Abstract

The grain size of In2O3:Sn thin films on transparent substrates is determined. The method employs the ratio of specular to total transmission to deduce the film grain size. Interpretation of these data is accomplished with the aid of Bhattacharyya et al.’s model [Vacuum 43, 1201 (1992)] of a polycrystalline thin film. This is combined with knowledge of scattering cross-correlation laws. Finally, a simple correction is derived for the scattering contribution from the substrate. Although approximate, the results for the grain size obtained by the reported optical method and by scanning electron microscopy were in agreement within experimental uncertainties.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, S. K. Bhattacharyya, “Some aspects of surface roughness in polycrystalline thin films: optical constants and grain distributions,” Vacuum 43, 1201–1205 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Szczyrbowski, A. Czapla, “Optical absorption in D.C. sputtered InAs Films,” Thin Solid Films 46, 127–137 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, “Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123–129 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Amra, P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Interface roughness cross-correlation laws deduced from scattering diagram measurements on optical multilayers: effect of material grain size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1087–1093 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Bousquet, F. Flory, P. Roche, “Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115–1123 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1984), pp. 70–74.
  7. C. K. Carniglia, “A simple dispersion equation for dielectric and semiconductor materials,” in Society of Vacuum Coaters Thirty-Eighth Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.M., 1995), pp. 176–181.
  8. I. Hamberg, “Indium-tin-oxide thin films: basic optical properties and applications of energy efficient windows,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmers, Sweden, 1984).
  9. D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Alternative route for studying the grain boundary scattering in semiconductor films of high resistivity,” Vacuum 44, 797–801 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Bandgap and optical transitions in thin films from reflectance measurements,” Vacuum 43, 313–316 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Alternative route for studying the grain boundary scattering in semiconductor films of high resistivity,” Vacuum 44, 797–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Bandgap and optical transitions in thin films from reflectance measurements,” Vacuum 43, 313–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, S. K. Bhattacharyya, “Some aspects of surface roughness in polycrystalline thin films: optical constants and grain distributions,” Vacuum 43, 1201–1205 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Czapla, “Optical absorption in D.C. sputtered InAs Films,” Thin Solid Films 46, 127–137 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

Amra, C.

Bennett, H. E.

Bhattacharyya, D.

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Alternative route for studying the grain boundary scattering in semiconductor films of high resistivity,” Vacuum 44, 797–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Bandgap and optical transitions in thin films from reflectance measurements,” Vacuum 43, 313–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, S. K. Bhattacharyya, “Some aspects of surface roughness in polycrystalline thin films: optical constants and grain distributions,” Vacuum 43, 1201–1205 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, S. K.

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, S. K. Bhattacharyya, “Some aspects of surface roughness in polycrystalline thin films: optical constants and grain distributions,” Vacuum 43, 1201–1205 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, “A simple dispersion equation for dielectric and semiconductor materials,” in Society of Vacuum Coaters Thirty-Eighth Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.M., 1995), pp. 176–181.

Chaudhuri, S.

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Alternative route for studying the grain boundary scattering in semiconductor films of high resistivity,” Vacuum 44, 797–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Bandgap and optical transitions in thin films from reflectance measurements,” Vacuum 43, 313–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, S. K. Bhattacharyya, “Some aspects of surface roughness in polycrystalline thin films: optical constants and grain distributions,” Vacuum 43, 1201–1205 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Czapla, A.

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Czapla, “Optical absorption in D.C. sputtered InAs Films,” Thin Solid Films 46, 127–137 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg, “Indium-tin-oxide thin films: basic optical properties and applications of energy efficient windows,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmers, Sweden, 1984).

Pal, A. K.

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Alternative route for studying the grain boundary scattering in semiconductor films of high resistivity,” Vacuum 44, 797–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Bandgap and optical transitions in thin films from reflectance measurements,” Vacuum 43, 313–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, S. K. Bhattacharyya, “Some aspects of surface roughness in polycrystalline thin films: optical constants and grain distributions,” Vacuum 43, 1201–1205 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

Porteus, J. O.

Roche, P.

Szczyrbowski, J.

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Czapla, “Optical absorption in D.C. sputtered InAs Films,” Thin Solid Films 46, 127–137 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1984), pp. 70–74.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. A. Thornton, “Influence of apparatus geometry and deposition conditions on the structure and topography of thick sputtered films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666–670 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Czapla, “Optical absorption in D.C. sputtered InAs Films,” Thin Solid Films 46, 127–137 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (3)

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, S. K. Bhattacharyya, “Some aspects of surface roughness in polycrystalline thin films: optical constants and grain distributions,” Vacuum 43, 1201–1205 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Alternative route for studying the grain boundary scattering in semiconductor films of high resistivity,” Vacuum 44, 797–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Bhattacharyya, S. Chaudhuri, A. K. Pal, “Bandgap and optical transitions in thin films from reflectance measurements,” Vacuum 43, 313–316 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. R. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1984), pp. 70–74.

C. K. Carniglia, “A simple dispersion equation for dielectric and semiconductor materials,” in Society of Vacuum Coaters Thirty-Eighth Annual Technical Conference Proceedings (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, N.M., 1995), pp. 176–181.

I. Hamberg, “Indium-tin-oxide thin films: basic optical properties and applications of energy efficient windows,” Ph.D. dissertation (Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmers, Sweden, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thin-film morphology model assumed in this paper. The upper surface of the film replicates the substrate variations but also has additional roughness resultant from grain growth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission for ITO sample D and uncoated substrate. The uppermost thick curve is the total transmission of the bare substrate T S 0, whereas the one just below it is the specular transmission for the bare substrate T S . The lower thick curve is the total transmission for the film–substrate assembly T 0 for sample D, whereas just below it is the specular transmission T for this sample. The peak used for determining grain size is at 404 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Field-emission scanning electron micrographs of the films used in this study. The substrate temperatures are (a) 25 °C, (b) 100 °C, (c) 160 °C, (d) 200 °C. All micrographs have the same magnification.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Deposition Conditions for the Films in this Study

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Table 2 Summary of the Extrema in the Optical Spectra for All Four Samples to Illustrate the Effects of Correlationa

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Table 3 Optical Constant Summary for ITO Samples A–D at the Wavelengths Used for Grain-Size Determinationa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Average Grain Size D for ITO Deposited onto Different Temperature Substratesa

Equations (8)

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T T 0 exp { - [ 2 π σ ( n - 1 ) λ ] 2 } ,
T T 0 = exp { - [ π D ( n - 1 ) 4 2 λ ] 2 } ,
D = [ - 32 λ 2 ln ( T / T 0 ) π 2 ( n - 1 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
( T T 0 ) sub = ( T T 0 ) 1 ( T T 0 ) 2 = exp { - [ 2 π σ 1 ( n sub - 1 ) λ ] 2 } × exp { - [ 2 π σ 2 ( 1 - n sub ) λ ] 2 } ,
( T T 0 ) corrected = ( T T 0 ) film + sub / [ ( T T 0 ) sub ] 1 / 2 .
Δ D | D T 0 | 2 ( Δ T 0 T 0 ) 2 + | D T | 2 ( Δ T T ) 2 .
Δ D = 4 2 λ π ( n - 1 ) 1 ln ( T / T 0 ) ( Δ T T ) .
n ( λ ) = A + B λ + C λ 3.5 + D λ 2.5 .

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