Abstract

To meet the requirements of comprehensively characterizing the morphology of thin films and substrates, a suitable combination of different measuring techniques should be chosen, i.e., a nonoptical surface profile measurement should be used together with optical analysis. It is demonstrated on selected examples of fluoride and oxide films that the use of atomic force microscopy and light scattering fulfills the demand of appropriate quantitative characterization over a sufficiently large range of bandwidths.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).
  2. D. J. Whitehouse, Handbook of Surface Metrology (Institute of Physics, Bristol and Philadelphia, 1994).
  3. J. M. Bennett, Surface Finish and Its Measurement, Vol. 2 of Collected Works in Optics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  4. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
  5. R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).
  6. H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. SPIE1781, 139–151 (1992).
  7. N. A. Raouf, G. A. Al-Jumaily, D. R. Coulter, “Microstructure of metal coatings deposited using ion-beam processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 389–400 (1992).
  8. C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).
  9. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).
  10. Y. E. Strausser, B. Doris, A. C. Diebold, H. R. Huff, “Measurement of silicon surface microroughness by AFM,” in Proceedings of the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1994), pp. 136–137.
  11. N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).
  12. A. Duparré, A. Kiesel, S. Gliech, “Optical scattering and surface microstructure of thin films for laser application,” Rev. Laser Eng. Jpn. 26, 68–76 (1996).
  13. A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Günther, ed., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, 1995), pp. 273–304.
  14. C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).
  15. A. Duparré, S. Kassam, “Relation between light scattering and the microstructure of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5475–5480 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Duparré, S. Gliech, K. Hehl, S. Pichlmaier, U. Schuhmann, “Interface and volume inhomogeneities in optical thin films investigated by light scattering methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1060–1069 (1994).
  17. A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).
  18. T. Feigl, “Untersuchungen zur Rauheitsentwicklung optischer Oxidschichtsysteme mittels Rasterkraftmikroskopie,” Diploma thesis (University of Jena, Jena, Germany, 1995).

1996 (1)

A. Duparré, A. Kiesel, S. Gliech, “Optical scattering and surface microstructure of thin films for laser application,” Rev. Laser Eng. Jpn. 26, 68–76 (1996).

1995 (1)

A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).

1992 (1)

1979 (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).

Adamik, M.

A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).

N. A. Raouf, G. A. Al-Jumaily, D. R. Coulter, “Microstructure of metal coatings deposited using ion-beam processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 389–400 (1992).

Amra, C.

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

Anton, B.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Barna, P. B.

A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).

Bennett, J. M.

R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).

J. M. Bennett, Surface Finish and Its Measurement, Vol. 2 of Collected Works in Optics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).

Coulter, D. R.

N. A. Raouf, G. A. Al-Jumaily, D. R. Coulter, “Microstructure of metal coatings deposited using ion-beam processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 389–400 (1992).

Deumie, C.

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

Diebold, A. C.

Y. E. Strausser, B. Doris, A. C. Diebold, H. R. Huff, “Measurement of silicon surface microroughness by AFM,” in Proceedings of the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1994), pp. 136–137.

Doris, B.

Y. E. Strausser, B. Doris, A. C. Diebold, H. R. Huff, “Measurement of silicon surface microroughness by AFM,” in Proceedings of the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1994), pp. 136–137.

Dumas, P.

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

Duparré, A.

A. Duparré, A. Kiesel, S. Gliech, “Optical scattering and surface microstructure of thin films for laser application,” Rev. Laser Eng. Jpn. 26, 68–76 (1996).

A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).

A. Duparré, S. Kassam, “Relation between light scattering and the microstructure of optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5475–5480 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Günther, ed., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, 1995), pp. 273–304.

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, K. Hehl, S. Pichlmaier, U. Schuhmann, “Interface and volume inhomogeneities in optical thin films investigated by light scattering methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1060–1069 (1994).

H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. SPIE1781, 139–151 (1992).

Eva, E.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, “Untersuchungen zur Rauheitsentwicklung optischer Oxidschichtsysteme mittels Rasterkraftmikroskopie,” Diploma thesis (University of Jena, Jena, Germany, 1995).

Fischer, C.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Galindo, R.

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

Gliech, S.

A. Duparré, A. Kiesel, S. Gliech, “Optical scattering and surface microstructure of thin films for laser application,” Rev. Laser Eng. Jpn. 26, 68–76 (1996).

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, K. Hehl, S. Pichlmaier, U. Schuhmann, “Interface and volume inhomogeneities in optical thin films investigated by light scattering methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1060–1069 (1994).

Hacker, E.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Hehl, K.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, K. Hehl, S. Pichlmaier, U. Schuhmann, “Interface and volume inhomogeneities in optical thin films investigated by light scattering methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1060–1069 (1994).

Henking, R.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Huff, H. R.

Y. E. Strausser, B. Doris, A. C. Diebold, H. R. Huff, “Measurement of silicon surface microroughness by AFM,” in Proceedings of the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1994), pp. 136–137.

Jacobson, R. D.

R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).

Jänchen, H.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Kassam, S.

Kiesel, A.

A. Duparré, A. Kiesel, S. Gliech, “Optical scattering and surface microstructure of thin films for laser application,” Rev. Laser Eng. Jpn. 26, 68–76 (1996).

Mademann, D.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Mann, K.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).

McNeil, J. R.

R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).

Pichlmaier, S.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, K. Hehl, S. Pichlmaier, U. Schuhmann, “Interface and volume inhomogeneities in optical thin films investigated by light scattering methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1060–1069 (1994).

Pischow, K. A.

A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).

Raouf, N. A.

N. A. Raouf, G. A. Al-Jumaily, D. R. Coulter, “Microstructure of metal coatings deposited using ion-beam processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 389–400 (1992).

Raupach, L.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Ristau, D.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Roche, P.

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

Ruppe, C.

A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Salvan, F.

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

Schuhmann, U.

H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. SPIE1781, 139–151 (1992).

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, K. Hehl, S. Pichlmaier, U. Schuhmann, “Interface and volume inhomogeneities in optical thin films investigated by light scattering methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1060–1069 (1994).

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Strausser, Y. E.

Y. E. Strausser, B. Doris, A. C. Diebold, H. R. Huff, “Measurement of silicon surface microroughness by AFM,” in Proceedings of the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1994), pp. 136–137.

Torricini, D.

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

Truckenbrodt, H.

H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. SPIE1781, 139–151 (1992).

Weissbrodt, P.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Whitehouse, D. J.

D. J. Whitehouse, Handbook of Surface Metrology (Institute of Physics, Bristol and Philadelphia, 1994).

Wilson, S. R.

R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).

Rev. Laser Eng. Jpn. (1)

A. Duparré, A. Kiesel, S. Gliech, “Optical scattering and surface microstructure of thin films for laser application,” Rev. Laser Eng. Jpn. 26, 68–76 (1996).

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Duparré, C. Ruppe, K. A. Pischow, M. Adamik, P. B. Barna, “Atomic force microscopy on cross-sections of optical coatings: a new method,” Thin Solid Films 261, 70–75 (1995).

Other (14)

T. Feigl, “Untersuchungen zur Rauheitsentwicklung optischer Oxidschichtsysteme mittels Rasterkraftmikroskopie,” Diploma thesis (University of Jena, Jena, Germany, 1995).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

D. J. Whitehouse, Handbook of Surface Metrology (Institute of Physics, Bristol and Philadelphia, 1994).

J. M. Bennett, Surface Finish and Its Measurement, Vol. 2 of Collected Works in Optics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Günther, ed., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, 1995), pp. 273–304.

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, K. Hehl, S. Pichlmaier, U. Schuhmann, “Interface and volume inhomogeneities in optical thin films investigated by light scattering methods,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1060–1069 (1994).

R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Comparison of optical scatterometer and profilometer techniques for characterizing smooth surfaces,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE1009, 77–81 (1988).

H. Truckenbrodt, A. Duparré, U. Schuhmann, “Roughness and defect characterization of optical surfaces by light scattering measurements,” in Specification and Measurement of Optical Systems, L. R. Baker, ed., Proc. SPIE1781, 139–151 (1992).

N. A. Raouf, G. A. Al-Jumaily, D. R. Coulter, “Microstructure of metal coatings deposited using ion-beam processes,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 389–400 (1992).

C. Amra, C. Deumie, D. Torricini, P. Roche, R. Galindo, P. Dumas, F. Salvan, “Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in macroscopic (optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abelés, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 614–630 (1994).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Y. E. Strausser, B. Doris, A. C. Diebold, H. R. Huff, “Measurement of silicon surface microroughness by AFM,” in Proceedings of the 185th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (Electrochemical Society, New York, 1994), pp. 136–137.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, H. Jänchen, K. Mann, E. Eva, C. Fischer, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser - Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1994, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic picture of the TIS measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High resolution pseudo-three-dimensional AFM image of a superpolished fused-silica sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM top-view image of a Si wafer. Some tiny bumps and a few polishing marks can be seen even though the surface is extremely smooth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSD functions of three different substrates. (RG 1000 N, absorbing glass; SQ1, fused silica; Si, silicon wafer). The PSD functions were obtained from AFM measurements with scan areas of 1 μm × 1 μm, 10 μm × 10 μm (each substrate), and 50 μm × 50 μm (RG 1000 N and SQ1 only).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TIS scan on a fused-silica substrate before and after cleaning.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pseudo-three-dimensional AFM surface image of a MgF2 single layer on an RG 1000 substrate. The layer thickness corresponds to a quarter wavelength for normal illumination at 325 nm. The rms roughness value is 1.2 nm with respect to a scan area of 1 μm × 1 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pseudo-three-dimensional AFM surface image of a two-layer coating (RG 1000/MgF2/LaF3). Each layer has a quarter-wave thickness for normal illumination at 325 nm. The rms roughness is 1.8 nm with respect to a scan area of 1 μm × 1 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PSD functions of an RG 1000 substrate, a MgF2 single layer, and a MgF2/LaF3 two-layer system on this substrate. The PSD function of the substrate was obtained from three AFM measurements with scan areas of 1 μm × 1 μm, 10 μm × 10 μm, and 50 μm × 50 μm. The PSD functions of the coatings were calculated from a 1 μm × 1 μm scan. The corresponding three-dimensional images of the coatings are shown in Figs. 6 and 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AFM measurements of fused-silica substrates before and after coating with SiO2 and MgF2, respectively. The images in the first row show an area of 1 μm × 1 μm, and those in the second row refer to an area of 10 μm × 10 μm. The gray scale ranges from 0 to 10 nm for each image. a, b, SQ1 substrate; c, d, 40-nm SiO2 coating on SQ1; e, f, 45-nm MgF2 coating on SQ1. The coatings have quarter-wave optical thicknesses for normal illumination at 248 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a glass substrate before and after coating with MgF2. The thin and the thick lines refer to the pure and the coated substrates, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a glass substrate before and after coating with SiO2. The thin and the thick lines refer to the pure and the coated substrates, respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Principle of light scattering from a thin film with structural dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of illumination.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

PSD functions of a BK7 glass substrate (S) and a MgF2 layer on this substrate (S/MgF2). The layer thickness is approximately 230 nm, and the rms roughness σ = 2.5 nm (from AFM measurement). The PSD functions were calculated from AFM measurements over 1 μm × 1 μm, 10 μm × 10 μm, and 50 μm × 50 μm for the substrate and from a 5 μm × 5 μm scan for the MgF2 layer. The dashed line indicates the high-frequency bandwidth limit of the TIS measurement.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

AFM image of the cross section of a MgF2 single layer.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

AFM image of the edge of a (TiO2/SiO2)6/TiO2 multilayer system.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Root-Mean-Square Roughness Values, Obtained by Different Measuring Methods, for Several Substratesa

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