Abstract

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto automobile glass substrates with dc reactive sputtering and ion-assisted e-beam-gun evaporation processes. The ITO-coated glass samples were then strengthened through a surface compression strengthening process that included heating the glass at 650 °C for 5 min and rapidly cooling the exterior of the hot glass with air jets. The deterioration of electrical and optical properties of the ITO films on automobile safety glass was found during the heating stage of the strengthening process. When a layer of SiO2 barrier was added, the property deterioration could be significantly reduced. The most effective barrier thickness was found near 60 nm, which resulted in no appreciable property loss.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. J. Arfsten, “Sol-gel derived transparent IR-reflecting ITO semiconductor coatings and future applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 63, 243–249 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Schaefer, “Heatable automobile windshields with reduced energy transmission characteristics,” Glass 3 (11), 417–419 (1986).
  4. J. P. Brochot, D. Pillias, I. Wuest, J. P. Beaufays, M. Darmont, “Process for producing a transparent layer with low resistivity,” U.S. Patent5,011,585 (30Apr.1991).
  5. H. Harmand, J. F. Oudard, D. Bruneel, “Laminated glass with an electroconductive layer,” U.S. Patent5,324,374 (28June1994).
  6. Y. Shigesato, S. Takaki, T. Haranou, “Crystallinity and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 48/49, 269–275 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, “The structural changes of indium tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Bardos, M. Libra, “Effect of the oxygen absorption on properties of ITO layers,” Vacuum 39, 33–36 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Suzuki, T. Yamazaki, H. Oda, “Effects of the composition and thickness on the electrical properties of indium oxide/tin oxide multilayered films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 1383–1388 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Kuo, “Characterization of indium tin oxide and reactive ion etched indium tin oxide surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2243–2246 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Haitjema, J. J. Ph. Elich, “Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings,” Thin Solid Films 205, 93–100 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Higuchi, S. Uekusa, R. Nakano, K. Yokogawa, “Micrograin structure influence on electrical characteristics of sputtered indium tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6710–6713 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Shigesato, D. C. Paine, “A microstructural study of low resistivity tin-doped indium oxide prepared by D. C. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 238, 44–50 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Y. Tsai, M. Y. Hua, C. T. Wei, “Characterizations of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Manifacier, J. P. Fillard, “Deposition of In2O3–SnO2 layers on glass substrates using a spraying method,” Thin Solid Films 77, 67–80 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. E. Newnham, Structure-Property Relations (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), Chap. 3, p. 70.
  17. D. R. Clarke, “Stresses in thin films and characteristic failure modes,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper ThA1.

1994 (2)

Y. Shigesato, D. C. Paine, “A microstructural study of low resistivity tin-doped indium oxide prepared by D. C. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 238, 44–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Tsai, M. Y. Hua, C. T. Wei, “Characterizations of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. Haitjema, J. J. Ph. Elich, “Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings,” Thin Solid Films 205, 93–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Higuchi, S. Uekusa, R. Nakano, K. Yokogawa, “Micrograin structure influence on electrical characteristics of sputtered indium tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6710–6713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

Y. Shigesato, S. Takaki, T. Haranou, “Crystallinity and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 48/49, 269–275 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, “The structural changes of indium tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Y. Kuo, “Characterization of indium tin oxide and reactive ion etched indium tin oxide surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2243–2246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

L. Bardos, M. Libra, “Effect of the oxygen absorption on properties of ITO layers,” Vacuum 39, 33–36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, T. Yamazaki, H. Oda, “Effects of the composition and thickness on the electrical properties of indium oxide/tin oxide multilayered films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 1383–1388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. Schaefer, “Heatable automobile windshields with reduced energy transmission characteristics,” Glass 3 (11), 417–419 (1986).

1984 (1)

N. J. Arfsten, “Sol-gel derived transparent IR-reflecting ITO semiconductor coatings and future applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 63, 243–249 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. P. Fillard, “Deposition of In2O3–SnO2 layers on glass substrates using a spraying method,” Thin Solid Films 77, 67–80 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arfsten, N. J.

N. J. Arfsten, “Sol-gel derived transparent IR-reflecting ITO semiconductor coatings and future applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 63, 243–249 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bardos, L.

L. Bardos, M. Libra, “Effect of the oxygen absorption on properties of ITO layers,” Vacuum 39, 33–36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beaufays, J. P.

J. P. Brochot, D. Pillias, I. Wuest, J. P. Beaufays, M. Darmont, “Process for producing a transparent layer with low resistivity,” U.S. Patent5,011,585 (30Apr.1991).

Brochot, J. P.

J. P. Brochot, D. Pillias, I. Wuest, J. P. Beaufays, M. Darmont, “Process for producing a transparent layer with low resistivity,” U.S. Patent5,011,585 (30Apr.1991).

Bruneel, D.

H. Harmand, J. F. Oudard, D. Bruneel, “Laminated glass with an electroconductive layer,” U.S. Patent5,324,374 (28June1994).

Clarke, D. R.

D. R. Clarke, “Stresses in thin films and characteristic failure modes,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper ThA1.

Darmont, M.

J. P. Brochot, D. Pillias, I. Wuest, J. P. Beaufays, M. Darmont, “Process for producing a transparent layer with low resistivity,” U.S. Patent5,011,585 (30Apr.1991).

Elich, J. J. Ph.

H. Haitjema, J. J. Ph. Elich, “Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings,” Thin Solid Films 205, 93–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. P. Fillard, “Deposition of In2O3–SnO2 layers on glass substrates using a spraying method,” Thin Solid Films 77, 67–80 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Haitjema, H.

H. Haitjema, J. J. Ph. Elich, “Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings,” Thin Solid Films 205, 93–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haranou, T.

Y. Shigesato, S. Takaki, T. Haranou, “Crystallinity and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 48/49, 269–275 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harmand, H.

H. Harmand, J. F. Oudard, D. Bruneel, “Laminated glass with an electroconductive layer,” U.S. Patent5,324,374 (28June1994).

Hayashi, Y.

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, “The structural changes of indium tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, M.

M. Higuchi, S. Uekusa, R. Nakano, K. Yokogawa, “Micrograin structure influence on electrical characteristics of sputtered indium tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6710–6713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hua, M. Y.

R. Y. Tsai, M. Y. Hua, C. T. Wei, “Characterizations of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.

Y. Kuo, “Characterization of indium tin oxide and reactive ion etched indium tin oxide surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2243–2246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Latz, R.

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Libra, M.

L. Bardos, M. Libra, “Effect of the oxygen absorption on properties of ITO layers,” Vacuum 39, 33–36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. P. Fillard, “Deposition of In2O3–SnO2 layers on glass substrates using a spraying method,” Thin Solid Films 77, 67–80 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Masui, A.

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, “The structural changes of indium tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Michael, K.

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, R.

M. Higuchi, S. Uekusa, R. Nakano, K. Yokogawa, “Micrograin structure influence on electrical characteristics of sputtered indium tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6710–6713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, R. E.

R. E. Newnham, Structure-Property Relations (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), Chap. 3, p. 70.

Oda, H.

T. Suzuki, T. Yamazaki, H. Oda, “Effects of the composition and thickness on the electrical properties of indium oxide/tin oxide multilayered films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 1383–1388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oudard, J. F.

H. Harmand, J. F. Oudard, D. Bruneel, “Laminated glass with an electroconductive layer,” U.S. Patent5,324,374 (28June1994).

Paine, D. C.

Y. Shigesato, D. C. Paine, “A microstructural study of low resistivity tin-doped indium oxide prepared by D. C. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 238, 44–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pillias, D.

J. P. Brochot, D. Pillias, I. Wuest, J. P. Beaufays, M. Darmont, “Process for producing a transparent layer with low resistivity,” U.S. Patent5,011,585 (30Apr.1991).

Schaefer, C.

C. Schaefer, “Heatable automobile windshields with reduced energy transmission characteristics,” Glass 3 (11), 417–419 (1986).

Scherer, M.

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shigesato, Y.

Y. Shigesato, D. C. Paine, “A microstructural study of low resistivity tin-doped indium oxide prepared by D. C. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 238, 44–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, S. Takaki, T. Haranou, “Crystallinity and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 48/49, 269–275 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, “The structural changes of indium tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Yamazaki, H. Oda, “Effects of the composition and thickness on the electrical properties of indium oxide/tin oxide multilayered films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 1383–1388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, S.

Y. Shigesato, S. Takaki, T. Haranou, “Crystallinity and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 48/49, 269–275 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsai, M. Y. Hua, C. T. Wei, “Characterizations of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uekusa, S.

M. Higuchi, S. Uekusa, R. Nakano, K. Yokogawa, “Micrograin structure influence on electrical characteristics of sputtered indium tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6710–6713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. T.

R. Y. Tsai, M. Y. Hua, C. T. Wei, “Characterizations of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, I.

J. P. Brochot, D. Pillias, I. Wuest, J. P. Beaufays, M. Darmont, “Process for producing a transparent layer with low resistivity,” U.S. Patent5,011,585 (30Apr.1991).

Yamazaki, T.

T. Suzuki, T. Yamazaki, H. Oda, “Effects of the composition and thickness on the electrical properties of indium oxide/tin oxide multilayered films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 1383–1388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yokogawa, K.

M. Higuchi, S. Uekusa, R. Nakano, K. Yokogawa, “Micrograin structure influence on electrical characteristics of sputtered indium tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6710–6713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Y. Shigesato, S. Takaki, T. Haranou, “Crystallinity and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 48/49, 269–275 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glass (1)

C. Schaefer, “Heatable automobile windshields with reduced energy transmission characteristics,” Glass 3 (11), 417–419 (1986).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Higuchi, S. Uekusa, R. Nakano, K. Yokogawa, “Micrograin structure influence on electrical characteristics of sputtered indium tin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6710–6713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. Suzuki, T. Yamazaki, H. Oda, “Effects of the composition and thickness on the electrical properties of indium oxide/tin oxide multilayered films,” J. Mater. Sci. 24, 1383–1388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

N. J. Arfsten, “Sol-gel derived transparent IR-reflecting ITO semiconductor coatings and future applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 63, 243–249 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, “Characterization of indium tin oxide and reactive ion etched indium tin oxide surfaces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 2243–2246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, Y. Hayashi, A. Masui, “The structural changes of indium tin oxide and a-WO3 films by introducing water to the deposition processes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 814–819 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Y. Tsai, M. Y. Hua, C. T. Wei, “Characterizations of composite TiO2–MgF2 films prepared by reactive ion-assisted coevaporation,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3411–3418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

J. C. Manifacier, J. P. Fillard, “Deposition of In2O3–SnO2 layers on glass substrates using a spraying method,” Thin Solid Films 77, 67–80 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shigesato, D. C. Paine, “A microstructural study of low resistivity tin-doped indium oxide prepared by D. C. magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 238, 44–50 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Haitjema, J. J. Ph. Elich, “Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings,” Thin Solid Films 205, 93–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

L. Bardos, M. Libra, “Effect of the oxygen absorption on properties of ITO layers,” Vacuum 39, 33–36 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. P. Brochot, D. Pillias, I. Wuest, J. P. Beaufays, M. Darmont, “Process for producing a transparent layer with low resistivity,” U.S. Patent5,011,585 (30Apr.1991).

H. Harmand, J. F. Oudard, D. Bruneel, “Laminated glass with an electroconductive layer,” U.S. Patent5,324,374 (28June1994).

R. E. Newnham, Structure-Property Relations (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975), Chap. 3, p. 70.

D. R. Clarke, “Stresses in thin films and characteristic failure modes,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper ThA1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) curves of ITO film samples: (a) as-sputtered, (b) after furnace heating at 650 °C for 5 min, (c) after furnace heating and rapid air quenching, i.e., complete strengthening process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction patterns of sputtered ITO films (a) before strengthening, (b) after strengthening.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of an ITO film sample (a) before, (b) after the strengthening process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average sheet resistance versus the SiO2 barrier layer thickness for the strengthened ITO/SiO2/glass samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of a strengthened ITO film sample (a) with a 200-nm thick SiO2 barrier layer, (b) with a 140-nm thick SiO2 barrier layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) curves of an ITO film with a SiO2 barrier thickness of 60 nm (a) before strengthening, (b) after strengthening.

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