and B to estimate Q at depth. Method 1 uses measured B, but Method 2 uses B derived from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (subtropical algorithm) as inputs. Methods 3 and 4 use the phytoplankton absorption coefficient (a ph) instead of B as input, and Method 3 uses empirically derived a ph(440) and Kd values, and Method 4 uses analytically derived a ph(440) and a (total absorption coefficient) values based on the same remote measurements as Method 2. When the calculated and the measured values of Q(z) and P(z) were compared, Method 4 provided the closest results [for P(z), r 2 = 0.95 (n = 24), and for Q(z), r 2 = 0.92 (n = 11)]. Method 1 yielded the worst results [for P(z), r 2 = 0.56 and for Q(z), r 2 = 0.81]. These results indicate that one of the greatest uncertainties in the remote estimation of P can come from a potential mismatch of the pigment-specific absorption coefficient (a ph*), which is needed implicitly in current models or algorithms based on B. We point out that this potential mismatch can be avoided if we arrange the models or algorithms so that they are based on the pigment absorption coefficient (a ph). Thus, except for the accuracy of the photosynthetic parameters and the above-surface light intensity, the accuracy of the remote estimation of P depends on how accurately a ph can be estimated, but not how accurately B can be estimated. Also, methods to derive a ph empirically and analytically from remotely sensed data are introduced. Curiously, combined application of subtropical algorithms for both B and Kd to subarctic waters apparently compensates to some extent for effects that are due to their similar and implicit pigment-specific absorption coefficients for the calculation of Q(z).

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  38. Z. Dubinsky, T. Berman, F. Schanz, “Field experiments for in situ measurements of photosynthetic efficiency and quantum yield,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 339–349 (1984).
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  43. J. Marra, C. Langdon, C. A. Knudson, “Primary production and water column changes and the demise of a phaeocystis bloom at the Marine Light–Mixed Layers site (59 °N/21 °W, North Atlantic Ocean),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6521–6526 (1995).
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  46. W. M. Balch, R. W. Epply, M. R. Abbott, F. M. H. Reid, “Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophores and dinoflagellates,” J. Plankton Res. 11, 575–581 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  47. C. Langdon, “On the causes of interspecific differences in growth–irradiance relationship for phytoplankton. II. A general review,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 1291–1312 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, D. A. Kiefer, M. C. Talbot, “Maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 869–886 (1989).
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    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light–Mixed Layers (50 °N/21 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6655–6663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, C. Langdon, C. A. Knudson, “Primary production and water column changes and the demise of a phaeocystis bloom at the Marine Light–Mixed Layers site (59 °N/21 °W, North Atlantic Ocean),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6521–6526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Plueddemann, R. Weller, T. Dickey, J. Marra, M. Stramska, “Surface forcing and re-stratification in the sub- Arctic North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6605–6620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

J. Marra, W. S. Chamberlin, C. A. Knudson, “Proportionality between in situ carbon assimilation and bio-optical measures of primary production in the Gulf of Maine in summer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 232–238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, J. L. Mueller, “Vertical structure of productivity and its vertical integration as derived from remotely sensed observations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1384–1393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Bannister, “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 773–780 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (5)

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, J.-M. Andre, “Pigment distribution and primary production in the Western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12685–12698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, S. Sathyendranath, “Basin-scale estimates of oceanic primary production by remote sensing: the North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15147–15159 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, O. Holm-Hansen, “Bio-optical properties of Antarctic Peninsula waters: differentiation from temperate ocean models,” Deep-Sea Res. 38, 1009–1028 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

K. Banse, M. Yong, “Sources of variability in satellite-derived estimates of phytoplankton production in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7201–7215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Laws, G. R. Ditullio, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, S. K. Hawes, “Primary production in the deep blue sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 715–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cullen, “On models of growth and photosynthesis in phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 667–683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (7)

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, D. A. Kiefer, M. C. Talbot, “Maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 869–886 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, R. W. Epply, M. R. Abbott, F. M. H. Reid, “Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophores and dinoflagellates,” J. Plankton Res. 11, 575–581 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, B. B. Prezelin, R. R. Bidigare, K. S. Baker, “Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic production in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1524–1544 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, J. F. Berton, “Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: relationships reinvestigated in review of remote-sensing applications,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1545–1562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (5)

A. Bricaud, A.-L. Bedhomme, A. Morel, “Optical properties of diverse phytoplanktonic species: experimental results and theoretical interpretation,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 851–873 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Langdon, “On the causes of interspecific differences in growth–irradiance relationship for phytoplankton. II. A general review,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 1291–1312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. R. Bidigare, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, J. Marra, “Oceanic primary production estimates from measurements of spectral irradiance and pigment concentrations,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, 171–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll: introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

T. T. Bannister, A. D. Weidemann, “The maximum quantum yield of phytoplankton photosynthesis in situ,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 275–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Z. Dubinsky, T. Berman, F. Schanz, “Field experiments for in situ measurements of photosynthetic efficiency and quantum yield,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 339–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W.W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple, steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in Southern California Coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281–288 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium and application to the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1357–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

T. Platt, C. L. Gallegos, W. G. Harrison, “Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton,” J. Marine Res. 38, 687–701 (1980).

1974 (1)

T. T. Bannister, “Production equations in terms of chlorophyll concentration, quantum yield, and upper limit to production,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 1–12 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, M. R.

W. M. Balch, R. W. Epply, M. R. Abbott, F. M. H. Reid, “Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophores and dinoflagellates,” J. Plankton Res. 11, 575–581 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll: introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andre, J.-M.

A. Morel, J.-M. Andre, “Pigment distribution and primary production in the Western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12685–12698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 168–178 (1984).

Baker, K. S.

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, B. B. Prezelin, R. R. Bidigare, K. S. Baker, “Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic production in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1524–1544 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, J. Marra, “Oceanic primary production estimates from measurements of spectral irradiance and pigment concentrations,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, 171–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in Southern California Coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281–288 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, R. W. Epply, M. R. Abbott, F. M. H. Reid, “Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophores and dinoflagellates,” J. Plankton Res. 11, 575–581 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bannister, T. T.

T. T. Bannister, “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 773–780 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Bannister, A. D. Weidemann, “The maximum quantum yield of phytoplankton photosynthesis in situ,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 275–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Bannister, “Production equations in terms of chlorophyll concentration, quantum yield, and upper limit to production,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 1–12 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Banse, K.

K. Banse, M. Yong, “Sources of variability in satellite-derived estimates of phytoplankton production in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7201–7215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bedhomme, A.-L.

A. Bricaud, A.-L. Bedhomme, A. Morel, “Optical properties of diverse phytoplanktonic species: experimental results and theoretical interpretation,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 851–873 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Berman, T.

Z. Dubinsky, T. Berman, F. Schanz, “Field experiments for in situ measurements of photosynthetic efficiency and quantum yield,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 339–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berton, J. F.

A. Morel, J. F. Berton, “Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: relationships reinvestigated in review of remote-sensing applications,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1545–1562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Betzer, P. R.

E. A. Laws, G. R. Ditullio, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, S. K. Hawes, “Primary production in the deep blue sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 715–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R. R.

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, B. B. Prezelin, R. R. Bidigare, K. S. Baker, “Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic production in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1524–1544 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, J. Marra, “Oceanic primary production estimates from measurements of spectral irradiance and pigment concentrations,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, 171–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical models and the problems of scaling,” in Primary Production and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 175–212.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A.-L. Bedhomme, A. Morel, “Optical properties of diverse phytoplanktonic species: experimental results and theoretical interpretation,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 851–873 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium and application to the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1357–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.W.

Brown, J.

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light–Mixed Layers (50 °N/21 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6655–6663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Laws, G. R. Ditullio, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, S. K. Hawes, “Primary production in the deep blue sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 715–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Caverhill, C. M.

T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, S. Sathyendranath, “Basin-scale estimates of oceanic primary production by remote sensing: the North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15147–15159 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlin, W. S.

J. Marra, W. S. Chamberlin, C. A. Knudson, “Proportionality between in situ carbon assimilation and bio-optical measures of primary production in the Gulf of Maine in summer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 232–238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

Cleveland, J. S.

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, D. A. Kiefer, M. C. Talbot, “Maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 869–886 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, J. J.

J. J. Cullen, “On models of growth and photosynthesis in phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 667–683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Dickey, T.

A. Plueddemann, R. Weller, T. Dickey, J. Marra, M. Stramska, “Surface forcing and re-stratification in the sub- Arctic North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6605–6620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ditullio, G. R.

E. A. Laws, G. R. Ditullio, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, S. K. Hawes, “Primary production in the deep blue sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 715–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dubinsky, Z.

Z. Dubinsky, T. Berman, F. Schanz, “Field experiments for in situ measurements of photosynthetic efficiency and quantum yield,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 339–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eppley, R. W.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll: introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in Southern California Coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281–288 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Epply, R. W.

W. M. Balch, R. W. Epply, M. R. Abbott, F. M. H. Reid, “Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophores and dinoflagellates,” J. Plankton Res. 11, 575–581 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W.

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

Feldman, G.

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, C. L.

T. Platt, C. L. Gallegos, W. G. Harrison, “Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton,” J. Marine Res. 38, 687–701 (1980).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W.W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

Granata, T.

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M.

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, W. G.

T. Platt, C. L. Gallegos, W. G. Harrison, “Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton,” J. Marine Res. 38, 687–701 (1980).

Hawes, S. K.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Laws, G. R. Ditullio, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, S. K. Hawes, “Primary production in the deep blue sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 715–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heyman, U.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll: introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C.

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Holm-Hansen, O.

B. G. Mitchell, O. Holm-Hansen, “Bio-optical properties of Antarctic Peninsula waters: differentiation from temperate ocean models,” Deep-Sea Res. 38, 1009–1028 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, D. A. Kiefer, M. C. Talbot, “Maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 869–886 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple, steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. A. Reynolds, “Advances in understanding phytoplankton fluorescence and photosynthesis,” in Primary Production and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 155–174.

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1986), p. 239.

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, J. L. Mueller, “Vertical structure of productivity and its vertical integration as derived from remotely sensed observations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1384–1393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knudson, C. A.

J. Marra, C. Langdon, C. A. Knudson, “Primary production and water column changes and the demise of a phaeocystis bloom at the Marine Light–Mixed Layers site (59 °N/21 °W, North Atlantic Ocean),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6521–6526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, W. S. Chamberlin, C. A. Knudson, “Proportionality between in situ carbon assimilation and bio-optical measures of primary production in the Gulf of Maine in summer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 232–238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Langdon, C.

J. Marra, C. Langdon, C. A. Knudson, “Primary production and water column changes and the demise of a phaeocystis bloom at the Marine Light–Mixed Layers site (59 °N/21 °W, North Atlantic Ocean),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6521–6526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Langdon, “On the causes of interspecific differences in growth–irradiance relationship for phytoplankton. II. A general review,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 1291–1312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laws, E. A.

E. A. Laws, G. R. Ditullio, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, S. K. Hawes, “Primary production in the deep blue sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 715–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. Mueller, “Method to derive ocean absorption coefficients from remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 35, 453–462 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light–Mixed Layers (50 °N/21 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6655–6663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, 1994),Dissertation Abstract International 56-01B (UMI Microfilm, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995).

Lewis, M. R.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marra, J.

A. Plueddemann, R. Weller, T. Dickey, J. Marra, M. Stramska, “Surface forcing and re-stratification in the sub- Arctic North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6605–6620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, C. Langdon, C. A. Knudson, “Primary production and water column changes and the demise of a phaeocystis bloom at the Marine Light–Mixed Layers site (59 °N/21 °W, North Atlantic Ocean),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6521–6526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light–Mixed Layers (50 °N/21 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6655–6663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, W. S. Chamberlin, C. A. Knudson, “Proportionality between in situ carbon assimilation and bio-optical measures of primary production in the Gulf of Maine in summer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 232–238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, J. Marra, “Oceanic primary production estimates from measurements of spectral irradiance and pigment concentrations,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, 171–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

B. G. Mitchell, O. Holm-Hansen, “Bio-optical properties of Antarctic Peninsula waters: differentiation from temperate ocean models,” Deep-Sea Res. 38, 1009–1028 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple, steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, J.-M. Andre, “Pigment distribution and primary production in the Western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12685–12698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, J. F. Berton, “Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: relationships reinvestigated in review of remote-sensing applications,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1545–1562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A.-L. Bedhomme, A. Morel, “Optical properties of diverse phytoplanktonic species: experimental results and theoretical interpretation,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 851–873 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium and application to the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1357–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

Mueller, J.

Mueller, J. L.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, J. L. Mueller, “Vertical structure of productivity and its vertical integration as derived from remotely sensed observations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1384–1393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Perry, M. J.

K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light–Mixed Layers (50 °N/21 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6655–6663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, D. A. Kiefer, M. C. Talbot, “Maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 869–886 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 168–178 (1984).

Platt, T.

T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, S. Sathyendranath, “Basin-scale estimates of oceanic primary production by remote sensing: the North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15147–15159 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, C. L. Gallegos, W. G. Harrison, “Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton,” J. Marine Res. 38, 687–701 (1980).

Plueddemann, A.

A. Plueddemann, R. Weller, T. Dickey, J. Marra, M. Stramska, “Surface forcing and re-stratification in the sub- Arctic North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6605–6620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prezelin, B. B.

R. C. Smith, B. B. Prezelin, R. R. Bidigare, K. S. Baker, “Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic production in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1524–1544 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical models and the problems of scaling,” in Primary Production and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 175–212.

Reid, F. M. H.

W. M. Balch, R. W. Epply, M. R. Abbott, F. M. H. Reid, “Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophores and dinoflagellates,” J. Plankton Res. 11, 575–581 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. A.

D. A. Kiefer, R. A. Reynolds, “Advances in understanding phytoplankton fluorescence and photosynthesis,” in Primary Production and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 155–174.

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, S. Sathyendranath, “Basin-scale estimates of oceanic primary production by remote sensing: the North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15147–15159 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schanz, F.

Z. Dubinsky, T. Berman, F. Schanz, “Field experiments for in situ measurements of photosynthetic efficiency and quantum yield,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 339–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, B. B. Prezelin, R. R. Bidigare, K. S. Baker, “Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic production in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1524–1544 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Bidigare, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, J. Marra, “Oceanic primary production estimates from measurements of spectral irradiance and pigment concentrations,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, 171–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in Southern California Coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281–288 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Bidigare, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical models and the problems of scaling,” in Primary Production and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 175–212.

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light–Mixed Layers (50 °N/21 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6655–6663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, E.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll: introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

A. Plueddemann, R. Weller, T. Dickey, J. Marra, M. Stramska, “Surface forcing and re-stratification in the sub- Arctic North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6605–6620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, M. C.

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, D. A. Kiefer, M. C. Talbot, “Maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 869–886 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Warnock, R. E.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

T. T. Bannister, A. D. Weidemann, “The maximum quantum yield of phytoplankton photosynthesis in situ,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 275–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Weller, R.

A. Plueddemann, R. Weller, T. Dickey, J. Marra, M. Stramska, “Surface forcing and re-stratification in the sub- Arctic North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6605–6620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yong, M.

K. Banse, M. Yong, “Sources of variability in satellite-derived estimates of phytoplankton production in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7201–7215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, J. L. Mueller, “Vertical structure of productivity and its vertical integration as derived from remotely sensed observations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1384–1393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Deep-Sea Res. (6)

B. G. Mitchell, O. Holm-Hansen, “Bio-optical properties of Antarctic Peninsula waters: differentiation from temperate ocean models,” Deep-Sea Res. 38, 1009–1028 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium and application to the specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1357–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Laws, G. R. Ditullio, K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, S. K. Hawes, “Primary production in the deep blue sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 715–730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cullen, “On models of growth and photosynthesis in phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 667–683 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, R. E. Warnock, M. R. Lewis, “Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: computations using a spectral model,” Deep-Sea Res. 36, 431–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochemical Cycles (1)

R. R. Bidigare, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, J. Marra, “Oceanic primary production estimates from measurements of spectral irradiance and pigment concentrations,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1, 171–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (11)

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, T. Dickey, W. S. Chamberlin, C. Ho, T. Granata, D. A. Kiefer, C. Langdon, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. R. Bidigare, M. Hamilton, “Estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7399–7412 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, C. Langdon, C. A. Knudson, “Primary production and water column changes and the demise of a phaeocystis bloom at the Marine Light–Mixed Layers site (59 °N/21 °W, North Atlantic Ocean),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6521–6526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Plueddemann, R. Weller, T. Dickey, J. Marra, M. Stramska, “Surface forcing and re-stratification in the sub- Arctic North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6605–6620 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, J.-M. Andre, “Pigment distribution and primary production in the Western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from Coastal Zone Color Scanner observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12685–12698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, C. M. Caverhill, S. Sathyendranath, “Basin-scale estimates of oceanic primary production by remote sensing: the North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15147–15159 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 2279–2293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, Z. P. Lee, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Calculated quantum yield of photosynthesis of phytoplankton in the Marine Light–Mixed Layers (50 °N/21 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6655–6663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Banse, M. Yong, “Sources of variability in satellite-derived estimates of phytoplankton production in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 7201–7215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

J. S. Cleveland, M. J. Perry, D. A. Kiefer, M. C. Talbot, “Maximal quantum yield of photosynthesis in the Northwestern Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 869–886 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Marine Res. (1)

T. Platt, C. L. Gallegos, W. G. Harrison, “Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton,” J. Marine Res. 38, 687–701 (1980).

J. Plankton Res. (6)

Z. Dubinsky, T. Berman, F. Schanz, “Field experiments for in situ measurements of photosynthetic efficiency and quantum yield,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 339–349 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Bannister, A. D. Weidemann, “The maximum quantum yield of phytoplankton photosynthesis in situ,” J. Plankton Res. 6, 275–294 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Heyman, “Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll: introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57–70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, R. W. Epply, M. R. Abbott, F. M. H. Reid, “Bias in satellite-derived pigment measurements due to coccolithophores and dinoflagellates,” J. Plankton Res. 11, 575–581 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Langdon, “On the causes of interspecific differences in growth–irradiance relationship for phytoplankton. II. A general review,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 1291–1312 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A.-L. Bedhomme, A. Morel, “Optical properties of diverse phytoplanktonic species: experimental results and theoretical interpretation,” J. Plankton Res. 10, 851–873 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (11)

R. C. Smith, B. B. Prezelin, R. R. Bidigare, K. S. Baker, “Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic production in coastal waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1524–1544 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Bannister, “Model of the mean cosine of underwater radiance and estimation of underwater scalar irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 773–780 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, J. L. Mueller, “Vertical structure of productivity and its vertical integration as derived from remotely sensed observations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 1384–1393 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, B. G. Mitchell, “A simple, steady state description of phytoplankton growth based on absorption cross section and quantum efficiency,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 770–776 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, N. Okami, M. Takahashi, S. Ichimura, “Light utilization efficiency and quantum yield of phytoplankton in a thermally stratified sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 557–566 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, J. F. Berton, “Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: relationships reinvestigated in review of remote-sensing applications,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1545–1562 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, W. S. Chamberlin, C. A. Knudson, “Proportionality between in situ carbon assimilation and bio-optical measures of primary production in the Gulf of Maine in summer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 232–238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Bannister, “Production equations in terms of chlorophyll concentration, quantum yield, and upper limit to production,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 1–12 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Biol. (1)

R. C. Smith, R. W. Eppley, K. S. Baker, “Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in Southern California Coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281–288 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanogr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.489, 168–178 (1984).

Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, 1994),Dissertation Abstract International 56-01B (UMI Microfilm, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1986), p. 239.

R. R. Bidigare, B. B. Prezelin, R. C. Smith, “Bio-optical models and the problems of scaling,” in Primary Production and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 175–212.

D. A. Kiefer, R. A. Reynolds, “Advances in understanding phytoplankton fluorescence and photosynthesis,” in Primary Production and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 155–174.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a ph*(λ) spectrum used in the study area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of a ph(λ) simulation (normalized at 440 nm, adapted from Lee17).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of Q profiles for 17 May, 20 May, 22 May, and 24 May.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of P profiles for 17 May, 20 May, 22 May, and 24 May. L, liter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison among the measured and the calculated Q(z) of the 4 measurement days (no surface values) among the four methods.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison among the measured and the calculated P(z) of the 4 measurement days among the four methods.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Symbols and Units

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mathematical Expressions Used for the P Calculation a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Result Summary

Tables Icon

Table 4 Linear Analysis Results between Measured and Calculated P(z) and Q(z)

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ 443 , 550 E d ( 443 ) E d ( 550 ) b b ( 443 ) b b ( 550 ) × [ a w ( 550 ) + B a ph * ( 550 ) + a dg ( 550 ) ] [ a w ( 443 ) + B a ph * ( 443 ) + a dg ( 443 ) ] ,
P ( z ) = ϕ ( z ) λ a ph ( λ ) E 0 ( λ , z ) d λ .
P ( z ) = λ α ( λ , z ) B chl E 0 ( λ , z ) d λ ,
α = ϕ a ph * ,
P ( z ) = K ϕ K ϕ + Q ( z ) ftn [ ϕ m , pigment , E 0 ( λ , z ) ] ,
Q ( z ) = λ E 0 ( λ , z ) d λ ,
E 0 ( λ , z ) E 0 ( λ , 0 ) exp [ 1.08 K d ( λ ) z ] .
a ph ( λ ) = a ph 1 exp [ F ( ln λ λ 1 100 ) 2 ] , 400 λ 570 ,
a ph ( λ ) = a ph ( 570 ) + a ph ( 656 ) a ph ( 570 ) 656 570 ( λ 570 ) , 570 < λ < 656 ,
a ph ( λ ) = a ph 2 exp [ ( λ λ 2 ) 2 2 σ 2 ] , 656 λ 700 ,
R rs ( λ 1 ) 0 . 17 a w ( λ 1 ) + a dg ( λ 1 ) + a ph ( λ 1 ) × [ b bw ( λ 1 ) 3 . 4 + X ( 400 λ 1 ) Y ] , R rs ( λ N ) 0 . 17 a w ( λ N ) + a dg ( λ N ) + a ph ( λ N ) × [ b bw ( λ N ) 3 . 4 + X ( 400 λ N ) Y ] ,
a dg ( λ ) = a dg ( 440 ) exp [ S ( λ 440 ) ] .
= exp { AVG [ | ln ( cal mea ) | ] } 1 .
cal 1 + mea ( 1 + ) cal .
P ( z ) = K ϕ K ϕ + Q ( z ) ftn [ ϕ m , pigment , E 0 ( λ , z ) ]
P ( z ) = K ϕ K ϕ + Q ( z ) ftn [ ϕ m , pigment , E 0 ( λ , z ) ] exp [ ν Q ( z ) ]
P ( z ) = K ϕ exp [ ν Q ( z ) ] K ϕ + Q ( z ) λ α B ( λ ) B chl E 0 ( λ , z ) d λ
P ( z ) = K ϕ exp [ ν Q ( z ) ] K ϕ + Q ( z ) λ ϕ m a ph ( λ ) E 0 ( λ , z ) d λ
Q ( z ) = λ E 0 ( λ , z ) d λ
E 0 ( λ , z ) E 0 ( λ , 0 ) exp [ 1 . 08 K d ( λ ) z ]
K d ( λ ) = K w ( λ ) + χ ( λ ) B e ( λ )
K d ( λ ) = M ( λ ) [ K d ( 490 ) K w ( 490 ) ] + K w ( λ ) , K d ( 490 ) = 0 . 19 ( ρ 2 ) 3 . 11 / μ d ( 0 )
B = A 1 ( ρ 1 ) A 2
a ph ( 440 ) = 0 . 072 ( ρ 1 ) 1 . 62

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