Abstract

Photothermal deflection is used for mapping the absorption of bare and coated surfaces. The same area is mapped before and after coating and also after annealing. The great importance of the substrate with respect to the total losses of the coated component is emphasized. First the influence of surface contamination of the bare substrate on the total absorption of the coated substrate is studied for BK7 and fused-silica substrates. Then the mean value of the coated-substrate absorptance is shown to be strongly dependent on the type of substrate. Experimental results show that this effect is associated with a localization of the absorption at the near surface of the substrate and at the interfaces of the film.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).
  2. D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).
  3. M. Rae, E. Aortal, L. Reinhardt, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Absorption calorimetry and laser induced damage threshold measurements of AR-coated ZnSe and metal mirrors at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 113–126 (1990).
  4. K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performances of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1990).
  6. R. Crase, “The effects of polishing materials on the laser damage threshold of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 381–389 (1990).
  7. M. Commandré, “Caractérisation de l’absorption dans les composants optiques en couches minces par déflexion photothermique,” Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat (Université d’Aix-Marseille, Aix-Marseille, 1992).
  8. M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Surface contamination of bare substrates. Mapping of absorption and influence on deposited thin films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 982–992 (1994).
  9. M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5021–5034 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T3 indicates a very smooth surface finish (French Standard NF S 10-006). The rms roughness is ~0.3 nm.
  12. H. K. Pulker, Coating on Glass (Elsevier, New York, 1984), Chap. 3, pp. 34–42.
  13. T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass, American Institute of Physics Translation Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 15–55.
  14. K. Kinosita, “Surface deterioration of optical glasses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 85–143.
    [CrossRef]
  15. Glass produced by Corning France.
  16. M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1253–1262 (1994).
  17. M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of absorption by photothermal deflection,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–365.
  18. H. Bach, N. Neuroth, eds., The Properties of Optical Glass, in the Schott Series on Glass and Glass Ceramics (Springer, New York, 1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996

1995

1984

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

1981

K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performances of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Surface contamination of bare substrates. Mapping of absorption and influence on deposited thin films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 982–992 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1253–1262 (1994).

Aortal, E.

M. Rae, E. Aortal, L. Reinhardt, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Absorption calorimetry and laser induced damage threshold measurements of AR-coated ZnSe and metal mirrors at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 113–126 (1990).

Borgogno, J. P.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Surface contamination of bare substrates. Mapping of absorption and influence on deposited thin films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 982–992 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1253–1262 (1994).

Brown, N.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1990).

Chow, R.

R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).

Commandré, M.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, “Caractérisation de l’absorption dans les composants optiques en couches minces par déflexion photothermique,” Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat (Université d’Aix-Marseille, Aix-Marseille, 1992).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Surface contamination of bare substrates. Mapping of absorption and influence on deposited thin films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 982–992 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1253–1262 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of absorption by photothermal deflection,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–365.

Crase, R.

R. Crase, “The effects of polishing materials on the laser damage threshold of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 381–389 (1990).

Dang, X. C.

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

Ebert, J.

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

Falabella, S.

R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performances of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Izumitani, T. S.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass, American Institute of Physics Translation Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 15–55.

Kinosita, K.

K. Kinosita, “Surface deterioration of optical glasses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 85–143.
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).

Loomis, G. E.

R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Coating on Glass (Elsevier, New York, 1984), Chap. 3, pp. 34–42.

Rae, M.

M. Rae, E. Aortal, L. Reinhardt, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Absorption calorimetry and laser induced damage threshold measurements of AR-coated ZnSe and metal mirrors at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 113–126 (1990).

Rainer, F.

R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).

Reinhardt, L.

M. Rae, E. Aortal, L. Reinhardt, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Absorption calorimetry and laser induced damage threshold measurements of AR-coated ZnSe and metal mirrors at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 113–126 (1990).

Ristau, D.

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

M. Rae, E. Aortal, L. Reinhardt, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Absorption calorimetry and laser induced damage threshold measurements of AR-coated ZnSe and metal mirrors at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 113–126 (1990).

Roche, P.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coatings by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Absorption mapping for characterization of glass surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2372–2379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Surface contamination of bare substrates. Mapping of absorption and influence on deposited thin films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 982–992 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1253–1262 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of absorption by photothermal deflection,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–365.

Stolz, C. J.

R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1990).

Taylor, J. R.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1990).

Tesar, A. A.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1990).

Welling, H.

M. Rae, E. Aortal, L. Reinhardt, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Absorption calorimetry and laser induced damage threshold measurements of AR-coated ZnSe and metal mirrors at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 113–126 (1990).

Appl. Opt.

Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.

D. Ristau, X. C. Dang, J. Ebert, “Interface and bulk absorption of oxide layers and correlation to damage threshold at 1.064 μm,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 727, 298–312 (1984).

Thin Solid Films

K. H. Guenther, “The influence of the substrate surface on the performances of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 154–172 (1990).

R. Crase, “The effects of polishing materials on the laser damage threshold of optical coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 381–389 (1990).

M. Commandré, “Caractérisation de l’absorption dans les composants optiques en couches minces par déflexion photothermique,” Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat (Université d’Aix-Marseille, Aix-Marseille, 1992).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Surface contamination of bare substrates. Mapping of absorption and influence on deposited thin films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 982–992 (1994).

T3 indicates a very smooth surface finish (French Standard NF S 10-006). The rms roughness is ~0.3 nm.

H. K. Pulker, Coating on Glass (Elsevier, New York, 1984), Chap. 3, pp. 34–42.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass, American Institute of Physics Translation Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chap. 2, pp. 15–55.

K. Kinosita, “Surface deterioration of optical glasses,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1965), Vol. 4, pp. 85–143.
[CrossRef]

Glass produced by Corning France.

M. Commandré, P. Roche, J. P. Borgogno, G. Albrand, “Effects of deposition conditions on thin film bulk and interface absorption,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelès, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1253–1262 (1994).

M. Commandré, P. Roche, “Characterization of absorption by photothermal deflection,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, F. Flory, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 329–365.

H. Bach, N. Neuroth, eds., The Properties of Optical Glass, in the Schott Series on Glass and Glass Ceramics (Springer, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Rae, E. Aortal, L. Reinhardt, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Absorption calorimetry and laser induced damage threshold measurements of AR-coated ZnSe and metal mirrors at 10.6 μm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 113–126 (1990).

R. Chow, S. Falabella, G. E. Loomis, F. Rainer, C. J. Stolz, M. R. Kozlowski, “Absorption and damage thresholds of low-defect-density hafnia deposited with activated oxygen,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 349–359 (1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison between absorption mappings on the same area (500 μm × 700 μm) (a) before, (b) after coating (oblique perspective). This is the case of an 8H TiO2 film deposited by IAD on a fused-silica substrate (λ = 600 nm). We can distinguish between defects of bare substrate and those proper to the film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Good correlation between absorption mappings on the same area (a) before, (b) after coating (top view). This is a 4H TiO2 film deposited by IAD on a fused-silica substrate. The absorbing defects of the bare substrate still exist after coating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption mappings on the same area (a) before, (b) after coating. This is a 6H TiO2 film deposited by IAD on a fused-silica substrate. The intrinsic absorption of the coating masks that of the bare substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption mappings (a) before, (b) after coating for a BK7 substrate coated by IAD with a 2L SiO2 film. The absorptance of the coated substrate is rather high and uniform. However, we can see an absorbing defect of the bare substrate still present (lower right quadrant) in the mapping of the coated substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coating setup: Fused silica and multicomponent glass substrates are put in similar positions in the evaporating chamber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Difference between absorptances measured on BK7 and fused-silica substrates coated by IAD in the same run: A coated BK7A coated silica (in ppm) is plotted as a function of the evaporation time for different materials (Ta2O5, TiO2, SiO2 with C grids for ion-beam focusing and TiO2 with Mo grids).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Substrate Effect on Coated Glass Absorptance: Measured Absorptances for Different Substrates15 Coated under the Same Conditions with Single-Layer Films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Substrate Effect and O2 Partial Pressure: Mean Measured Absorptances (ppm) of Substrates Coated with Single-Layer Ta2O5 Filmsa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Annealing Effects: Mean Absorptance Values Measured before and after Annealing for Substrates Coated with Single-Layer Films of Different Thicknesses

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measurements with Front- and Back-Surface Illumination of the Coating

Metrics