Abstract

Silver has high reflectivity in the visible and infrared but cannot be used fully because of its distressing lack of durability. A technique that uses the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon offers a sensitive method for studying the corrosion of silver and assessing improvements. It has been used in the investigation of the effects of flashing a thin layer, approximately 1 nm thick, of copper over silver in an attempt at cathodic protection. Tests include exposing silver and silver–copper films to air, 94% relative humidity, water, and hydrogen sulfide.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations and their applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 9, pp. 145–261.
  2. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 406.
  3. Z. Salamon, Y. Wang, G. Tollin, H. A. Macleod, “Assembly and molecular organization of self-assembled lipid bilayers on solid substrates monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1195, 267–275 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Y. Song, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1985).
  5. D. Y. Song, F. S. Zhang, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Study of surface contamination by surface plasmons,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 211–218 (1986).
  6. P. W. Wilson, “Determining optical properties of thin films by modified attenuated total reflection with a charge coupled device,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2386–2389 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Wang, “An optical probe of thin film and surface contamination based on surface plasmon resonance,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1990).
  8. D. Y. Song, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high-reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1164–1170 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C.-C. Lee, “Moisture adsorption and optical instability in thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1983).
  10. S. Ogura, Some features of the behaviour of optical thin films,” Ph.D. thesis (Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 1975).
  11. D. Richmond, “Thin film narrow band optical filters,” Ph.D. thesis, (Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 1976).
  12. J. P. Franey, G. W. Kammlott, T. E. Graedel, “The corrosion of silver by atmospheric sulfurous gases,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 133–143 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. E. Graedel, “Corrosion mechanisms for silver exposed to the atmosphere,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1963–1970 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1994

Z. Salamon, Y. Wang, G. Tollin, H. A. Macleod, “Assembly and molecular organization of self-assembled lipid bilayers on solid substrates monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1195, 267–275 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

T. E. Graedel, “Corrosion mechanisms for silver exposed to the atmosphere,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1963–1970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. W. Wilson, “Determining optical properties of thin films by modified attenuated total reflection with a charge coupled device,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2386–2389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. Y. Song, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high-reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1164–1170 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Franey, G. W. Kammlott, T. E. Graedel, “The corrosion of silver by atmospheric sulfurous gases,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 133–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Franey, J. P.

J. P. Franey, G. W. Kammlott, T. E. Graedel, “The corrosion of silver by atmospheric sulfurous gases,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 133–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Graedel, T. E.

T. E. Graedel, “Corrosion mechanisms for silver exposed to the atmosphere,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1963–1970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Franey, G. W. Kammlott, T. E. Graedel, “The corrosion of silver by atmospheric sulfurous gases,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 133–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gualtieri, G.-J.

T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, M. R.

D. Y. Song, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high-reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1164–1170 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Song, F. S. Zhang, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Study of surface contamination by surface plasmons,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 211–218 (1986).

Kammlott, G. W.

J. P. Franey, G. W. Kammlott, T. E. Graedel, “The corrosion of silver by atmospheric sulfurous gases,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 133–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

C.-C. Lee, “Moisture adsorption and optical instability in thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1983).

Macleod, H. A.

Z. Salamon, Y. Wang, G. Tollin, H. A. Macleod, “Assembly and molecular organization of self-assembled lipid bilayers on solid substrates monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1195, 267–275 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Song, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high-reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1164–1170 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Song, F. S. Zhang, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Study of surface contamination by surface plasmons,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 211–218 (1986).

Malm, D.

T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

S. Ogura, Some features of the behaviour of optical thin films,” Ph.D. thesis (Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 1975).

Raether, H.

H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations and their applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 9, pp. 145–261.

Richmond, D.

D. Richmond, “Thin film narrow band optical filters,” Ph.D. thesis, (Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 1976).

Salamon, Z.

Z. Salamon, Y. Wang, G. Tollin, H. A. Macleod, “Assembly and molecular organization of self-assembled lipid bilayers on solid substrates monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1195, 267–275 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, D. Y.

D. Y. Song, R. W. Sprague, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high-reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1164–1170 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Song, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1985).

D. Y. Song, F. S. Zhang, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Study of surface contamination by surface plasmons,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 211–218 (1986).

Sprague, R. W.

Tollin, G.

Z. Salamon, Y. Wang, G. Tollin, H. A. Macleod, “Assembly and molecular organization of self-assembled lipid bilayers on solid substrates monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1195, 267–275 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. H.

R. H. Wang, “An optical probe of thin film and surface contamination based on surface plasmon resonance,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1990).

Wang, Y.

Z. Salamon, Y. Wang, G. Tollin, H. A. Macleod, “Assembly and molecular organization of self-assembled lipid bilayers on solid substrates monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1195, 267–275 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, P. W.

P. W. Wilson, “Determining optical properties of thin films by modified attenuated total reflection with a charge coupled device,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2386–2389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 406.

Zhang, F. S.

D. Y. Song, F. S. Zhang, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Study of surface contamination by surface plasmons,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 211–218 (1986).

Appl. Opt.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta

Z. Salamon, Y. Wang, G. Tollin, H. A. Macleod, “Assembly and molecular organization of self-assembled lipid bilayers on solid substrates monitored by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1195, 267–275 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corrosion Sci.

J. P. Franey, G. W. Kammlott, T. E. Graedel, “The corrosion of silver by atmospheric sulfurous gases,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 133–143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Graedel, J. P. Franey, G.-J. Gualtieri, G. W. Kammlott, D. Malm, “On the mechanism of silver and copper sulfidation by atmospheric H2S and OCS,” Corrosion Sci. 25, 1163–1180 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

T. E. Graedel, “Corrosion mechanisms for silver exposed to the atmosphere,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 1963–1970 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

P. W. Wilson, “Determining optical properties of thin films by modified attenuated total reflection with a charge coupled device,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2386–2389 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. H. Wang, “An optical probe of thin film and surface contamination based on surface plasmon resonance,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1990).

D. Y. Song, “Progress in the development of a durable silver-based high reflectance coating for astronomical telescopes,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1985).

D. Y. Song, F. S. Zhang, H. A. Macleod, M. R. Jacobson, “Study of surface contamination by surface plasmons,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 211–218 (1986).

H. Raether, “Surface plasma oscillations and their applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 9, pp. 145–261.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988), p. 406.

C.-C. Lee, “Moisture adsorption and optical instability in thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Az., 1983).

S. Ogura, Some features of the behaviour of optical thin films,” Ph.D. thesis (Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 1975).

D. Richmond, “Thin film narrow band optical filters,” Ph.D. thesis, (Newcastle upon Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 1976).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laboratory test bed for film measuring. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of Ag exposed only to air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of Ag–Cu exposed only to air. With each passing day, curves shift to the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in reflectance after a 2-h humidity exposure on Ag film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Change in reflectance after several humidity exposures on a Ag–Cu film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multiple H2S exposures to a Ag film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Multiple H2S exposures to a Ag–Cu film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

H2O in contact with a Ag film.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

H2O in contact with a Ag–Cu film.

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