Abstract

The index inhomogeneity and the microstructure of ZrO2 films prepared by Ar-ion-assisted deposition are investigated. The results show that as the Ar-ion momentum transferred to the growing film increases, the average refractive index increases, the vacuum-to-air spectral shift becomes almost zero, the sign of relative inhomogeneity transits from negative to positive, and the void fraction of the top layer next to air becomes smaller than that of the bottom one. These optical properties result from the improved packing density and denser outer region next to air. The Ar-ion bombardment also induces the changes in microstructure of ZrO2 films, such as the preferential (111) orientation of cubic phase, increase in compressive stress, and reduction of surface roughness.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. J. R. Gee, L. J. Hodgkinson, H. A. Macleod, “Moisture-dependent anisotropic effects in optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3188–3192 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Klinger, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and crystalline inhomogeneity in evaporated zirconia films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3184–3187 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfiled, “Ion assisted Dielectric and optical coatings,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, H. R. Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1989), Chap. 19, pp. 373–414.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1993 (1)

E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Lehan, Y. Mao, B. G. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Optical and microstructural properties of hafnium dioxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 203, 227–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

J. D. Targove, H. A. Macleod, “Verification of momentum transfer as the dominant densifying mechanism in ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3779–3781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Huang, Z. R. Feng, D. Z. Wang, “Microanalyses of Ar+-bombarded zirconia–yttria films on silicon substrates,” Thin Solid Films 221, 9–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

P. J. Martin, “Ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mat. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Mueller, “Model for ion-assisted thin-film densification,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2803–2907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1984 (2)

K. H. Guenther, “Microstructure of vapor-deposited optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3806–3916 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, L. E.

H. P. Klug, L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedure, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 11, pp. 757–764.

Allen, T.

T. Allen, “Properties of ion assisted deposited silica and titania films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE325, 93–100 (1982).

Arndt, D. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Microstructural information from optical properties in semiconductor technology,” in Optical Characterization Techniques for Semiconductor Technology, D. E. Aspnes, R. F. Potter, S. S. So, eds., Proc. SPIE276, 188–195 (1981); see also references therein.

Azzam, R. M. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Borgogno, J. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bouamrane, F.

E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B. G.

J. P. Lehan, Y. Mao, B. G. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Optical and microstructural properties of hafnium dioxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 203, 227–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

R. E. Klinger, C. K. Carniglia, “Optical and crystalline inhomogeneity in evaporated zirconia films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3184–3187 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Case, W. E.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D’Aries, L.

Daous, M. A.

E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. R.

N. K. Huang, Z. R. Feng, D. Z. Wang, “Microanalyses of Ar+-bombarded zirconia–yttria films on silicon substrates,” Thin Solid Films 221, 9–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gee, J. R.

Gibson, U. J.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Hallak, A. B.

E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harris, M.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkin, V. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, L. J.

Huang, N. K.

N. K. Huang, Z. R. Feng, D. Z. Wang, “Microanalyses of Ar+-bombarded zirconia–yttria films on silicon substrates,” Thin Solid Films 221, 9–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Khawaja, E. E.

E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

Klapp, W. P.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klinger, R. E.

Klug, H. P.

H. P. Klug, L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedure, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 11, pp. 757–764.

Kriegel, W. W.

W. W. Kriegel, H. Palmour, Mechanical Properties of Engineering Ceramics (Interscience, New York, 1961), Chap.33, p. 583.

Lehan, J. P.

J. P. Lehan, Y. Mao, B. G. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Optical and microstructural properties of hafnium dioxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 203, 227–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hwangbo, L. J. Lingg, J. P. Lehan, H. A. Macleod, J. L. Makous, S. Y. Kim, “Ion assisted deposition of thermally evaporated Ag and Al films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2769–2778 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lingg, L. J.

Macleod, H. A.

J. P. Lehan, Y. Mao, B. G. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Optical and microstructural properties of hafnium dioxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 203, 227–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hwangbo, L. J. Lingg, J. P. Lehan, H. A. Macleod, J. L. Makous, S. Y. Kim, “Ion assisted deposition of thermally evaporated Ag and Al films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2769–2778 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Targove, H. A. Macleod, “Verification of momentum transfer as the dominant densifying mechanism in ion assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3779–3781 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Gee, L. J. Hodgkinson, H. A. Macleod, “Moisture-dependent anisotropic effects in optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3188–3192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Makous, J. L.

Mao, Y.

J. P. Lehan, Y. Mao, B. G. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Optical and microstructural properties of hafnium dioxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 203, 227–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, “Ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mat. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfiled, “Ion assisted Dielectric and optical coatings,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, H. R. Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1989), Chap. 19, pp. 373–414.

Mueller, K. H.

K. H. Mueller, “Model for ion-assisted thin-film densification,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2803–2907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

Netterfield, R. P.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Netterfiled, R. P.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfiled, “Ion assisted Dielectric and optical coatings,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, H. R. Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1989), Chap. 19, pp. 373–414.

Ogura, S.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Palmour, H.

W. W. Kriegel, H. Palmour, Mechanical Properties of Engineering Ceramics (Interscience, New York, 1961), Chap.33, p. 583.

Pelletier, E.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glasses (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), Chap. 8, pp. 322–331.

Purvis, M. K.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, D. M.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Salim, M. A.

E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strome, D. H.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, R.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Targove, J. D.

Temple, P. A.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thonn, T. F.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle Hart, T.

D. P. Arndt, R. M. A. Azzam, J. M. Bennett, J. P. Borgogno, C. K. Carniglia, W. E. Case, J. A. Dobrowolski, U. J. Gibson, T. Tuttle Hart, F. C. Ho, V. A. Hodgkin, W. P. Klapp, H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, M. K. Purvis, D. M. Quinn, D. H. Strome, R. Swenson, P. A. Temple, T. F. Thonn, “Multiple determination of the optical constants of thin-film coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3571–3596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vedam, K.

Vidal, B.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Z.

N. K. Huang, Z. R. Feng, D. Z. Wang, “Microanalyses of Ar+-bombarded zirconia–yttria films on silicon substrates,” Thin Solid Films 221, 9–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Windischmann, H.

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. L.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfield, W. G. Sainty, “Modification of the optical and structural properties of dielectric ZrO2 films by ion-assisted deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 235–241 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Mueller, “Model for ion-assisted thin-film densification,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2803–2907 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Mat. Sci. (1)

P. J. Martin, “Ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mat. Sci. 21, 1–25 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

E. E. Khawaja, F. Bouamrane, A. B. Hallak, M. A. Daous, M. A. Salim, “Observation of oxygen enrichment in zirconium oxide films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 580–587 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputtered thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2431–2436 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (3)

N. K. Huang, Z. R. Feng, D. Z. Wang, “Microanalyses of Ar+-bombarded zirconia–yttria films on silicon substrates,” Thin Solid Films 221, 9–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Lehan, Y. Mao, B. G. Bovard, H. A. Macleod, “Optical and microstructural properties of hafnium dioxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 203, 227–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films 57, 173–178 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

T. Allen, “Properties of ion assisted deposited silica and titania films,” in Optical Thin Films, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE325, 93–100 (1982).

P. J. Martin, R. P. Netterfiled, “Ion assisted Dielectric and optical coatings,” in Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, J. J. Cuomo, S. M. Rossnagel, H. R. Kaufman, eds. (Noyes, Park Ridge, N.J., 1989), Chap. 19, pp. 373–414.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glasses (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), Chap. 8, pp. 322–331.

D. E. Aspnes, “Microstructural information from optical properties in semiconductor technology,” in Optical Characterization Techniques for Semiconductor Technology, D. E. Aspnes, R. F. Potter, S. S. So, eds., Proc. SPIE276, 188–195 (1981); see also references therein.

Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, Powder Diffraction File Alphabetical Index Inorganic Phases (International Center for Diffraction Data, 1601 Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pa., 1986), Chap. 1, p. 550.

H. P. Klug, L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedure, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 11, pp. 757–764.

W. W. Kriegel, H. Palmour, Mechanical Properties of Engineering Ceramics (Interscience, New York, 1961), Chap.33, p. 583.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the IAD coating plant.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Inhomogeneous index models: (a) linear index model in spectrophotometry. n1 is the inner index near the substrate, n2 is the outer index next to air, and nav is the average index defined as nav = (n1 + n2)/2; (b) two-layer model in SE. v1 and d1 indicate the void fraction and the thickness of the bottom layer, respectively; v2 and d2 are those of the top layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inner (n1), outer (n2), and average (nav) refractive indices of ZrO2 films as a function of Ar-ion momentum (P).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative inhomogeneity (Δn/nav) of ZrO2 films as a function of P. The (Δn/nav) changes from negative to positive values when P is larger than 0.6 MeV/c.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of void fraction and thickness of the two-layer model measured by SE: (a) void fraction (v1 of bottom layer and v2 of top layer) of ZrO2 films as a function of P; (b) thickness (d1 of bottom layer and d2 of top layer) as a function of P. The fraction of column in the film is represented as a gray level in each layer. A high gray level denotes a dense structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vacuum-to-air spectral shift of a multilayer (ZrO2/SiO2) bandpass filter: (a) conventional filter, (b) IAD filter at P = 0.78 MeV/c. The relative spectral shift (Δλ/λair) of the conventional filter is 3.6%, but the IAD filter shows no shift.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross-sectional view of a single-layer ZrO2 film: (a) conventional film, (b) IAD film at P = 1.25 MeV/c. The conventional film has many voids, whereas the IAD film shows a dense microstructure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

XRD analysis of conventional and IAD ZrO2 films. As P increases, the (111) cubic phase increases preferentially.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stress of conventional and IAD ZrO2 films as a function of P.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

XPS high resolution of a Zr 3d peak of the conventional ZrO2 film. The IAD film shows the same shape.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Root-mean-square surface roughness of ZrO2 films on fused silica: (a) uncoated substrate; (b) conventional film, (c) IAD film at P = 0.23 MeV/c, (d) IAD film at P = 0.78 MeV/c. Root-mean-square surface roughnesses are 6.2, 23, 19, and 17 Å, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Vacuum-to-Air Spectral Shift of Single-Layer and Multilayer Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Location, Lattice Spacing, Stress, and Crystallite Size of (111) Cubic Phases of Conventional and IAD ZrO2 Films as P Increases

Equations (6)

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P = γ ( 2 m i E i ) 1 / 2 ,
n av = ( n 2 + n 1 ) / 2 ,
ρ 1 - 3 ( Δ λ λ air ) n air ,
ɛ z = d - d 0 d o ,
σ = ( E 2 ν ) ɛ z ,
L = κ λ cos θ β ,

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