Abstract

Mixed films of HfO2 and MgF2 were prepared by the e-beam coevaporation of two source materials with or without the presence of ion assistance. Optical properties and hardness of mixed films were compared among various compositions that were achieved by controlling the deposition rate of MgF2. Results obtained from pure materials confirmed the densification of HfO2 and the increased absorption in MgF2 with a higher discharge voltage. A refractive index of a composite film from 1.38 to 1.91 was achievable with various HfO2:MgF2 deposition rate ratios. A low-index composite material with improved hardness may be substituted for the soft MgF2.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R.-Y. Tsai, M.-Y. Hua, C.-T. Wei, F. C. Ho, “Characterization of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and coevaporated homogeneous films for optical applications,” Phys. Thin Films 8, 51–98 (1975).
  3. S. M. Edlou, A. Smajkiewicz, G. A. Al-Jumaily, “Optical properties and environmental stability of oxide coatings deposited by reactive sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5601–5605 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, “Electron microscopic investigations of cross sections of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1992–2997 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. A. Smidt, “Use of ion beam assisted deposition to modify the microstructure and properties of thin films,” Int. Mater. Rev. 35, 61–128 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silican,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Power Diffraction File Alphabetical Indexes Inorganic Phases Sets 1–42, Card 6-318. (Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, Swarthmore, Pa., 1992).
  8. J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

1994 (1)

R.-Y. Tsai, M.-Y. Hua, C.-T. Wei, F. C. Ho, “Characterization of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

F. A. Smidt, “Use of ion beam assisted deposition to modify the microstructure and properties of thin films,” Int. Mater. Rev. 35, 61–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silican,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, “Electron microscopic investigations of cross sections of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1992–2997 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and coevaporated homogeneous films for optical applications,” Phys. Thin Films 8, 51–98 (1975).

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

Edlou, S. M.

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, “Electron microscopic investigations of cross sections of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1992–2997 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

R.-Y. Tsai, M.-Y. Hua, C.-T. Wei, F. C. Ho, “Characterization of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hua, M.-Y.

R.-Y. Tsai, M.-Y. Hua, C.-T. Wei, F. C. Ho, “Characterization of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsson, R.

R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and coevaporated homogeneous films for optical applications,” Phys. Thin Films 8, 51–98 (1975).

Leavitt, J. A.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

Lehan, J. P.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

Macleod, H. A.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

McIntyre, L. C.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

Messerly, M. J.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

Potoff, R. H.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

Pulker, H. K.

K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, “Electron microscopic investigations of cross sections of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1992–2997 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Smajkiewicz, A.

Smidt, F. A.

F. A. Smidt, “Use of ion beam assisted deposition to modify the microstructure and properties of thin films,” Int. Mater. Rev. 35, 61–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silican,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Targove, J. D.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

Tsai, R.-Y.

R.-Y. Tsai, M.-Y. Hua, C.-T. Wei, F. C. Ho, “Characterization of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.-T.

R.-Y. Tsai, M.-Y. Hua, C.-T. Wei, F. C. Ho, “Characterization of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weng, C. C.

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (2)

S. M. Edlou, A. Smajkiewicz, G. A. Al-Jumaily, “Optical properties and environmental stability of oxide coatings deposited by reactive sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5601–5605 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, “Electron microscopic investigations of cross sections of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1992–2997 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Int. Mater. Rev. (1)

F. A. Smidt, “Use of ion beam assisted deposition to modify the microstructure and properties of thin films,” Int. Mater. Rev. 35, 61–128 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silican,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R.-Y. Tsai, M.-Y. Hua, C.-T. Wei, F. C. Ho, “Characterization of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Thin Films (1)

R. Jacobsson, “Inhomogeneous and coevaporated homogeneous films for optical applications,” Phys. Thin Films 8, 51–98 (1975).

Other (2)

Power Diffraction File Alphabetical Indexes Inorganic Phases Sets 1–42, Card 6-318. (Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards, Swarthmore, Pa., 1992).

J. D. Targove, M. J. Messerly, J. P. Lehan, C. C. Weng, R. H. Potoff, H. A. Macleod, L. C. McIntyre, J. A. Leavitt, “Ion-assisted deposition of fluorides,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, Proc. SPIE678, 115–122 (1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured transmittance spectra of HfO2 films deposited by IAD and without IAD. The discharge voltage of the IAD processes was varied from 50 and 75 to 100 V. The substrate transmittance spectrum is also shown as the solid curve here. The inset shows the corresponding refractive indices of the films at the 550-nm wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmittance spectra of HfO2 films deposited: (a) by IAD (discharge voltage 50 V) and substrate heating, (b) with substrate heating only, (c) with IAD (discharge voltage 50 V) but without substrate heating. The substrate transmittance spectrum is also indicated as Sub. The inset shows the corresponding refractive indices of the films at the 550 nm-wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Corresponding XRD patterns of the three HfO2 films mentioned in Fig. 2. The powder reference of monoclinic HfO2 is also shown below curve (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmittance spectra of MgF2 films deposited with IAD and without IAD. The deposition parameters were kept the same as those used for HfO2. The substrate transmittance spectrum is also shown as the solid curve here. The inset shows the corresponding refractive indices of the films at the 550-nm wavelength. Indices for highly absorbing films were not calculated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmittance spectra of pure HfO2, pure MgF2, and composite films with HfO2:MgF2 deposition rate ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 2:1. All films were deposited by IAD with a discharge voltage of 50 V.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmittance spectra of pure HfO2, pure MgF2, and composite films with HfO2:MgF2 deposition rate ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 2:1. All films were deposited without IAD at the 275 °C substrate temperature. The inset shows the corresponding refractive indices of the films at the 550-nm wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Hardnesses of Composite Films of HfO2–MgF2 with MgF2-Rich Compositions

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