Abstract

Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) layers made by ion plating are implanted with a high fluence of keV Ti, Li, and Er ions. The resulting refractive-index profiles are given from the analysis of guided-wave propagation conditions. A comparison with spectrophotometric measurements is presented. All the implanted layers present low losses (extinction coefficient of some 10−6) after thermal annealing in air. Ti-implanted layers exhibit an increase in refractive index, whereas Li- and Er-implanted layers present a slight decrease in refractive index. Er-implanted layers present photoluminescent properties.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Richier, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “End-coatings on multi-demultiplexers in optical communications,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 405–413 (1992).
  2. E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).
  3. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation, Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics, P. L. Knight, A. Miller, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), Chap. 6, p. 196.
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. N. Favennec, L’implantation ionique pour la microélectronique et l’optique, in Collection Technique et Scientifique des Télécommunications (Masson, Paris, 1993).
  5. H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, Balzers AG, “Reactive low voltage ion plating,” Swiss patent00928/85-05 (applied 3January1985); H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, U.S. patent4,619,748 (1986).
  6. J. P. Borgogno, F. Flory, P. Roche, B. Schmitt, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Refractive index and inhomogeneity of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3567–3570 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Nougier, Méthodes de Calcul Numérique, (Masson, Paris, 1987), pp. 194–195.
  9. M. Commandré, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).
  10. F. Flory, “Guided wave techniques for the characterization of optical coatings” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory ed., Vol. 49 of Optical Engineering Series (Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 393–454.
  11. A. Bathat, M. Bouazaoui, M. Bathat, J. Mugnier, “Fluorescence of Er3+ ions in TiO2 planar waveguides prepared by a sol-gel process,” Opt. Commun. 111, 55–60 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Commandré, P. Roche, Ecole Nationale Fusubelieule de Physique, Marseille, France (private communication, 1995).
  13. P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Rigneault, F. Flory, S. Monneret, S. Robert, L. Roux, “Fluorescence of Ta2O5 thin films doped by keV Er implantation: application to microcavities,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5005–5012 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Bathat, M. Bouazaoui, M. Bathat, J. Mugnier, “Fluorescence of Er3+ ions in TiO2 planar waveguides prepared by a sol-gel process,” Opt. Commun. 111, 55–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Albrand, G.

J. P. Borgogno, F. Flory, P. Roche, B. Schmitt, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Refractive index and inhomogeneity of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3567–3570 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).

Bathat, A.

A. Bathat, M. Bouazaoui, M. Bathat, J. Mugnier, “Fluorescence of Er3+ ions in TiO2 planar waveguides prepared by a sol-gel process,” Opt. Commun. 111, 55–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bathat, M.

A. Bathat, M. Bouazaoui, M. Bathat, J. Mugnier, “Fluorescence of Er3+ ions in TiO2 planar waveguides prepared by a sol-gel process,” Opt. Commun. 111, 55–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borgogno, J. P.

Bouazaoui, M.

A. Bathat, M. Bouazaoui, M. Bathat, J. Mugnier, “Fluorescence of Er3+ ions in TiO2 planar waveguides prepared by a sol-gel process,” Opt. Commun. 111, 55–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation, Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics, P. L. Knight, A. Miller, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), Chap. 6, p. 196.
[CrossRef]

Commandré, M.

M. Commandré, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, Ecole Nationale Fusubelieule de Physique, Marseille, France (private communication, 1995).

De Micheli, M. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Eaglesham, D. J.

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Favennec, P. N.

P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Favennec, L’implantation ionique pour la microélectronique et l’optique, in Collection Technique et Scientifique des Télécommunications (Masson, Paris, 1993).

Flory, F.

Grèzes-Besset, C.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

R. Richier, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “End-coatings on multi-demultiplexers in optical communications,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 405–413 (1992).

Haag, W.

H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, Balzers AG, “Reactive low voltage ion plating,” Swiss patent00928/85-05 (applied 3January1985); H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, U.S. patent4,619,748 (1986).

He, Q.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Jacobson, D. C.

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kistler, R. C.

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

l’Haridon, H.

P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lallier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Macleod, H. A.

Moll, E.

H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, Balzers AG, “Reactive low voltage ion plating,” Swiss patent00928/85-05 (applied 3January1985); H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, U.S. patent4,619,748 (1986).

Monneret, S.

Moutonnet, D.

P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, J.

A. Bathat, M. Bouazaoui, M. Bathat, J. Mugnier, “Fluorescence of Er3+ ions in TiO2 planar waveguides prepared by a sol-gel process,” Opt. Commun. 111, 55–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nougier, J. P.

J. P. Nougier, Méthodes de Calcul Numérique, (Masson, Paris, 1987), pp. 194–195.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Papadou, A. C.

P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Pelletier, E.

J. P. Borgogno, F. Flory, P. Roche, B. Schmitt, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, H. A. Macleod, “Refractive index and inhomogeneity of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3567–3570 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).

R. Richier, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “End-coatings on multi-demultiplexers in optical communications,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 405–413 (1992).

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Poate, J. M.

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

Polman, A.

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, Balzers AG, “Reactive low voltage ion plating,” Swiss patent00928/85-05 (applied 3January1985); H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, U.S. patent4,619,748 (1986).

Richier, R.

R. Richier, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “End-coatings on multi-demultiplexers in optical communications,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 405–413 (1992).

Rigneault, H.

Robert, S.

Roche, P.

Roux, L.

Salvi, M.

P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, B.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation, Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics, P. L. Knight, A. Miller, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), Chap. 6, p. 196.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation, Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics, P. L. Knight, A. Miller, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), Chap. 6, p. 196.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. l’Haridon, D. Moutonnet, M. Salvi, A. C. Papadou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III–V and II–VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25, 718–724 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Polman, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Kistler, J. M. Poate, “Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta 33, 127–143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Bathat, M. Bouazaoui, M. Bathat, J. Mugnier, “Fluorescence of Er3+ ions in TiO2 planar waveguides prepared by a sol-gel process,” Opt. Commun. 111, 55–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. Commandré, P. Roche, Ecole Nationale Fusubelieule de Physique, Marseille, France (private communication, 1995).

J. P. Nougier, Méthodes de Calcul Numérique, (Masson, Paris, 1987), pp. 194–195.

M. Commandré, G. Albrand, E. Pelletier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy for the study of thin films and optical coatings: measurement of absorption losses and detection of photo-induced changes,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. SPIE1270, 82–93 (1990).

F. Flory, “Guided wave techniques for the characterization of optical coatings” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory ed., Vol. 49 of Optical Engineering Series (Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 393–454.

R. Richier, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “End-coatings on multi-demultiplexers in optical communications,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 405–413 (1992).

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. P. De Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grèzes-Besset, E. Pelletier, “LiNbO3 with rare earths: lasers and amplifiers,” in Micro-Optics II, A. V. Scheggi, ed., Proc. SPIE1506, 71–79 (1991).

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation, Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics, P. L. Knight, A. Miller, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994), Chap. 6, p. 196.
[CrossRef]

P. N. Favennec, L’implantation ionique pour la microélectronique et l’optique, in Collection Technique et Scientifique des Télécommunications (Masson, Paris, 1993).

H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, Balzers AG, “Reactive low voltage ion plating,” Swiss patent00928/85-05 (applied 3January1985); H. K. Pulker, W. Haag, E. Moll, U.S. patent4,619,748 (1986).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model of refractive-index profile for the implanted layers: d, thickness of the doped layer; S, standard deviation of the Gaussian; m, centering of the Gaussian in front of the layer–substrate boundary; n extr, extremum of refractive index; n c -air, refractive index at the air–layer boundary.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index versus wavelength of an unimplanted Ta2O5 layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of reflection and transmission versus wavelength of an implanted Ta2O5 layer (a) before baking, (b) after baking in air at 400 °C for 48 h.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive-index profile of a Ti-implanted Ta2O5 layer (2 × 1015 ion/cm2, 360 keV) after baking it in air at 400 °C for 48 h (a) at 514.5 nm, (b) at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive-index profile of a Ti-implanted Ta2O5 layer (2 × 1016 ion/cm2, 360 keV) after baking it in air at 400 °C for 48 h (a) at 514.5 nm, (b) at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index profile of a Li-implanted Ta2O5 layer (5 × 1016 ion/cm2, 60 keV) after baking it in air at 400 °C for 48 h (a) at 514.5 nm, (b) at 632.8 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive-index profile of an Er-implanted Ta2O5 layer (5 × 1015 ion/cm2, 380 keV) after baking it in air at 400 °C for 48 h (a) at 632.8 nm, (b) at 514.5 nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Species, Energies, and Fluences of the Implanted Ions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Resonant Angles θ and Normalized Propagation Constants βef of the Guided Modesa

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( y ) = n c + ( n extr - n c ) exp [ - ( y - m ) 2 2 s 2 ] ,
n ( y ) = n c - air + ( n extr - n c - air ) exp [ - ( y - m ) 2 2 s 2 ] .
2 U ( y ) y 2 + [ k 0 2 n 2 ( y ) - β 2 ] U ( y ) = 0
E ( d ) y E ( d ) = - γ s .
n s 2 H ( d ) y n 2 ( d ) H ( d ) = - γ s .
F = mod e s | γ s - γ s exp γ s exp | 2 .

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