Abstract

The prelaunch spectral-sensitivity calibration of the solar spectrometer SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) is described. SUMER is part of the payload of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), which begins its scientific mission in 1996. The instrument consists of a telescope and a spectrometer capable of taking spatially and spectrally highly resolved images of the Sun in a spectral range from 50 to 161 nm. The pointing capabilities, the dynamic range, and the sensitivity of the instrument allow measurements both on the solar disk and above the limb as great as two solar radii. To determine plasma temperatures and densities in the solar atmosphere, the instrument needs an absolute spectral-sensitivity calibration. Here we describe the prelaunch calibration of the full instrument, which utilizes a radiometric transfer-standard source. The transfer standard was based on a high-current hollow-cathode discharge source. It had been calibrated in the laboratory for vacuum UV radiometry of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by use of the calculable spectral photon flux of the Berlin electron storage ring for synchrotron radiation (BESSY)—a primary radiometric source standard.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. E. Mason, B. C. Monsignori Fossi, “Spectroscopic diagnostics in the VUV for solar and stellar plasmas,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 6, 123–179 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Lean, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance variations: a review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 839–868 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. F. Tapping, “Recent solar radio astronomy at centimeter wavelengths: the temporal variability of the 10.7-cm flux,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 829–839 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.
  6. O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).
  7. K. Danzmann, M. Günther, J. Fischer, M. Kock, M. Kühne, “High current hollow cathode as a radiometric transfer standard source for the extreme vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4947–4951 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “High-current hollow-cathode source as a radiant intensity standard in the 40–125-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 33, 68–74 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Riehle, B. Wende, “Electron storage ring BESSY as a radiometric source of calculable spectral radiant power between 0.5 and 1000 nm,” Opt. Lett. 10, 365–367 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Arnold, G. Ulm, “Electron storage ring BESSY as a source of calculable spectral photon flux in the x-ray region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1539–1542 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Hollandt, M. C. E. Huber, M. Kühne, “Hollow cathode transfer standards for the radiometric calibration of VUV telescopes of the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO),” Metrologia 30, 381–388 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, M. C. E. Huber, B. Wende, “Source standards for the radiometric calibration of astronomical telescopes in the VUV spectral range,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 115, 561–572 (1996).
  14. K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).
  15. R. A. Harrison, E. C. Sawyer, and 35 co-authors, “The coronal diagnostic spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory,” Sol. Phys. 162, 233–290 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, M. C. E. Huber, B. Wende, “Source standards for the radiometric calibration of astronomical telescopes in the VUV spectral range,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 115, 561–572 (1996).

1995 (2)

R. A. Harrison, E. C. Sawyer, and 35 co-authors, “The coronal diagnostic spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory,” Sol. Phys. 162, 233–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. E. Mason, B. C. Monsignori Fossi, “Spectroscopic diagnostics in the VUV for solar and stellar plasmas,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 6, 123–179 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “High-current hollow-cathode source as a radiant intensity standard in the 40–125-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 33, 68–74 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. Hollandt, M. C. E. Huber, M. Kühne, “Hollow cathode transfer standards for the radiometric calibration of VUV telescopes of the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO),” Metrologia 30, 381–388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. Arnold, G. Ulm, “Electron storage ring BESSY as a source of calculable spectral photon flux in the x-ray region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1539–1542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

J. Lean, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance variations: a review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 839–868 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Tapping, “Recent solar radio astronomy at centimeter wavelengths: the temporal variability of the 10.7-cm flux,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 829–839 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Arnold, D.

D. Arnold, G. Ulm, “Electron storage ring BESSY as a source of calculable spectral photon flux in the x-ray region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1539–1542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Axford, W. I.

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

Curdt, W.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Danzmann, K.

Fischer, J.

Gabriel, A.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Gabriel, A. H.

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

Gaines, G.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Grewing, M.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Gummin, M. A.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Günther, M.

Harrison, R. A.

R. A. Harrison, E. C. Sawyer, and 35 co-authors, “The coronal diagnostic spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory,” Sol. Phys. 162, 233–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hassler, D. M.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Hollandt, J.

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, M. C. E. Huber, B. Wende, “Source standards for the radiometric calibration of astronomical telescopes in the VUV spectral range,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 115, 561–572 (1996).

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “High-current hollow-cathode source as a radiant intensity standard in the 40–125-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 33, 68–74 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hollandt, M. C. E. Huber, M. Kühne, “Hollow cathode transfer standards for the radiometric calibration of VUV telescopes of the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO),” Metrologia 30, 381–388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M. C. E.

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, M. C. E. Huber, B. Wende, “Source standards for the radiometric calibration of astronomical telescopes in the VUV spectral range,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 115, 561–572 (1996).

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, M. C. E. Huber, M. Kühne, “Hollow cathode transfer standards for the radiometric calibration of VUV telescopes of the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO),” Metrologia 30, 381–388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

Hull, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Jans, W.

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jelinsky, P.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Jordan, S. D.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Kock, M.

Kühne, M.

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, M. C. E. Huber, B. Wende, “Source standards for the radiometric calibration of astronomical telescopes in the VUV spectral range,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 115, 561–572 (1996).

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “High-current hollow-cathode source as a radiant intensity standard in the 40–125-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 33, 68–74 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hollandt, M. C. E. Huber, M. Kühne, “Hollow cathode transfer standards for the radiometric calibration of VUV telescopes of the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO),” Metrologia 30, 381–388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Danzmann, M. Günther, J. Fischer, M. Kock, M. Kühne, “High current hollow cathode as a radiometric transfer standard source for the extreme vacuum ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4947–4951 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Lean, J.

J. Lean, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance variations: a review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 839–868 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

Lindenlauf, F.

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marsch, E.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Marsh, D.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Mason, H. E.

H. E. Mason, B. C. Monsignori Fossi, “Spectroscopic diagnostics in the VUV for solar and stellar plasmas,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 6, 123–179 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monsignori Fossi, B. C.

H. E. Mason, B. C. Monsignori Fossi, “Spectroscopic diagnostics in the VUV for solar and stellar plasmas,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 6, 123–179 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poland, A. I.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Raffanti, R.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Richter, A. K.

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

Riehle, F.

Sasseen, T.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Sawyer, E. C.

R. A. Harrison, E. C. Sawyer, and 35 co-authors, “The coronal diagnostic spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory,” Sol. Phys. 162, 233–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schühle, U.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Siegmund, O. H. W.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Stock, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Tapping, K. F.

K. F. Tapping, “Recent solar radio astronomy at centimeter wavelengths: the temporal variability of the 10.7-cm flux,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 829–839 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Timothy, J. G.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

Tom, J.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Ulm, G.

D. Arnold, G. Ulm, “Electron storage ring BESSY as a source of calculable spectral photon flux in the x-ray region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1539–1542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vial, J.-C.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

Welsh, B.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

Wende, B.

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, M. C. E. Huber, B. Wende, “Source standards for the radiometric calibration of astronomical telescopes in the VUV spectral range,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 115, 561–572 (1996).

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “High-current hollow-cathode source as a radiant intensity standard in the 40–125-nm wavelength range,” Appl. Opt. 33, 68–74 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Riehle, B. Wende, “Electron storage ring BESSY as a radiometric source of calculable spectral radiant power between 0.5 and 1000 nm,” Opt. Lett. 10, 365–367 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelm, K.

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (1)

H. E. Mason, B. C. Monsignori Fossi, “Spectroscopic diagnostics in the VUV for solar and stellar plasmas,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 6, 123–179 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

J. Hollandt, M. Kühne, M. C. E. Huber, B. Wende, “Source standards for the radiometric calibration of astronomical telescopes in the VUV spectral range,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 115, 561–572 (1996).

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. Lean, “Solar ultraviolet irradiance variations: a review,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 839–868 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Tapping, “Recent solar radio astronomy at centimeter wavelengths: the temporal variability of the 10.7-cm flux,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 829–839 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

J. Hollandt, M. C. E. Huber, M. Kühne, “Hollow cathode transfer standards for the radiometric calibration of VUV telescopes of the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO),” Metrologia 30, 381–388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

D. Arnold, G. Ulm, “Electron storage ring BESSY as a source of calculable spectral photon flux in the x-ray region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1539–1542 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Hollandt, W. Jans, M. Kühne, F. Lindenlauf, B. Wende, “A beamline for radiant power measurements of vacuum ultraviolet and ultraviolet sources in the wavelength range from 40 nm to 400 nm,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1278–1281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (2)

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “SUMER—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” Sol. Phys. 162, 189–231 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Harrison, E. C. Sawyer, and 35 co-authors, “The coronal diagnostic spectrometer for the solar and heliospheric observatory,” Sol. Phys. 162, 233–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Wilhelm, W. I. Axford, W. Curdt, A. H. Gabriel, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, P. Lemaire, E. Marsch, A. I. Poland, A. K. Richter, R. J. Thomas, J. G. Timothy, J.-C. Vial, ‘SUMER’—solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in The SOHO Mission—Scientific and Technical Aspects of the Instruments, V. Domingo, ed., ESA SP-1104 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 3137.

O. H. W. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, J. Stock, D. Marsh, R. Raffanti, T. Sasseen, J. Tom, B. Welsh, G. Gaines, P. Jelinsky, J. Hull, “Delay line detectors for the UVCS and SUMER instruments on the SOHO satellite,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 89–100 (1994).

K. Wilhelm, W. Curdt, E. Marsch, U. Schühle, P. Lemaire, A. Gabriel, J.-C. Vial, M. Grewing, M. C. E. Huber, S. D. Jordan, A. I. Poland, R. J. Thomas, M. Kühne, J. G. Timothy, D. M. Hassler, O. H. W. Siegmund, “Some design and performance features of SUMER: solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation,” in X-Ray and EUV/FUV Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2517, (1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the optical design of the SUMER instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the SUMER calibration source. The diverging radiation from, A, the hollow-cathode source is collimated by, B, a concave, gold-coated mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic setup of the test and calibration vacuum chamber with the SUMER calibration source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photocathode arrangement of the two detectors as seen from the grating. The image of the aperture stop of the calibration source is shown at the three calibration positions of each detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distribution of the counts per pixel on Detector A. The aperture of the calibration source is imaged on the detector at the Ne i emission line at 74.37 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured deadtime correction factors for the detected count rates of Detectors A and B as a function of the input count rate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral sensitivities of SUMER (a) with Detector A and (b) with Detector B.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Radiant Power and Photon Flux of Selected Emission Lines of the SUMER Calibration Sourcea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral Sensitivity of SUMER Measured with the 6.3 μm 3 1890 μm Nominal Slit and with the Calibration Slit for Selected Emission Lines of the Calibration Source

Equations (1)

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L = 1 4 π A ( Z ) G ( T ) Φ ( T ) d T ,

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