Abstract

A method to derive in-water absorption coefficients from total remote-sensing reflectance (ratio of the upwelling radiance to the downwelling irradiance above the surface) analytically is presented. For measurements made in the Gulf of Mexico and Monterey Bay, with concentrations of chlorophyll-a ranging from 0.07 to 50 mg/m3, comparisons are made for the total absorption coefficients derived with the suggested method and those derived with diffuse attenuation coefficients. For these coastal to open-ocean waters, including regions of upwelling and the Loop Current, the results are as follows: at 440 nm the difference between the two methods is 13.0% (r 2 = 0.96) for total absorption coefficients ranging from 0.02 to 2.0 m−1; at 488 nm the difference is 14.5% (r 2 = 0.97); and at 550 nm the difference is 13.6% (r 2 = 0.96). The results indicate that the method presented works very well for retrieval of in-water absorption coefficients exclusively from remotely measured signals, and that this method has a wide range of potential applications in oceanic remote sensing.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  2. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” submitted to Appl. Opt.
  3. M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 35.
  6. K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis (Final Technical Report), S. Q. Duntley, ed., SIO Ref. 74-10 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974).
  8. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. R. Gordon, “Modeling and simulating radiative transfer in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds., Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics 25 (Oxford University, New York, 1994), pp. 3–39.
  17. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).
  18. Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1994),Dissertation Abstract International 56-01B (UMI Microfilm, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995).
  20. J. H. Jerome, R. P. Bukata, J. E. Burton, “Utilizing the components of vector irradiance to estimate the scalar irradiance in natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4012–4018 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Contamination of the reflectance of natural waters by solar-induced fluorescence of dissolved organic matter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 444–445 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 290–302 (1990).
  24. N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecology Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Bricaud, D. Strasmski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of marine humic and fulvic acids: effects on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1750, 212–223 (1992).
  32. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1: Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4172–4182 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Evaluation of coastal zone color scanner diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms for application to coastal waters,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 72–78 (1990).

1995 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecology Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Strasmski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Jerome, R. P. Bukata, J. E. Burton, “Utilizing the components of vector irradiance to estimate the scalar irradiance in natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4012–4018 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

1981 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis (Final Technical Report), S. Q. Duntley, ed., SIO Ref. 74-10 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974).

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bidigare, R. R.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 290–302 (1990).

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, D. Strasmski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukata, R. P.

Burton, J. E.

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of marine humic and fulvic acids: effects on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1750, 212–223 (1992).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).

Carr, M. E.

M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).

Dirks, R. W. J.

Esaias, W.

M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G.

M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Ship perturbation of irradiance measurements at sea. 1: Monte Carlo simulations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 4172–4182 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationship between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.208, 1–43 (1980).

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 35.

H. R. Gordon, “Modeling and simulating radiative transfer in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds., Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics 25 (Oxford University, New York, 1994), pp. 3–39.

Harvey, G. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of marine humic and fulvic acids: effects on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1750, 212–223 (1992).

Hawes, S. K.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of marine humic and fulvic acids: effects on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1750, 212–223 (1992).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).

Hoepffner, N.

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecology Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, M. M.

Jerome, J. H.

Kiefer, D. A.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 290–302 (1990).

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1994),Dissertation Abstract International 56-01B (UMI Microfilm, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Lewis, M. R.

M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marra, J.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Marshall, B. R.

McClain, C.

M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 35.

Morrow, J. H.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 290–302 (1990).

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Evaluation of coastal zone color scanner diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms for application to coastal waters,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 72–78 (1990).

Ondrusek, M. E.

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 290–302 (1990).

Ortner, P. B.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecology Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.208, 1–43 (1980).

Spitzer, D.

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “A model for interpretation of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).

Strasmski, D.

A. Bricaud, D. Strasmski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C. C.

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Evaluation of coastal zone color scanner diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms for application to coastal waters,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 72–78 (1990).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.208, 1–43 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (8)

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “Asemianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (8)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Strasmski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecology Prog. Ser. (1)

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Effect of pigment composition on absorption properties of phytoplankton,” Mar. Ecology Prog. Ser. 73, 11–23 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. R. Lewis, M. E. Carr, G. Feldman, C. McClain, W. Esaias, “Influence of penetrating solar radiation on the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific ocean,” Nature 347, 543–545 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 35.

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.208, 1–43 (1980).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, J. Marra, R. G. Steward, M. J. Perry, “Estimating primary production at depth from remote sensing,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis (Final Technical Report), S. Q. Duntley, ed., SIO Ref. 74-10 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974).

H. R. Gordon, “Modeling and simulating radiative transfer in the ocean,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds., Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics 25 (Oxford University, New York, 1994), pp. 3–39.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “An interpretation of high spectral resolution remote sensing reflectance,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface, L. Estep, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1749, 49–64 (1992).

Z. P. Lee, “Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1994),Dissertation Abstract International 56-01B (UMI Microfilm, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995).

R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, J. H. Morrow, D. A. Kiefer, “In vivo absorption properties of algal pigments,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 290–302 (1990).

J. L. Mueller, C. C. Trees, “Evaluation of coastal zone color scanner diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms for application to coastal waters,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 72–78 (1990).

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of marine humic and fulvic acids: effects on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1750, 212–223 (1992).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Examples of a ph(λ) simulation (normalized at 440 nm, adapted from Lee19).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of Kd ,av-derived a based on aw + ap .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured T ¯ rs of the stations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured S ¯ rs of the stations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) comparison of a(440) following the cruise stations, (b) comparison of a(440) values in a log–log plot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of a(488) values in log–log plot.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of a(550) values in log–log plot.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Examples of derived and simulated R rs(λ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Examples of derived and measured a ph(λ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

μ d /cos(j) versus Kd (440).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of Symbols

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the Major Results

Equations (32)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L u = L w + r L sky + Δ E d ,
T rs = R rs + r S rs + Δ ,
R rs = L w E d ,
S rs = L sky E d .
Ř rs i = 1 2 g i ( b b a + b b ) i ,
b bp ( λ ) = b bp ( 400 ) ( 400 λ ) η .
a dg = a dg ( 440 ) exp [ S dg ( λ 440 ) ] .
Ř rs g b b a ,
Ř rs G a [ b bw 3.4 + X ( 400 λ ) Y ] ,
Ť rs G a [ b bw 3.4 + X ( 400 λ ) Y ] + r S rs + Δ .
T ¯ rs ( λ 1 ) 0.17 a w ( λ 1 ) + a dg ( λ 1 ) + a ph ( λ 1 ) × [ b bw ( λ 1 ) 3.4 + X ( 400 λ 1 ) Y ] + r S rs ( λ 1 ) + Δ , T ¯ rs ( λ N ) 0.17 a w ( λ N ) + a dg ( λ N ) + a ph ( λ N ) × [ b bw ( λ N ) 3.4 + X ( 400 λ N ) Y ] + r S rs ( λ N ) + Δ ,
a ph ( λ ) = a ph 1 exp [ F ( ln λ λ 1 100 ) 2 ] , 400 λ 570 ,
a ph ( λ ) = a ph ( 570 ) + a ph ( 656 ) a ph ( 570 ) 656 570 ( λ 570 ) , 570 < λ < 656 ,
a ph ( λ ) = a ph 2 exp [ ( λ λ 2 ) 2 σ 2 2 ] , 656 λ 700 .
a ph 2 / a ph 1 = 0.86 + 0.16 ln ( a ph 1 ) , normalized rms error 17.2 % , F = 2.89 exp { 0.505 tanh [ 0.56 ln ( a ph 1 / 0.043 ) ] } , normalized rms error 12.4 % , σ = 14.17 + 0.9 ln ( a ph 1 ) , normalized rms error 5.6 % .
apd = [ AVG 400 660 ( R rs Ř rs ) 2 + AVG 750 830 ( R rs Ř rs ) 2 ] 0.5 AVG 400 660 ( R rs ) + AVG 750 830 ( R rs ) .
0.9 [ 0.86 + 1.2 ln ( χ ) ] Y 1.1 [ 0.86 + 1.2 ln ( χ ) ] .
R ¯ rs T ¯ rs 0.018 S ¯ rs Δ ,
0.012 S dg 0.016 ,
a ph 1 , a dg ( 440 ) , X , r > 0 .
a + b b f μ d ( 0 ) K d , av ,
a f μ d ( 0 ) K d , av 1 + 19.97 R rs .
E ¯ d ( z ) = E d ( 0 ) exp ( K d , av z ¯ ) ,
ln [ E ¯ d ( z ) ] = ln [ E d ( 0 ) ] K d , av z ¯ .
E ¯ d = π L ¯ G R G ,
= exp { AVG [ | ln ( cal mea ) | ] } 1 .
cal 1 + mea ( 1 + ) cal .
μ d cos ( j ) = 0.846 0.107 ln [ K d ( 440 ) ] ,
E ¯ d
R ¯ rs
S ¯ rs
T ¯ rs

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