Abstract

Temperature sensing to as low as 80 K was demonstrated with 1.55-μm fiber Bragg gratings. The gratings were bonded on substrates to increase sensitivity, and a shift of the reflection wavelength was measured. The temperature sensitivity was 0.02 nm/K at 100 K when an aluminum substrate was used and 0.04 nm/K at 100 K when a poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate was used. These values are smaller than those at room temperature because of the nonlinearity of both the thermal expansion and the thermo-optic effect. Extension to the liquid helium temperature is also discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensors,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VII, E. Udd, R. P. DePaula, eds., Proc. SPIE1169, 98–107 (1990).
  3. W. W. Morey, G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Photon. News 5(2), 8–14 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Prohaska, E. Snitzer, B. Chen, M. H. Maher, E. G. Nawy, W. W. Morey, “Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor in large scale concrete structures,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 286–294 (1992).
  5. R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “Bragg grating structural sensing system. … for bridge monitoring,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors IV, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2294, 53–59 (1994).
  6. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity,” in Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fibers, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. SPIE1516, 185–199 (1991).
  7. P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, E. R. Aksay, “Fiber-optic temperature sensors for protective carbon tiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2970–2972 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single-point and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 5, 267–269 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. K. White, “Thermal expansion of reference materials: copper, silica, and silicon,” J. Phys. D 6, 2070–2078 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).
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  13. R. M. Waxler, G. W. Cleek, “The effect of temperature and pressure on the refractive index of some oxide glasses,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 77, 755–763 (1973).
  14. S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, T. Shimomura, “Formation of photorefractive gratings in H2-loaded fibers,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Micro-Optics Conference (Japanese Society of Applied Physics, Hiroshima, 1995), pp. 168–171.
  15. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Takagi, T. Mizunami, H. Okayama, S. Yang, “1/f noise in ceramic superconductors and granular resistors,” IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 303–305 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. G. Haselden, Cryogenic Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 352.
  18. H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. A. Davis, T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, “Demodulator for fiber optic Bragg grating sensors based on fiber wavelength division couplers,” in Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 86–93 (1994).
  20. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “High-resolution fiber-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Electron. Lett. 28, 236–238 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).

1994 (3)

W. W. Morey, G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Photon. News 5(2), 8–14 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single-point and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 5, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “High-resolution fiber-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Electron. Lett. 28, 236–238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

K. Takagi, T. Mizunami, H. Okayama, S. Yang, “1/f noise in ceramic superconductors and granular resistors,” IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 303–305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, E. R. Aksay, “Fiber-optic temperature sensors for protective carbon tiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2970–2972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1973 (2)

G. K. White, “Thermal expansion of reference materials: copper, silica, and silicon,” J. Phys. D 6, 2070–2078 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Waxler, G. W. Cleek, “The effect of temperature and pressure on the refractive index of some oxide glasses,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 77, 755–763 (1973).

Aksay, E. R.

P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, E. R. Aksay, “Fiber-optic temperature sensors for protective carbon tiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2970–2972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alavie, A. T.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “Bragg grating structural sensing system. … for bridge monitoring,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors IV, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2294, 53–59 (1994).

Archambault, J. L.

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. R.

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

W. W. Morey, G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Photon. News 5(2), 8–14 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single-point and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 5, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baulcomb, R. S.

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “High-resolution fiber-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Electron. Lett. 28, 236–238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Davis, T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, “Demodulator for fiber optic Bragg grating sensors based on fiber wavelength division couplers,” in Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 86–93 (1994).

Brady, G. P.

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byron, K. C.

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

J. D. Prohaska, E. Snitzer, B. Chen, M. H. Maher, E. G. Nawy, W. W. Morey, “Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor in large scale concrete structures,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 286–294 (1992).

Cheo, P. K.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single-point and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 5, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cleek, G. W.

R. M. Waxler, G. W. Cleek, “The effect of temperature and pressure on the refractive index of some oxide glasses,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 77, 755–763 (1973).

Clements, S.

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

M. A. Davis, T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, “Demodulator for fiber optic Bragg grating sensors based on fiber wavelength division couplers,” in Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 86–93 (1994).

Forman, P. R.

P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, E. R. Aksay, “Fiber-optic temperature sensors for protective carbon tiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2970–2972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensors,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VII, E. Udd, R. P. DePaula, eds., Proc. SPIE1169, 98–107 (1990).

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, T. Shimomura, “Formation of photorefractive gratings in H2-loaded fibers,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Micro-Optics Conference (Japanese Society of Applied Physics, Hiroshima, 1995), pp. 168–171.

Haselden, G. G.

G. G. Haselden, Cryogenic Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 352.

Hattori, Y.

A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).

Hope, S.

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “Bragg grating structural sensing system. … for bridge monitoring,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors IV, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2294, 53–59 (1994).

Inai, M.

A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).

Inoue, A.

A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).

Ito, M.

A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).

Jackson, D. A.

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jahoda, F. C.

P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, E. R. Aksay, “Fiber-optic temperature sensors for protective carbon tiles,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2970–2972 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Karr, S.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “Bragg grating structural sensing system. … for bridge monitoring,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors IV, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2294, 53–59 (1994).

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “High-resolution fiber-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Electron. Lett. 28, 236–238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Davis, T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, “Demodulator for fiber optic Bragg grating sensors based on fiber wavelength division couplers,” in Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, J. S. Sirkis, ed., Proc. SPIE2191, 86–93 (1994).

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lobo Ribeiro, A. B.

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maaskant, R.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “Bragg grating structural sensing system. … for bridge monitoring,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors IV, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2294, 53–59 (1994).

Maher, M. H.

J. D. Prohaska, E. Snitzer, B. Chen, M. H. Maher, E. G. Nawy, W. W. Morey, “Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor in large scale concrete structures,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 286–294 (1992).

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “Bragg grating structural sensing system. … for bridge monitoring,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors IV, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2294, 53–59 (1994).

Meltz, G.

W. W. Morey, G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Photon. News 5(2), 8–14 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensors,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VII, E. Udd, R. P. DePaula, eds., Proc. SPIE1169, 98–107 (1990).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity,” in Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fibers, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. SPIE1516, 185–199 (1991).

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mizunami, T.

A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).

K. Takagi, T. Mizunami, H. Okayama, S. Yang, “1/f noise in ceramic superconductors and granular resistors,” IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 303–305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, T. Shimomura, “Formation of photorefractive gratings in H2-loaded fibers,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Micro-Optics Conference (Japanese Society of Applied Physics, Hiroshima, 1995), pp. 168–171.

Morey, W. W.

W. W. Morey, G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Photon. News 5(2), 8–14 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single-point and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 5, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “High-resolution fiber-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Electron. Lett. 28, 236–238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, “Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity,” in Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects in Optical Fibers, F. Ouellette, ed., Proc. SPIE1516, 185–199 (1991).

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensors,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors VII, E. Udd, R. P. DePaula, eds., Proc. SPIE1169, 98–107 (1990).

J. D. Prohaska, E. Snitzer, B. Chen, M. H. Maher, E. G. Nawy, W. W. Morey, “Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor in large scale concrete structures,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 286–294 (1992).

Nawy, E. G.

J. D. Prohaska, E. Snitzer, B. Chen, M. H. Maher, E. G. Nawy, W. W. Morey, “Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor in large scale concrete structures,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 286–294 (1992).

Ohn, M.

R. M. Measures, A. T. Alavie, R. Maaskant, M. Ohn, S. Karr, S. Huang, “Bragg grating structural sensing system. … for bridge monitoring,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors IV, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Dakin, eds., Proc. SPIE2294, 53–59 (1994).

Ojha, S. M.

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okayama, H.

K. Takagi, T. Mizunami, H. Okayama, S. Yang, “1/f noise in ceramic superconductors and granular resistors,” IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 303–305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prohaska, J. D.

J. D. Prohaska, E. Snitzer, B. Chen, M. H. Maher, E. G. Nawy, W. W. Morey, “Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor in large scale concrete structures,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 286–294 (1992).

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rourke, H. N.

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shigehara, M.

A. Inoue, M. Shigehara, M. Ito, M. Inai, Y. Hattori, T. Mizunami, “Fabrication and application of fiber Bragg grating—a review,” Optoelectron. Dev. Technol. 10, 119–130 (1995).

Shimomura, T.

S. Gupta, T. Mizunami, T. Shimomura, “Formation of photorefractive gratings in H2-loaded fibers,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Micro-Optics Conference (Japanese Society of Applied Physics, Hiroshima, 1995), pp. 168–171.

Snitzer, E.

J. D. Prohaska, E. Snitzer, B. Chen, M. H. Maher, E. G. Nawy, W. W. Morey, “Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor in large scale concrete structures,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins V, R. O. Claus, R. S. Rogowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1798, 286–294 (1992).

Takagi, K.

K. Takagi, T. Mizunami, H. Okayama, S. Yang, “1/f noise in ceramic superconductors and granular resistors,” IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 303–305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Waxler, R. M.

R. M. Waxler, G. W. Cleek, “The effect of temperature and pressure on the refractive index of some oxide glasses,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 77, 755–763 (1973).

Webb, D. J.

G. P. Brady, S. Hope, A. B. Lobo Ribeiro, D. J. Webb, L. Reekie, J. L. Archambault, D. A. Jackson, “Demultiplexing of fiber Bragg grating temperature and strain sensors,” Opt. Commun. 111, 51–54 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, G. K.

G. K. White, “Thermal expansion of reference materials: copper, silica, and silicon,” J. Phys. D 6, 2070–2078 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

K. Takagi, T. Mizunami, H. Okayama, S. Yang, “1/f noise in ceramic superconductors and granular resistors,” IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 303–305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Rourke, S. R. Baker, K. C. Byron, R. S. Baulcomb, S. M. Ojha, S. Clements, “Fabrication and characterization of long, narrowband fiber gratings by phase mask scanning,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1341–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, W. W. Morey, “High-resolution fiber-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection,” Electron. Lett. 28, 236–238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, P. K. Cheo, “Single-point and multipoint fiber-laser sensors,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 5, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. (1)

K. Takagi, T. Mizunami, H. Okayama, S. Yang, “1/f noise in ceramic superconductors and granular resistors,” IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 13, 303–305 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

G. K. White, “Thermal expansion of reference materials: copper, silica, and silicon,” J. Phys. D 6, 2070–2078 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

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