Abstract

We have performed an experimental investigation of Ti-, B4C-, B-, and Y-based multilayer mirrors for the soft x-ray–extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength region between 2.0 and 12.0 nm. Eleven different material pairs were studied: Ti/Ni, Ti/Co, Ti/Cu, Ti/W, B4C/Pd, B/Mo, Y/Pd, Y/Ag, Y/Mo, Y/Nb, and Y/C. The multilayers were sputter deposited and were characterized with a number of techniques, including low-angle x-ray diffraction and normal incidence XUV reflectometry. Among the Ti-based multilayers the best results were obtained with Ti/W, with peak reflectances up to 5.2% at 2.79 nm at 61° from normal incidence. The B4C/Pd and B/Mo multilayer mirrors had near-normal incidence (5°) peak reflectances of 11.5% at 8.46 nm and 9.4% at 6.67 nm, respectively, whereas a Y/Mo multilayer mirror had a maximum peak reflectance of 25.6% at 11.30 nm at the same angle. The factors limiting the peak reflectance of these different multilayer mirrors are discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1995

1994

C. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, H. Pépin, J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Sutton, “Extreme-ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors deposited by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2057–2068 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, M. Ranger, J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, M. Chaker, “Mo/Y multilayer mirrors for the 8–12-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1173–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

F. Hong, G. A. Rozgonyi, “Interdiffusion, phase transformation, and epitaxial CoSi2 formation in multilayer Co/Ti–Si(100) system,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 3480–3488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Horikawa, K. Nagai, Y. Iketaki, “Soft x-ray reflectometry with a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1721–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruson, J. C. Yamegni-Noubeyo, “Atomic diffusion in sinusoidally modulated CuxTi1−x amorphous multilayers,” Physica Status Solidi A 138, 199–206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Layer-by-layer design method for soft-x-ray multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1622–1630 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Bouhki, A. Bruson, P. Guilmin, “X-ray diffraction study of amorphization along interfaces in polycrystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” Solid State Commun. 83, 5–9 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Materials for multilayer x-ray optics at wavelengths below 100 Å,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1076–1080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal-incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

H. Nagata, “Nickel/vanadium and nickel/titanium multilayers for x-ray optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1215–1219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Zwicker, S. P. Regan, M. Finkenthal, H. W. Moos, E. B. Saloman, R. Watts, J. R. Roberts, “Peak reflectivity measurements of W–C, Mo–Si and Mo–B4C multilayer mirrors in the 8–190-Å range using both Kα line and synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3694–3698 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hollanders, B. J. Thijsse, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Amorphization along interfaces and grain boundaries in polycrys-talline multilayers: an x-ray diffraction study of Ni/Ti multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5481–5494 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Van Leeuwen, C. D. England, J. R. Dutcher, C. M. Falco, W. R. Bennett, B. Hillebrands, “Structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Co multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4910–4912 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Børgesen, T. L. Alford, D. A. Lilienfeld, H. H. Johnson, “Low temperature ion beam mixing of bilayer and multilayers in the Ti–Cu system,” Appl. Phys. A 50, 161–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. Liu, A. Hu, S. S. Jiang, Y. Qiu, W. H. Liu, Z. Q. Wu, “An x-ray diffraction study on Cu–Ti metallic multilayers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8771–8778 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of x-rays from nonideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Ceglio, “Revolution in x-ray optics,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7–78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. E. Rosenbluth, “Computer search for layer materials that maximize the reflectivity of x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1599–1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, “Applications of microfabrication technology to x-ray laser cavities,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2153–2157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Puppin, V. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Helms, “Annealing behaviour of refractory metal multilayers on Si: The Mo/Ti and W/Ti systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 2414–2419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

B. M. Clemens, “Effect of sputtering pressure on the structure and solid-state reaction of titanium–nickel compositionally modulated film,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4525–4529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. I. Polushkin, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the wavelength interval 25–44 Å,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 12, 448–449 (1986).

J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. M. Falco, “Structural and electronic properties of artificial metallic superlattices,” J. Phys. 45, C5-499–C5-507 (1984).

S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Synthetic multilayer reflectors and selectors for the soft x-ray. I. Choice of materials and design of multilayer mirrors,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 442–445 (1984).

M. S. Bravman, R. Sinclair, “The preparation of cross-sectional specimens for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. Technol. 1, 53–61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Sciences 196, 1339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970

D. T. Cromer, D. Liberman, “Relativistic calculation of anomalous scattering factors for x rays,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1891–1898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akhsakhalyan, A. D.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. I. Polushkin, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the wavelength interval 25–44 Å,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 12, 448–449 (1986).

Alcock, C. B.

O. Kubaschewski, C. B. Alcock, Metallurgical Thermochemistry, 5th ed., Vol. 24 of International Series on Materials Sciences and Technology, G. V. Raynor, ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1979), pp. 268–320.

Alford, C. S.

Alford, T. L.

P. Børgesen, T. L. Alford, D. A. Lilienfeld, H. H. Johnson, “Low temperature ion beam mixing of bilayer and multilayers in the Ti–Cu system,” Appl. Phys. A 50, 161–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, I. S.

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. M.

D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Balakireva, L. L.

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, W. R.

R. Van Leeuwen, C. D. England, J. R. Dutcher, C. M. Falco, W. R. Bennett, B. Hillebrands, “Structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Co multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4910–4912 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bionta, R. M.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boher, P.

P. Boher, L. Hennet, P. N. Houdy, “Three materials soft x-ray mirrors: theory and application,” in Advanced X-Ray/EUV Radiation Sources and Applications, J. P. Knauer, G. K. Shenoy, eds., Proc. SPIE1345, 198–212 (1990).

Bokor, J.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boni, P.

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boom, R.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, A. K. Niessen, “Cohesion in metals: transition metal alloys,” Vol. 1 of Cohesion and Structure Series, F. R. de Boer, D. G. Pettifor, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

Børgesen, P.

P. Børgesen, T. L. Alford, D. A. Lilienfeld, H. H. Johnson, “Low temperature ion beam mixing of bilayer and multilayers in the Ti–Cu system,” Appl. Phys. A 50, 161–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bouhki, M.

M. Bouhki, A. Bruson, P. Guilmin, “X-ray diffraction study of amorphization along interfaces in polycrystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” Solid State Commun. 83, 5–9 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bravman, M. S.

M. S. Bravman, R. Sinclair, “The preparation of cross-sectional specimens for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. Technol. 1, 53–61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bridou, F.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bruson, A.

A. Bruson, J. C. Yamegni-Noubeyo, “Atomic diffusion in sinusoidally modulated CuxTi1−x amorphous multilayers,” Physica Status Solidi A 138, 199–206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Bouhki, A. Bruson, P. Guilmin, “X-ray diffraction study of amorphization along interfaces in polycrystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” Solid State Commun. 83, 5–9 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Buffat, P.

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burtsev, V. V.

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, C.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Ceglio, “Revolution in x-ray optics,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7–78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, “Applications of microfabrication technology to x-ray laser cavities,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2153–2157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

C. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, S. Duguay, M. Ranger, W. Steffens, H. Pépin, M. Chaker, “In-situ reflectances measurements of soft x-ray/extreme-ultraviolet Mo/Y multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1450–1452 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, M. Ranger, J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, M. Chaker, “Mo/Y multilayer mirrors for the 8–12-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1173–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, M. Chaker, C. M. Falco, “Preliminary survey of material pairs for XUV multilayer mirrors for wavelengths below 130 Å,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper MA2.

Chen, H.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. C.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Churney, K. L.

D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Clemens, B. M.

B. M. Clemens, “Effect of sputtering pressure on the structure and solid-state reaction of titanium–nickel compositionally modulated film,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4525–4529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cotts, E. J.

G. E. Winters, K. M. Unruh, C. P. Swann, M. E. Patt, B. E. White, E. J. Cotts, “Solid-state reactions in multilayer Ni/Ti thin film composites,” in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, M. O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, G. B. Stephenson, eds., Vol. 205 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 215–220.

Cromer, D. T.

D. T. Cromer, D. Liberman, “Relativistic calculation of anomalous scattering factors for x rays,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1891–1898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, F. R.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, A. K. Niessen, “Cohesion in metals: transition metal alloys,” Vol. 1 of Cohesion and Structure Series, F. R. de Boer, D. G. Pettifor, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

Didyk, V. V.

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Duguay, S.

Dutcher, J. R.

R. Van Leeuwen, C. D. England, J. R. Dutcher, C. M. Falco, W. R. Bennett, B. Hillebrands, “Structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Co multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4910–4912 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eichner, L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

El Monkade, S.

C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Elsenhans, O.

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

England, C. D.

R. Van Leeuwen, C. D. England, J. R. Dutcher, C. M. Falco, W. R. Bennett, B. Hillebrands, “Structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Co multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4910–4912 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. H.

D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Falco, C. M.

C. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, M. Ranger, J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, M. Chaker, “Mo/Y multilayer mirrors for the 8–12-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1173–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Materials for multilayer x-ray optics at wavelengths below 100 Å,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1076–1080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Van Leeuwen, C. D. England, J. R. Dutcher, C. M. Falco, W. R. Bennett, B. Hillebrands, “Structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Co multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4910–4912 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Falco, “Structural and electronic properties of artificial metallic superlattices,” J. Phys. 45, C5-499–C5-507 (1984).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Characterization of Pd-B, Ag-B and Si-B interfaces,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 71–79 (1991).

P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Boron-based multilayers for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 63–70 (1991).

C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, M. Chaker, C. M. Falco, “Preliminary survey of material pairs for XUV multilayer mirrors for wavelengths below 130 Å,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper MA2.

Farnoux, B.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feder, R.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Sciences 196, 1339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, A. I.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

Feldman, U.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Finkenthal, M.

Foulet, G.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Friedli, H. P.

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gaponov, S. V.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. I. Polushkin, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the wavelength interval 25–44 Å,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 12, 448–449 (1986).

S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Synthetic multilayer reflectors and selectors for the soft x-ray. I. Choice of materials and design of multilayer mirrors,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 442–445 (1984).

Golub, L.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grimmer, H.

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Groos, M.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guilmin, P.

M. Bouhki, A. Bruson, P. Guilmin, “X-ray diffraction study of amorphization along interfaces in polycrystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” Solid State Commun. 83, 5–9 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, S. A.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. I. Polushkin, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the wavelength interval 25–44 Å,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 12, 448–449 (1986).

S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Synthetic multilayer reflectors and selectors for the soft x-ray. I. Choice of materials and design of multilayer mirrors,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 442–445 (1984).

Gutman, G.

G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Halow, I.

D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, “Wavelength considerations in soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7062–7067 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, “Applications of microfabrication technology to x-ray laser cavities,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2153–2157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. P.

A. F. Jankowski, J. P. Hayes, P. B. Ramsey, “Interface controlled amorphization of crystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” in Defect-Interface Interactions, E. P. Kvam, A. H. King, M. J. Mills, T. D. Sands, V. Vitek, eds., Vol. 319 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 381–386.

Helms, C. R.

E. Puppin, V. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Helms, “Annealing behaviour of refractory metal multilayers on Si: The Mo/Ti and W/Ti systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 2414–2419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hennet, L.

P. Boher, L. Hennet, P. N. Houdy, “Three materials soft x-ray mirrors: theory and application,” in Advanced X-Ray/EUV Radiation Sources and Applications, J. P. Knauer, G. K. Shenoy, eds., Proc. SPIE1345, 198–212 (1990).

Herant, M.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrands, B.

R. Van Leeuwen, C. D. England, J. R. Dutcher, C. M. Falco, W. R. Bennett, B. Hillebrands, “Structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Co multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4910–4912 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hills, C. R.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Hollanders, M. A.

M. A. Hollanders, B. J. Thijsse, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Amorphization along interfaces and grain boundaries in polycrys-talline multilayers: an x-ray diffraction study of Ni/Ti multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5481–5494 (1990).
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Hong, F.

F. Hong, G. A. Rozgonyi, “Interdiffusion, phase transformation, and epitaxial CoSi2 formation in multilayer Co/Ti–Si(100) system,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 3480–3488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Horikawa, Y.

Y. Horikawa, K. Nagai, Y. Iketaki, “Soft x-ray reflectometry with a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1721–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Houdy, P. N.

P. Boher, L. Hennet, P. N. Houdy, “Three materials soft x-ray mirrors: theory and application,” in Advanced X-Ray/EUV Radiation Sources and Applications, J. P. Knauer, G. K. Shenoy, eds., Proc. SPIE1345, 198–212 (1990).

Hu, A.

W. Liu, A. Hu, S. S. Jiang, Y. Qiu, W. H. Liu, Z. Q. Wu, “An x-ray diffraction study on Cu–Ti metallic multilayers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8771–8778 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. Q.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hull, R.

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iketaki, Y.

Y. Horikawa, K. Nagai, Y. Iketaki, “Soft x-ray reflectometry with a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1721–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jankowski, A. F.

A. F. Jankowski, P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, J. P. Hayes, P. B. Ramsey, “Interface controlled amorphization of crystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” in Defect-Interface Interactions, E. P. Kvam, A. H. King, M. J. Mills, T. D. Sands, V. Vitek, eds., Vol. 319 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 381–386.

Jewell, T. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S. S.

W. Liu, A. Hu, S. S. Jiang, Y. Qiu, W. H. Liu, Z. Q. Wu, “An x-ray diffraction study on Cu–Ti metallic multilayers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8771–8778 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, H. H.

P. Børgesen, T. L. Alford, D. A. Lilienfeld, H. H. Johnson, “Low temperature ion beam mixing of bilayer and multilayers in the Ti–Cu system,” Appl. Phys. A 50, 161–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaabouchi, M.

C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kalata, K.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, P. A.

C. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, M. Ranger, J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, M. Chaker, “Mo/Y multilayer mirrors for the 8–12-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1173–1175 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Materials for multilayer x-ray optics at wavelengths below 100 Å,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1076–1080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, M. Chaker, C. M. Falco, “Preliminary survey of material pairs for XUV multilayer mirrors for wavelengths below 130 Å,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper MA2.

P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Boron-based multilayers for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 63–70 (1991).

P. A. Kearney, “New materials for multilayer soft x-ray optics for wavelengths below 124 angstrom by sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 1994).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Characterization of Pd-B, Ag-B and Si-B interfaces,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 71–79 (1991).

Kim, D. M.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Sciences 196, 1339 (1977).
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Kirz, J.

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Sciences 196, 1339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kolachevsky, N. N.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

Kopilets, I. A.

I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

Kortright, J. B.

K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, V.

E. Puppin, V. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Helms, “Annealing behaviour of refractory metal multilayers on Si: The Mo/Ti and W/Ti systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 2414–2419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krumrey, M.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kubaschewski, O.

O. Kubaschewski, C. B. Alcock, Metallurgical Thermochemistry, 5th ed., Vol. 24 of International Series on Materials Sciences and Technology, G. V. Raynor, ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1979), pp. 268–320.

Lassri, H.

C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leifer, K.

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, D.

D. T. Cromer, D. Liberman, “Relativistic calculation of anomalous scattering factors for x rays,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1891–1898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lilienfeld, D. A.

P. Børgesen, T. L. Alford, D. A. Lilienfeld, H. H. Johnson, “Low temperature ion beam mixing of bilayer and multilayers in the Ti–Cu system,” Appl. Phys. A 50, 161–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, A. Hu, S. S. Jiang, Y. Qiu, W. H. Liu, Z. Q. Wu, “An x-ray diffraction study on Cu–Ti metallic multilayers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8771–8778 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. H.

W. Liu, A. Hu, S. S. Jiang, Y. Qiu, W. H. Liu, Z. Q. Wu, “An x-ray diffraction study on Cu–Ti metallic multilayers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8771–8778 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lovas, I.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Lyakhovskaya, I. I.

I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

Mâaza, M.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Makowiecki, D. M.

Mansfield, W. M.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Margaritondo, G.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mattens, W. C. M.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, A. K. Niessen, “Cohesion in metals: transition metal alloys,” Vol. 1 of Cohesion and Structure Series, F. R. de Boer, D. G. Pettifor, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

Miedema, A. R.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, A. K. Niessen, “Cohesion in metals: transition metal alloys,” Vol. 1 of Cohesion and Structure Series, F. R. de Boer, D. G. Pettifor, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

Miloche, M.

C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mirone, A.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mitropolsky, M. M.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mittemeijer, E. J.

M. A. Hollanders, B. J. Thijsse, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Amorphization along interfaces and grain boundaries in polycrys-talline multilayers: an x-ray diffraction study of Ni/Ti multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5481–5494 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

Moos, H. W.

Mueller, P.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

Y. Horikawa, K. Nagai, Y. Iketaki, “Soft x-ray reflectometry with a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1721–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, H.

H. Nagata, “Nickel/vanadium and nickel/titanium multilayers for x-ray optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1215–1219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

Ng, W.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Niessen, A. K.

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, A. K. Niessen, “Cohesion in metals: transition metal alloys,” Vol. 1 of Cohesion and Structure Series, F. R. de Boer, D. G. Pettifor, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

Nuttall, R. L.

D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Nystrom, G.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, B.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Parker, V. B.

D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Patt, M. E.

G. E. Winters, K. M. Unruh, C. P. Swann, M. E. Patt, B. E. White, E. J. Cotts, “Solid-state reactions in multilayer Ni/Ti thin film composites,” in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, M. O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, G. B. Stephenson, eds., Vol. 205 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 215–220.

Pépin, H.

Perrera, C. C.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perry, P. L.

A. F. Jankowski, P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Y. P.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, Y. Y.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. I. Polushkin, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the wavelength interval 25–44 Å,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 12, 448–449 (1986).

S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Synthetic multilayer reflectors and selectors for the soft x-ray. I. Choice of materials and design of multilayer mirrors,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 442–445 (1984).

Poltseva, O. V.

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

Polushkin, N. I.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. I. Polushkin, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the wavelength interval 25–44 Å,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 12, 448–449 (1986).

Ponomarenko, A. G.

I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

Puppin, E.

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T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
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A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
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A. F. Jankowski, J. P. Hayes, P. B. Ramsey, “Interface controlled amorphization of crystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” in Defect-Interface Interactions, E. P. Kvam, A. H. King, M. J. Mills, T. D. Sands, V. Vitek, eds., Vol. 319 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 381–386.

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Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
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Richardson, M. C.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
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Roberts, J. R.

Roper, M.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
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F. Hong, G. A. Rozgonyi, “Interdiffusion, phase transformation, and epitaxial CoSi2 formation in multilayer Co/Ti–Si(100) system,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 3480–3488 (1994).
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A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
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S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Synthetic multilayer reflectors and selectors for the soft x-ray. I. Choice of materials and design of multilayer mirrors,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 442–445 (1984).

Saloman, E. B.

Samuel, F.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
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D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Sciences 196, 1339 (1977).
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Schulze, D. W.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
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D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Seely, J. F.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sella, C.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
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C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
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I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shen, T. D.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
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A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
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Skulina, K. M.

Slaughter, J. M.

C. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, M. Ranger, J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, M. Chaker, “Mo/Y multilayer mirrors for the 8–12-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1173–1175 (1994).
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See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
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P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Boron-based multilayers for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 63–70 (1991).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Characterization of Pd-B, Ag-B and Si-B interfaces,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 71–79 (1991).

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A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
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Soufli, R.

Spiller, E.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Sciences 196, 1339 (1977).
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E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994).
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Stalio, R.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
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D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6952–6960 (1993).
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D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal-incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991).
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Sullivan, B. T.

Sutton, M.

Swann, C. P.

G. E. Winters, K. M. Unruh, C. P. Swann, M. E. Patt, B. E. White, E. J. Cotts, “Solid-state reactions in multilayer Ni/Ti thin film composites,” in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, M. O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, G. B. Stephenson, eds., Vol. 205 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 215–220.

Szeto, L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tarrio, C.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
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J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
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J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
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K. M. Skulina, C. S. Alford, R. M. Bionta, D. M. Makowiecki, E. M. Gullikson, R. Soufli, J. B. Kortright, J. H. Underwood, “Molybdenum/beryllium multilayer mirrors for normal incidence in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3727–3730 (1995).
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A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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G. E. Winters, K. M. Unruh, C. P. Swann, M. E. Patt, B. E. White, E. J. Cotts, “Solid-state reactions in multilayer Ni/Ti thin film composites,” in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, M. O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, G. B. Stephenson, eds., Vol. 205 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 215–220.

van Dorssen, G. E.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
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Vinogradov, A. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

Wallace, J. P.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. T.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R.

Watts, R. N.

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wehling, F.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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G. E. Winters, K. M. Unruh, C. P. Swann, M. E. Patt, B. E. White, E. J. Cotts, “Solid-state reactions in multilayer Ni/Ti thin film composites,” in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, M. O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, G. B. Stephenson, eds., Vol. 205 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 215–220.

White, D. L.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilczynski, J.

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Winters, G. E.

G. E. Winters, K. M. Unruh, C. P. Swann, M. E. Patt, B. E. White, E. J. Cotts, “Solid-state reactions in multilayer Ni/Ti thin film composites,” in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, M. O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, G. B. Stephenson, eds., Vol. 205 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 215–220.

Wood, O. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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W. Liu, A. Hu, S. S. Jiang, Y. Qiu, W. H. Liu, Z. Q. Wu, “An x-ray diffraction study on Cu–Ti metallic multilayers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8771–8778 (1989).
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Yamamoto, M.

Yamegni-Noubeyo, J. C.

A. Bruson, J. C. Yamegni-Noubeyo, “Atomic diffusion in sinusoidally modulated CuxTi1−x amorphous multilayers,” Physica Status Solidi A 138, 199–206 (1993).
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I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
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I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

Zwicker, A. P.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

P. Børgesen, T. L. Alford, D. A. Lilienfeld, H. H. Johnson, “Low temperature ion beam mixing of bilayer and multilayers in the Ti–Cu system,” Appl. Phys. A 50, 161–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer x-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1–4.4 nm) of water window,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 1139–1147 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr.

M. Mâaza, B. Farnoux, F. Samuel, C. Sella, F. Wehling, F. Bridou, M. Groos, B. Pardo, G. Foulet, “Reduction of the interfacial diffusion in Ni–Ti neutron-optics multilayers by carburation of the Ni–Ti interfaces,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 574–582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. M. Clemens, “Effect of sputtering pressure on the structure and solid-state reaction of titanium–nickel compositionally modulated film,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4525–4529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Puppin, V. Krishnamurthy, C. R. Helms, “Annealing behaviour of refractory metal multilayers on Si: The Mo/Ti and W/Ti systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 2414–2419 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Van Leeuwen, C. D. England, J. R. Dutcher, C. M. Falco, W. R. Bennett, B. Hillebrands, “Structural and magnetic properties of Ti/Co multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 4910–4912 (1990).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, “The scattering of x-rays from nonideal multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. T. Cromer, D. Liberman, “Relativistic calculation of anomalous scattering factors for x rays,” J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1891–1898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

F. Hong, G. A. Rozgonyi, “Interdiffusion, phase transformation, and epitaxial CoSi2 formation in multilayer Co/Ti–Si(100) system,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 3480–3488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Microsc. Technol.

M. S. Bravman, R. Sinclair, “The preparation of cross-sectional specimens for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. Technol. 1, 53–61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater.

C. Sella, M. Mâaza, M. Kaabouchi, S. El Monkade, M. Miloche, H. Lassri, “Annealing effects on the structure and magnetic properties of Ni/Ti multilayers,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 121, 201–204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

T. D. Shen, M. X. Quan, J. T. Wang, Z. Q. Hu, “Amorphous phase growth by isothermal annealing-induced interdiffusion reactions in mechanically deformed Ni/Ti multilayered composites,” J. Mater. Sci. 29, 2981–2986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.

C. M. Falco, “Structural and electronic properties of artificial metallic superlattices,” J. Phys. 45, C5-499–C5-507 (1984).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

W. Liu, A. Hu, S. S. Jiang, Y. Qiu, W. H. Liu, Z. Q. Wu, “An x-ray diffraction study on Cu–Ti metallic multilayers,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8771–8778 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, S. Liang, S. Singh, J. T. Welnak, J. P. Wallace, C. Capasso, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. B. Kortright, C. C. Perrera, “First results of microspectroscopy from a scanning photoemission microscope with a submicron probe size,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2324–2329 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, “The microstructure of sputter-deposited coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 3059–3065 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

A. M. Hawryluk, N. M. Ceglio, D. G. Stearns, “Applications of microfabrication technology to x-ray laser cavities,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 2153–2157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol.

N. M. Ceglio, “Revolution in x-ray optics,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7–78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol.

G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Nagata, “Nickel/vanadium and nickel/titanium multilayers for x-ray optics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1215–1219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Golub, M. Herant, K. Kalata, I. Lovas, G. Nystrom, F. Pardo, E. Spiller, J. Wilczynski, “Sub-arcsecond observations of the solar x-ray corona,” Nature 344, 842–844 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, S. A. Yulin, E. N. Zubarev, H. A. Padmore, K. C. Cheung, G. E. van Dorssen, M. Roper, L. L. Balakireva, R. V. Serov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Synthesis and measurement of normal incidence x-ray multilayer mirrors optimized for a photon energy of 390 eV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345, 594–603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. M. Brown, U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, M. C. Richardson, H. Chen, J. H. Underwood, A. Zigler, “Imaging of laser-produced plasmas at 44 Å using a multilayer mirror,” Opt. Commun. 68, 190–195 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Materials for multilayer x-ray optics at wavelengths below 100 Å,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1076–1080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Horikawa, K. Nagai, Y. Iketaki, “Soft x-ray reflectometry with a laser-produced plasma source,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1721–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, W. M. Mansfield, L. Szeto, D. W. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, T. E. Jewell, D. L. White, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. Windt, A. A. MacDowell, “Soft x-ray projection lithography,” Opt. Photon. News 2 (5), 27–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. A. Hollanders, B. J. Thijsse, E. J. Mittemeijer, “Amorphization along interfaces and grain boundaries in polycrys-talline multilayers: an x-ray diffraction study of Ni/Ti multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5481–5494 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, N. N. Kolachevsky, M. M. Mitropolsky, E. N. Ragozin, N. N. Salashchenko, V. A. Slemzin, “Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range λ ≅ 4.5 nm,” Phys. Scr. 48, 516–520 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Physica Status Solidi A

A. Bruson, J. C. Yamegni-Noubeyo, “Atomic diffusion in sinusoidally modulated CuxTi1−x amorphous multilayers,” Physica Status Solidi A 138, 199–206 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl.

A. E. Rosenbluth, “Computer search for layer materials that maximize the reflectivity of x-ray multilayers,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 23, 1599–1621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sciences

D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D. M. Kim, E. Spiller, “Potential operating region for ultrasoft x-ray microscopy of biological materials,” Sciences 196, 1339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

M. Bouhki, A. Bruson, P. Guilmin, “X-ray diffraction study of amorphization along interfaces in polycrystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” Solid State Commun. 83, 5–9 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys.

S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, “Synthetic multilayer reflectors and selectors for the soft x-ray. I. Choice of materials and design of multilayer mirrors,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 29, 442–445 (1984).

Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett.

A. D. Akhsakhalyan, S. V. Gaponov, S. A. Gusev, Y. Y. Platonov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. I. Polushkin, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the wavelength interval 25–44 Å,” Sov. Technol. Phys. Lett. 12, 448–449 (1986).

Thin Solid Films

O. Elsenhans, P. Boni, H. P. Friedli, H. Grimmer, P. Buffat, K. Leifer, J. Sochtig, I. S. Anderson, “Development of Ni/Ti multilayer supermirrors for neutron optics,” Thin Solid Films 246, 110–119 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, P. L. Perry, “Characterization of Mo/B4C multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 206, 365–368 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. A. Kopilets, V. V. Kondratenko, A. I. Fedorenko, E. N. Zubarev, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Evolution of structure, phase composition and x-ray reflectivity of multilayer mirrors Mo-(B + C) after annealing at 400–1100 °C,” in X-Ray Optics and Surface Science, A. V. Vinogradov, ed., Proc. SPIE2453, 25–32 (1995).

F. R. de Boer, R. Boom, W. C. M. Mattens, A. R. Miedema, A. K. Niessen, “Cohesion in metals: transition metal alloys,” Vol. 1 of Cohesion and Structure Series, F. R. de Boer, D. G. Pettifor, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1988).

P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, “Boron-based multilayers for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 63–70 (1991).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Characterization of Pd-B, Ag-B and Si-B interfaces,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 71–79 (1991).

P. A. Kearney, “New materials for multilayer soft x-ray optics for wavelengths below 124 angstrom by sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 1994).

O. Kubaschewski, C. B. Alcock, Metallurgical Thermochemistry, 5th ed., Vol. 24 of International Series on Materials Sciences and Technology, G. V. Raynor, ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1979), pp. 268–320.

D. D. Wagman, W. H. Evans, V. B. Parker, R. H. Schumm, S. M. Bailey, I. Halow, K. L. Churney, R. L. Nuttall, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 5-16–5-59.

P. Boher, L. Hennet, P. N. Houdy, “Three materials soft x-ray mirrors: theory and application,” in Advanced X-Ray/EUV Radiation Sources and Applications, J. P. Knauer, G. K. Shenoy, eds., Proc. SPIE1345, 198–212 (1990).

C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, J. M. Slaughter, M. Chaker, C. M. Falco, “Preliminary survey of material pairs for XUV multilayer mirrors for wavelengths below 130 Å,” in Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures, Vol. 6 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper MA2.

G. E. Winters, K. M. Unruh, C. P. Swann, M. E. Patt, B. E. White, E. J. Cotts, “Solid-state reactions in multilayer Ni/Ti thin film composites,” in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, M. O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, G. B. Stephenson, eds., Vol. 205 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 215–220.

A. F. Jankowski, J. P. Hayes, P. B. Ramsey, “Interface controlled amorphization of crystalline Ni/Ti multilayers,” in Defect-Interface Interactions, E. P. Kvam, A. H. King, M. J. Mills, T. D. Sands, V. Vitek, eds., Vol. 319 of the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 381–386.

E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Maximum achievable normal incidence peak reflectance of ideal multilayers (N = 500 bilayers) consisting of selected pairs of materials for wavelength regions of (a) 1–6 nm, (b) 5–15 nm. The optical constants of the materials used in these calculations were derived from the scattering factors of Henke et al.,20 assuming bulk density for the layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical peak reflectances that can be achieved when the (a) Mg, (b) Be, (c) Sc, (d) Ti, (e) Ba, (f) Ca, (g) C, (h) B, (i) Sr, (j) Y spacers are combined with different absorbers to form multilayer mirrors for a given wavelength region. See text for details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum achievable normal incidence peak reflectance for ideal Ti/Ni, Ti/Co, Ti/Cu, and Ti/W multilayers consisting of N = 500 bilayers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical LAXRD spectra for the Ti/W, Ti/Ni, Ti/Co, and Ti/Cu multilayers deposited in this study.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LAXRD measurement of a typical Ti/W multilayer accompanied by the best theoretical fit to the measured data. The parameters used for the fit are shown. A divergence Δ2θ = 0.02° of the incident x-ray beam as well as a constant background R bkgd = 4 × 10−7 have been included in the fit model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum achievable normal incidence peak reflectance for ideal B/Pd, B4C/Pd, and B/Mo multilayers consisting of N = 500 bilayers. The B/Pd material pair was not investigated in this study but its curve is shown for comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured XUV reflectance of two B4C/Pd multilayers deposited at different substrate temperatures.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured XUV reflectance of a B/Mo multilayer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Maximum achievable normal incidence peak reflectance for ideal Y/Pd, Y/Ag, Y/Mo, Y/Nb, and Y/C multilayers consisting of N = 500 bilayers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical LAXRD spectra for the Y/Pd, Y/Ag, Y/Mo, Y/Nb, and Y/C multilayers deposited in this study.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

LAXRD measurement of a typical Y/Mo multilayer accompanied by the best theoretical fit to the measured data. The parameters used for the calculation are shown in the figure. A divergence Δ2θ = 0.02° of the incident x-ray beam as well as a constant background R bkgd = 4 × 10−7 have been included in the fit.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured XUV reflectance of two Y/Mo multilayers deposited with and without chamber bakeout prior to deposition.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Best Spacers for Different Wavelength Regions

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Table 2 Target Voltages, Currents, and Associated Deposition Rates

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Table 3 Characterization Results of the Best Multilayer Samples for Each Material Pair

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Table 4 Enthalpy of Formation of Some Compounds for Each Material Paira

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Table 5 Free Energy of Formation of the Most Probable Solid Oxide, Nitride, and Carbide for Each Elementa

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