Abstract

The cuneiform-inscription (CI) signs recorded on the original clay tablet known as HS 158b from Nippur (1329 B.C.) have been characterized by the use of a multifunctional optoelectronic device. Properties such as features in object and Fourier space or similarity measures between the CI sign samples were investigated by the application of various numerical and experimental procedures. An overall algorithm of the experimental work is given, and the corresponding particular steps are described. For describing the objects from the CI font numerically, a mathematical model is introduced. To decrease the sensitivity between different samples of a sign (in-class objects) and to increase the discrimination of other signs (out-of-class objects), we designed and implemented, besides digital techniques, a coherent optical technique for averaging a training set of in-class objects. The preliminary correlation experiments conducted on several CI signs illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by spatial complex filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
  2. J. M. Fournier, “Coherent and incoherent averaging of ancient handwritten hebraic characters,” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, E. Marom, •••, eds., (Pergamon, London, 1977), pp. 533–540.
  3. J. Duvernoy, Y.-L. Sheng, “Effective optical processor for computing image moments at TV rate: use in handwriting recognition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2320–2327 (1987).
  4. T. S. Wilkinson, D. A. Pender, J. W. Goodman, “Use of synthetic discriminant functions for handwritten-signature verification,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3345–3353 (1991).
  5. B.-S. Jeng, “Optical Chinese character recognition using accumulated stroke features,” Opt. Eng. 28, 793–799 (1989).
  6. G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).
  7. N. Demoli, H. Gruber, U. Dahms, G. Wernicke, “Holographic technique application in analysing cuneiform inscriptions,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 191–195 (1995).
  8. N. Demoli, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, G. Wernicke, “Use of a multifunctional extended optical correlator for cuneiform inscription analysis,” in Photonics for Processors, Neural Networks, and Memories II, J. L. Horner, B. Javidi, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2297, 278–287 (1994).
  9. C. B. F. Walker, Cuneiform (Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1987).
  10. N. Demoli, “Quasiphase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2058–2061 (1987).
  11. R. Labat, Manual D’Epigraphie Akkadienne (Librairie Orientaliste Paul Guethner, S.A., Paris, 1977).

1995 (1)

N. Demoli, H. Gruber, U. Dahms, G. Wernicke, “Holographic technique application in analysing cuneiform inscriptions,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 191–195 (1995).

1994 (1)

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

B.-S. Jeng, “Optical Chinese character recognition using accumulated stroke features,” Opt. Eng. 28, 793–799 (1989).

1987 (2)

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by spatial complex filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

Bjelkhagen, H.

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

Dahms, U.

N. Demoli, H. Gruber, U. Dahms, G. Wernicke, “Holographic technique application in analysing cuneiform inscriptions,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 191–195 (1995).

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

N. Demoli, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, G. Wernicke, “Use of a multifunctional extended optical correlator for cuneiform inscription analysis,” in Photonics for Processors, Neural Networks, and Memories II, J. L. Horner, B. Javidi, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2297, 278–287 (1994).

Demoli, N.

N. Demoli, H. Gruber, U. Dahms, G. Wernicke, “Holographic technique application in analysing cuneiform inscriptions,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 191–195 (1995).

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

N. Demoli, “Quasiphase-only matched filtering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2058–2061 (1987).

N. Demoli, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, G. Wernicke, “Use of a multifunctional extended optical correlator for cuneiform inscription analysis,” in Photonics for Processors, Neural Networks, and Memories II, J. L. Horner, B. Javidi, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2297, 278–287 (1994).

Duvernoy, J.

Fournier, J. M.

J. M. Fournier, “Coherent and incoherent averaging of ancient handwritten hebraic characters,” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, E. Marom, •••, eds., (Pergamon, London, 1977), pp. 533–540.

Goodman, J. W.

Gruber, H.

N. Demoli, H. Gruber, U. Dahms, G. Wernicke, “Holographic technique application in analysing cuneiform inscriptions,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 191–195 (1995).

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

N. Demoli, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, G. Wernicke, “Use of a multifunctional extended optical correlator for cuneiform inscription analysis,” in Photonics for Processors, Neural Networks, and Memories II, J. L. Horner, B. Javidi, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2297, 278–287 (1994).

Jeng, B.-S.

B.-S. Jeng, “Optical Chinese character recognition using accumulated stroke features,” Opt. Eng. 28, 793–799 (1989).

Labat, R.

R. Labat, Manual D’Epigraphie Akkadienne (Librairie Orientaliste Paul Guethner, S.A., Paris, 1977).

Pender, D. A.

Sheng, Y.-L.

Sommerfeld, W.

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by spatial complex filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

von Bally, G.

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

Vukicevic, D.

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

Walker, C. B. F.

C. B. F. Walker, Cuneiform (Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1987).

Wernicke, G.

N. Demoli, H. Gruber, U. Dahms, G. Wernicke, “Holographic technique application in analysing cuneiform inscriptions,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 191–195 (1995).

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

N. Demoli, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, G. Wernicke, “Use of a multifunctional extended optical correlator for cuneiform inscription analysis,” in Photonics for Processors, Neural Networks, and Memories II, J. L. Horner, B. Javidi, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2297, 278–287 (1994).

Wilkinson, T. S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by spatial complex filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Demoli, H. Gruber, U. Dahms, G. Wernicke, “Holographic technique application in analysing cuneiform inscriptions,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 191–195 (1995).

Naturwissenschaften (1)

G. von Bally, D. Vukičević, N. Demoli, H. Bjelkhagen, G. Wernicke, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, W. Sommerfeld, “Holography and holographic pattern recognition for preservation and evaluation of cultural-historic sources,” Naturwissenschaften 81, 563–565 (1994).

Opt. Eng. (1)

B.-S. Jeng, “Optical Chinese character recognition using accumulated stroke features,” Opt. Eng. 28, 793–799 (1989).

Other (4)

J. M. Fournier, “Coherent and incoherent averaging of ancient handwritten hebraic characters,” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, E. Marom, •••, eds., (Pergamon, London, 1977), pp. 533–540.

N. Demoli, U. Dahms, H. Gruber, G. Wernicke, “Use of a multifunctional extended optical correlator for cuneiform inscription analysis,” in Photonics for Processors, Neural Networks, and Memories II, J. L. Horner, B. Javidi, S. T. Kowel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2297, 278–287 (1994).

C. B. F. Walker, Cuneiform (Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1987).

R. Labat, Manual D’Epigraphie Akkadienne (Librairie Orientaliste Paul Guethner, S.A., Paris, 1977).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the multifunctional optoelectronic system. VBS, variable beam splitter; M, mirror; Col, collimator; FTL, Fourier-transform lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the algorithm summarizing the experimental work.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the original CI tablet, HS 158b: (a) the front and (b) the back sides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Preprocessed input scenes: (a) scene 1 and (b) scene 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characterization of the DI sign: (a) the mathematical model, (b) the DI numerical power spectrum, (c) the preprocessed original DIav sign, and (d) the optical power spectrum of sign DIav.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scans of (a) the FT structure of the DI sign over 180°, and (b) and (c) of selected finer intervals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Edge extraction by the use of an AM: (a) Iav, (b) Iav power spectrum, (c) results of the optical multiplication of the Iav power spectrum by an AM, and (d) the edge-extracted Iav.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correlation output obtained by the use of an AM: Iav is correlated with (a) I1, (b) I2, (c) I3, and (d) I4.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Correlation output obtained without the use of an AM: Iav is correlated with (a) I1, (b) I2, (c) I3, (d) I4, (e) DI1, (f) DI2, (g) DI3, (h) A-MI1, and (i) A-MI2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normalized Similarity Measures SM

Tables Icon

Table 2 Average Discrimination Ability DA Values

Equations (11)

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F = { [ F W 1 ] W 2 } W 3 ,
c ( x , y ) = F T { F ( u , v ) H * ( u , v ) } ,
I cp = A p c ( x , y ) 2 d x d y ,
I f = F ( u , v ) 2 d u d v .
SM = I cp I f ,
DA = 1 N i = 1 N SM i max [ c ( x , y ) 2 ] / I f .
S = { s n ; n = 1 , 2 , , N } ,
s n ( x , y ) = i = 1 I j = 1 J i v ( x i j , y i j ) δ ( x - x 0 i j , y - y 0 i j ) ,
[ x i j y i j ] = [ σ x i j cos α i σ y i j sin α i - σ x i j sin α i σ y i j cos α i ] [ x y ] ,
t ( x , y ) n = 1 N s n ( x , y ) 2 + n = 1 N n n , m = 1 N s n ( x , y ) s m * ( x , y ) × exp { - i 2 π [ ( u n - u m ) x + ( v n - v m ) y ] } ,
H * ( u , v ) 1 N n = 1 N α n S n * ( u , v ) ,

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