Abstract

An optical fiber sensor based on the intermodal interference principle is integrated in a composite material to detect impacts and vibrations. Six fibers are integrated at the top of a carbon/epoxy composite panel so as to form a grid into the structure. Spectral and temporal responses to impacts and acoustic vibrations of the sensor are compared with a piezoelectric accelerometer. The tests proved the facility of integration and the high sensitivity of the device. The location of impacts is performed with this arrangement by measuring the arrival times of the front waves to the fibers.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Kitade, T. Fukuda, K. Osaka, “Fiber optic method for detection of impact induced damage in composite plates,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 44, 1196–2000 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Noharet, J. Chazelas, P. Bonniau, J. Lecuellet, M. Turpin, “Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, W. B. Spillman, ed., Proc. SPIE2444, 460–468 (1995).
  4. W. B. Spillmann, P. L. Fuhr, “Impact detection and location system for smart skins applications,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins III, R. O. Claus, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE1370, 908–915 (1990).
  5. P. L. Fuhr, “Single-fiber simultaneous vibration sensing and impact detection for large space structures,” Smart. Mater. Struct. 3, 124–128 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Sirkis, A. Daspugta, “The role of local interaction mechanics in fiber optic smart structures,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 4, 260–271 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 1, development,” Opt. Eng. 32, 752–761 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 2, applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 762–773 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Measures, “Advances toward fiber optic based smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 31, 34–47 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kiaoua, A. Maslouhi, C. Roy, “AE monitoring of free-edge delamination in graphite/epoxy laminates under fatigue loading,” J. Aéronaut. Spatial Can. 41, 21–27 (1995).
  11. J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, Boston, 1988), Chap. 2, p. 9
  12. B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, “Interference of mode patterns in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 11, 178–179 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. B. Spillman, B. R. Kline, L. B. Maurice, P. L. Fuhr, “Statistical-mode sensor for fiber optic vibration sensing uses,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3166–3176 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. R. Huston, P. L. Fuhr, J.-G. Beliveau, W. B. Spillman, “Structural member vibration measurements using a fiber optic sensor,” J. Sound Vib. 149 (2), 348–353 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Wu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, “Sensing with fiber speckle-grams,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4468–4470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Pan, C.-M. Uang, F. Cheng, F. T. S. Yu, “Multimode fiber sensing by using mean-absolute speckle-intensity variation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2095–2098 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. T. S. Yu, J. Zhang, S. Yin, B. Ruffin, “Analysis of a specklegram sensor by using coupled-mode theory,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3018–3023 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 3, p. 97.
  19. B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, “Acoustic sensitivity of optical-fiber waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 13, 760–761 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Kline, Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Media (Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, Pa., 1992), Chap. 2, pp. 5–11; Chap. 5, pp. 41–65.
  21. W. Goldsmith, Impact (Edward Arnold, London, 1960), Chap. 2, pp. 30–34.

1995 (4)

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kitade, T. Fukuda, K. Osaka, “Fiber optic method for detection of impact induced damage in composite plates,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 44, 1196–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kiaoua, A. Maslouhi, C. Roy, “AE monitoring of free-edge delamination in graphite/epoxy laminates under fatigue loading,” J. Aéronaut. Spatial Can. 41, 21–27 (1995).

F. T. S. Yu, J. Zhang, S. Yin, B. Ruffin, “Analysis of a specklegram sensor by using coupled-mode theory,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3018–3023 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. Pan, C.-M. Uang, F. Cheng, F. T. S. Yu, “Multimode fiber sensing by using mean-absolute speckle-intensity variation,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2095–2098 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Fuhr, “Single-fiber simultaneous vibration sensing and impact detection for large space structures,” Smart. Mater. Struct. 3, 124–128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. S. Sirkis, A. Daspugta, “The role of local interaction mechanics in fiber optic smart structures,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 4, 260–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 1, development,” Opt. Eng. 32, 752–761 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 2, applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 762–773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. M. Measures, “Advances toward fiber optic based smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 31, 34–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. R. Huston, P. L. Fuhr, J.-G. Beliveau, W. B. Spillman, “Structural member vibration measurements using a fiber optic sensor,” J. Sound Vib. 149 (2), 348–353 (1991)
[CrossRef]

S. Wu, S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, “Sensing with fiber speckle-grams,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4468–4470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1977 (1)

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, “Acoustic sensitivity of optical-fiber waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 13, 760–761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, “Interference of mode patterns in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 11, 178–179 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beliveau, J.-G.

D. R. Huston, P. L. Fuhr, J.-G. Beliveau, W. B. Spillman, “Structural member vibration measurements using a fiber optic sensor,” J. Sound Vib. 149 (2), 348–353 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Bhatiat, V.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonniau, P.

B. Noharet, J. Chazelas, P. Bonniau, J. Lecuellet, M. Turpin, “Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, W. B. Spillman, ed., Proc. SPIE2444, 460–468 (1995).

Chazelas, J.

B. Noharet, J. Chazelas, P. Bonniau, J. Lecuellet, M. Turpin, “Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, W. B. Spillman, ed., Proc. SPIE2444, 460–468 (1995).

Cheng, F.

Clauss, R. O.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, “Interference of mode patterns in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 11, 178–179 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, “Acoustic sensitivity of optical-fiber waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 13, 760–761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, Boston, 1988), Chap. 2, p. 9

Daino, B.

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, “Interference of mode patterns in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 11, 178–179 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J.

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, Boston, 1988), Chap. 2, p. 9

Daspugta, A.

J. S. Sirkis, A. Daspugta, “The role of local interaction mechanics in fiber optic smart structures,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 4, 260–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. E. N.

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, “Acoustic sensitivity of optical-fiber waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 13, 760–761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Di Porto, P.

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, “Interference of mode patterns in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 11, 178–179 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fuhr, P. L.

P. L. Fuhr, “Single-fiber simultaneous vibration sensing and impact detection for large space structures,” Smart. Mater. Struct. 3, 124–128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Huston, P. L. Fuhr, J.-G. Beliveau, W. B. Spillman, “Structural member vibration measurements using a fiber optic sensor,” J. Sound Vib. 149 (2), 348–353 (1991)
[CrossRef]

W. B. Spillman, B. R. Kline, L. B. Maurice, P. L. Fuhr, “Statistical-mode sensor for fiber optic vibration sensing uses,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3166–3176 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Spillmann, P. L. Fuhr, “Impact detection and location system for smart skins applications,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins III, R. O. Claus, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE1370, 908–915 (1990).

Fukuda, T.

S. Kitade, T. Fukuda, K. Osaka, “Fiber optic method for detection of impact induced damage in composite plates,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 44, 1196–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, W.

W. Goldsmith, Impact (Edward Arnold, London, 1960), Chap. 2, pp. 30–34.

Greene, J. A.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, M. F.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huston, D. R.

D. R. Huston, P. L. Fuhr, J.-G. Beliveau, W. B. Spillman, “Structural member vibration measurements using a fiber optic sensor,” J. Sound Vib. 149 (2), 348–353 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Kiaoua, H.

H. Kiaoua, A. Maslouhi, C. Roy, “AE monitoring of free-edge delamination in graphite/epoxy laminates under fatigue loading,” J. Aéronaut. Spatial Can. 41, 21–27 (1995).

Kingsley, S. A.

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, “Acoustic sensitivity of optical-fiber waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 13, 760–761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kitade, S.

S. Kitade, T. Fukuda, K. Osaka, “Fiber optic method for detection of impact induced damage in composite plates,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 44, 1196–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kline, B. R.

Kline, R. A.

R. A. Kline, Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Media (Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, Pa., 1992), Chap. 2, pp. 5–11; Chap. 5, pp. 41–65.

Lecuellet, J.

B. Noharet, J. Chazelas, P. Bonniau, J. Lecuellet, M. Turpin, “Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, W. B. Spillman, ed., Proc. SPIE2444, 460–468 (1995).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 3, p. 97.

Maslouhi, A.

H. Kiaoua, A. Maslouhi, C. Roy, “AE monitoring of free-edge delamination in graphite/epoxy laminates under fatigue loading,” J. Aéronaut. Spatial Can. 41, 21–27 (1995).

Maurice, L. B.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, “Advances toward fiber optic based smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 31, 34–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noharet, B.

B. Noharet, J. Chazelas, P. Bonniau, J. Lecuellet, M. Turpin, “Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, W. B. Spillman, ed., Proc. SPIE2444, 460–468 (1995).

Osaka, K.

S. Kitade, T. Fukuda, K. Osaka, “Fiber optic method for detection of impact induced damage in composite plates,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 44, 1196–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K.

Roy, C.

H. Kiaoua, A. Maslouhi, C. Roy, “AE monitoring of free-edge delamination in graphite/epoxy laminates under fatigue loading,” J. Aéronaut. Spatial Can. 41, 21–27 (1995).

Ruffin, B.

Sirkis, J. S.

J. S. Sirkis, A. Daspugta, “The role of local interaction mechanics in fiber optic smart structures,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 4, 260–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 2, applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 762–773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 1, development,” Opt. Eng. 32, 752–761 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spillman, W. B.

D. R. Huston, P. L. Fuhr, J.-G. Beliveau, W. B. Spillman, “Structural member vibration measurements using a fiber optic sensor,” J. Sound Vib. 149 (2), 348–353 (1991)
[CrossRef]

W. B. Spillman, B. R. Kline, L. B. Maurice, P. L. Fuhr, “Statistical-mode sensor for fiber optic vibration sensing uses,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3166–3176 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillmann, W. B.

W. B. Spillmann, P. L. Fuhr, “Impact detection and location system for smart skins applications,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins III, R. O. Claus, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE1370, 908–915 (1990).

Tran, T. A.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Turpin, M.

B. Noharet, J. Chazelas, P. Bonniau, J. Lecuellet, M. Turpin, “Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, W. B. Spillman, ed., Proc. SPIE2444, 460–468 (1995).

Uang, C.-M.

Wang, A.

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Yin, S.

Yu, F. T. S.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, “Acoustic sensitivity of optical-fiber waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 13, 760–761 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Aéronaut. Spatial Can. (1)

H. Kiaoua, A. Maslouhi, C. Roy, “AE monitoring of free-edge delamination in graphite/epoxy laminates under fatigue loading,” J. Aéronaut. Spatial Can. 41, 21–27 (1995).

J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. (1)

J. S. Sirkis, A. Daspugta, “The role of local interaction mechanics in fiber optic smart structures,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 4, 260–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. Kitade, T. Fukuda, K. Osaka, “Fiber optic method for detection of impact induced damage in composite plates,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. 44, 1196–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Sound Vib. (1)

D. R. Huston, P. L. Fuhr, J.-G. Beliveau, W. B. Spillman, “Structural member vibration measurements using a fiber optic sensor,” J. Sound Vib. 149 (2), 348–353 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Crosignani, B. Daino, P. Di Porto, “Interference of mode patterns in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 11, 178–179 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 1, development,” Opt. Eng. 32, 752–761 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sirkis, “Unified approach to phase-strain-temperature models for smart structure interferometric optical fiber sensors: part 2, applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 762–773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Measures, “Advances toward fiber optic based smart structures,” Opt. Eng. 31, 34–47 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

J. A. Greene, T. A. Tran, V. Bhatiat, M. F. Gunther, A. Wang, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Clauss, “Optical fiber sensing technique for impact detection in composites and metal specimens,” Smart Mater. Struct. 4, 93–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smart. Mater. Struct. (1)

P. L. Fuhr, “Single-fiber simultaneous vibration sensing and impact detection for large space structures,” Smart. Mater. Struct. 3, 124–128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

B. Noharet, J. Chazelas, P. Bonniau, J. Lecuellet, M. Turpin, “Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, W. B. Spillman, ed., Proc. SPIE2444, 460–468 (1995).

W. B. Spillmann, P. L. Fuhr, “Impact detection and location system for smart skins applications,” in Fiber Optic Smart Structures and Skins III, R. O. Claus, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE1370, 908–915 (1990).

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974), Chap. 3, p. 97.

J. Dakin, B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, Boston, 1988), Chap. 2, p. 9

R. A. Kline, Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Media (Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, Pa., 1992), Chap. 2, pp. 5–11; Chap. 5, pp. 41–65.

W. Goldsmith, Impact (Edward Arnold, London, 1960), Chap. 2, pp. 30–34.

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