Abstract

The retrieval of aerosol-size distribution from simulated aerosol-extinction-coefficient measurements of the new satellite instrument, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III, is investigated. A detailed discussion on the aerosol-size-distribution information content of the SAGE III aerosol-extinction-coefficient measurement is provided. Results of the investigation indicate that unimodal as well as bimodal log-normal size distributions can be inferred. In addition, it is shown that a shape-constraint-free size distribution can be derived from SAGE III aerosol measurements by use of the randomized minimization search technique and the optimal estimation theory.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. V. Hobbs, ed., Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions (Academic, San Diego, 1993).
  2. S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature 321, 755–758 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Turco, K. Drdla, A. Tabazadeh, P. Hamill, “Heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosols,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M.-L. Chanin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 65–134.
    [CrossRef]
  4. P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).
  5. M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).
  6. J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Size distribution of stratospheric aerosols from SAGE II multiwavelength extinction,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. V. Hobbs, M. P. McCormck, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 305–312.
  10. L. W. Thomason, “A diagnostic stratospheric aerosol size distribution inferred from SAGE II measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22501–22508 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. H. Lin, V. K. Saxena, “Characteristics of antarctic stratospheric aerosols during the 1987 ozone depletion episode based on SAGE II satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7635–7649 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–314 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, New York, 1977).
  22. J. D. Spinhirne, M. D. King, “Latitudinal variation of spectral optical thickness and columnar size distribution of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10607–10619 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Optical modelling of stratospheric aerosols: present status,” Appl. Opt. 25, 410–419 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. H. Lin, V. K. Saxena, “Characteristics of antarctic stratospheric aerosols during the 1987 ozone depletion episode based on SAGE II satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7635–7649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

L. W. Thomason, “A diagnostic stratospheric aerosol size distribution inferred from SAGE II measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22501–22508 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Optical modelling of stratospheric aerosols: present status,” Appl. Opt. 25, 410–419 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. D. Spinhirne, M. D. King, “Latitudinal variation of spectral optical thickness and columnar size distribution of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10607–10619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D. A.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baer, J. W.

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).

Box, M. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, C.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Size distribution of stratospheric aerosols from SAGE II multiwavelength extinction,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. V. Hobbs, M. P. McCormck, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 305–312.

Chu, W.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).

Danielsen, E. F.

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

DeFoor, T. E.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drdla, K.

R. Turco, K. Drdla, A. Tabazadeh, P. Hamill, “Heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosols,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M.-L. Chanin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 65–134.
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, G. V.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, W. H.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. R.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W.

P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).

Guy, J.

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).

Hamill, P.

R. Turco, K. Drdla, A. Tabazadeh, P. Hamill, “Heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosols,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M.-L. Chanin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 65–134.
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

Herman, B. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Optical modelling of stratospheric aerosols: present status,” Appl. Opt. 25, 410–419 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. D. King, “Latitudinal variation of spectral optical thickness and columnar size distribution of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10607–10619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krishna Murthy, B. V. K.

K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Size distribution of stratospheric aerosols from SAGE II multiwavelength extinction,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. V. Hobbs, M. P. McCormck, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 305–312.

Lin, N. H.

N. H. Lin, V. K. Saxena, “Characteristics of antarctic stratospheric aerosols during the 1987 ozone depletion episode based on SAGE II satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7635–7649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).

P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).

McMaster, L. R.

K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H.

Oberbeck, V. R.

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M. T.

K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K.

K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, T. J.

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pilewskie, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L.

P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).

Poole, L. R.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quenzel, H.

Ray, A.

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).

Reagan, J. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rose, K. O.

K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Optical modelling of stratospheric aerosols: present status,” Appl. Opt. 25, 410–419 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, F. S.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, V. K.

N. H. Lin, V. K. Saxena, “Characteristics of antarctic stratospheric aerosols during the 1987 ozone depletion episode based on SAGE II satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7635–7649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Skeens, K. M.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snetsinger, K. G.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. D. King, “Latitudinal variation of spectral optical thickness and columnar size distribution of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10607–10619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tabazadeh, A.

R. Turco, K. Drdla, A. Tabazadeh, P. Hamill, “Heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosols,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M.-L. Chanin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 65–134.
[CrossRef]

Thomalla, E.

Thomason, L.

P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason, “A diagnostic stratospheric aerosol size distribution inferred from SAGE II measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22501–22508 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R.

R. Turco, K. Drdla, A. Tabazadeh, P. Hamill, “Heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosols,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M.-L. Chanin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 65–134.
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, New York, 1977).

Wang, P.-H.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).

Wuebbles, D. J.

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).

Zawodny, J. M.

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Res. (1)

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 °N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (3)

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hofmann, “Stratospheric aerosol measurements. III. Optical model calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304–314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, “Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. I. An optical model for data conversion,” J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279–1294 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

L. W. Thomason, “A diagnostic stratospheric aerosol size distribution inferred from SAGE II measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 22501–22508 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Lin, V. K. Saxena, “Characteristics of antarctic stratospheric aerosols during the 1987 ozone depletion episode based on SAGE II satellite observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 7635–7649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, M. T. Osborn, W. H. Fuller, G. K. Yue, “Inference of stratospheric aerosol composition and size distribution from SAGE II satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8435–8446 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, M. D. King, “Latitudinal variation of spectral optical thickness and columnar size distribution of the El Chichón stratospheric aerosol layer,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10607–10619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear SAGE II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13875–13899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. DeFoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hoffmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Parameswaran, K. O. Rose, B. V. K. Krishna Murthy, M. T. Osborn, L. R. McMaster, “Comparison of aerosol extinction profiles from lidar and SAGE II data at a tropical station,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10861–10866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Solomon, R. R. Garcia, F. S. Rowland, D. J. Wuebbles, “On the depletion of Antarctic ozone,” Nature 321, 755–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Size distribution of stratospheric aerosols from SAGE II multiwavelength extinction,” in Aerosols and Climate, P. V. Hobbs, M. P. McCormck, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 305–312.

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, New York, 1977).

P. V. Hobbs, ed., Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions (Academic, San Diego, 1993).

R. Turco, K. Drdla, A. Tabazadeh, P. Hamill, “Heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosols,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M.-L. Chanin, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 65–134.
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, W. Grant, M. P. McCormick, L. Poole, G. K. Yue, L. Thomason, “Ozone and water vapor losses in gas-to-particle conversion of volcanic SO2 in the stratosphere,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. (1995).

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J. Guy, A. Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1939, 137–149 (1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized kernel function at SAGE III wavelengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized averaging kernels corresponding to the seven size bins used in the OE retrieval of the SAGE III aerosol spectral-extinction measurements (see text, also Rodgers13,14).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aerosol-size distribution retrieval analysis by use of simulated SAGE III aerosol-extinction measurements according to the unimodal log-normal size distribution of the background stratospheric aerosols. A bimodal log-normal expression is used as the initial guess in the NLS retrievals. The solution of the bimodal expression is then used in the RMST analysis. In the OE retrieval, the a priori profile is the unimodal log-normal distribution of the stratospheric background aerosols.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aerosol-size-distribution retrieval analysis by use of simulated SAGE III aerosol-extinction measurements according to the observed aerosol size distributions after (a) the April 1982 El Chichón and (b) the June 1991 Pinatubo volcanic eruptions. A bimodal log-normal expression is used as the initial guess in the NLS retrievals. The solution of the bimodal expression is then used in the RMST analysis. In the OE retrieval, the a priori profile is the unimodal log-normal distribution of the stratospheric background aerosols.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol-size-distribution retrieval analysis by use of simulated SAGE III aerosol-extinction measurements according to the observed aerosol-size distributions after (a) the April 1982 El Chichón and (b) the June 1991 Pinatubo volcanic eruptions. A unimodal log-normal expression of the background stratospheric aerosols is used as the initial guess in the NLS retrievals. The solution of the unimodal expression is then used in the RMST analysis. In the OE retrieval, the a priori profile is also the unimodal log-normal distribution of the stratospheric background aerosols.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the aerosol-size-distribution retrieval between the four-channel SAGE II and the seven-channel SAGE III aerosol observations. The simulated aerosol extinctions are calculations from the observed Pinatubo aerosol-size distribution. The simulated SAGE II and SAGE III observations are then used to retrieve a unimodal log-normal expression.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SAGE II and SAGE III

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive Index at SAGE III Aerosol Wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameter Values of the Analytic Expression

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

= Q e π r 2 d n d r d r ,
κ e = 3 4 r Q e ,
= κ e d υ d r d r ,
d n d r = N 0 2 π r ln σ exp [ ln 2 ( r / r m ) 2 ln 2 σ ] ,

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