Abstract

Mie scattering lidar was used to observe aerosol extinction coefficient profiles in the troposphere over Tsukuba (140 E, 36 N), Japan, for three years from March 1990 to February 1993, and data obtained in fair weather were analyzed. The lidar measurements were made by a vertical scanning mode to generate profiles of extinction coefficients from the lidar level to a 12-km altitude. The extinction coefficients were derived from the lidar signals using a two-component (air molecule and aerosol) lidar equation, in which the ratio of aerosol extinction to backscattering was assumed to be constant. Seasonal average profiles were derived from individual profiles. Three-year average profiles were also calculated and modeled using mathematical expressions. The model profile assumed (1) a constant extinction ratio in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), (2) an exponentially decreasing extinction ratio above the ABL, and (3) a constant extinction ratio in the upper troposphere where the extinction ratio can be defined as the ratio of the aerosol extinction coefficient to the air molecule extinction coefficient. The extinction ratios both in the ABL and in the upper troposphere and the scale height that was used to express the exponential decrease were used as three unknown parameters. Seasonal variation of optical thickness that was obtained by integrating extinction coefficients with height was also investigated.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1995 (5)

D. M. Tratt, R. T. Menzies, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol column above Pasadena, California, observed with a midinfrared backscatter lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 807–810 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, R. J. Decoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Wood, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Langford, T. J. O’Leary, M. H. Proffitt, M. H. Hitchman, “Transport of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol to a northern mid-latitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9007–9016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment. II. Measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,875–13,899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Evidence of seasonally dependent stratosphere–troposphere exchange and purging of lower stratospheric aerosol from a multiyear lidar data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3139–3148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, “Global optical climatology of the free tropospheric aerosol from 1.0-μm satellite occultation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5249–5267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

1990 (3)

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

D. J. Hofmann, “Increase in the stratospheric background sulfuric acid aerosol mass in the past 10 years,” Science 248, 996–1000 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, “Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change,” Nature (London) 346, 713–719 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal infrared wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

M. Gamo, “Diurnal variations of the mixed layer characteristics at Tsukuba,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 691–701 (1988).

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G. M.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal infrared wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decoursey, R. J.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. Decoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Wood, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Gamo, M.

M. Gamo, “Diurnal variations of the mixed layer characteristics at Tsukuba,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 691–701 (1988).

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanel, G.

G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, “Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change,” Nature (London) 346, 713–719 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, T.

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, T. Hayasaka, “Tropospheric aerosol optical properties derived from lidar, sun photometer, and optical particle counter measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7132–7140 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

Hitchman, M. H.

A. O. Langford, T. J. O’Leary, M. H. Proffitt, M. H. Hitchman, “Transport of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol to a northern mid-latitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9007–9016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, “Twenty years of balloon-borne tropospheric aerosol measurements at Laramie, Wyoming,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 12,753–12,766 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hofmann, “Increase in the stratospheric background sulfuric acid aerosol mass in the past 10 years,” Science 248, 996–1000 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ismail, S.

Jaenicke, R.

R. Jaenicke, “Tropospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions, P. V. Hobbs, ed. (Academic, New York, 1993), pp. 1–32.
[CrossRef]

Kai, K.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment. II. Measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,875–13,899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, “Global optical climatology of the free tropospheric aerosol from 1.0-μm satellite occultation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5249–5267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, “Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change,” Nature (London) 346, 713–719 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Langford, A. O.

A. O. Langford, T. J. O’Leary, M. H. Proffitt, M. H. Hitchman, “Transport of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol to a northern mid-latitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9007–9016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, I.

McCormick, M. P.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment. II. Measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,875–13,899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, “Global optical climatology of the free tropospheric aerosol from 1.0-μm satellite occultation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5249–5267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

Menzies, R. T.

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Evidence of seasonally dependent stratosphere–troposphere exchange and purging of lower stratospheric aerosol from a multiyear lidar data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3139–3148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Tratt, R. T. Menzies, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol column above Pasadena, California, observed with a midinfrared backscatter lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 807–810 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal infrared wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

Nakamura, H.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Nakane, H.

Nikaiodou, Y.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

O’Leary, T. J.

A. O. Langford, T. J. O’Leary, M. H. Proffitt, M. H. Hitchman, “Transport of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol to a northern mid-latitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9007–9016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Osborn, M. T.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. Decoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Wood, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pi, W.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal infrared wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, M. H.

A. O. Langford, T. J. O’Leary, M. H. Proffitt, M. H. Hitchman, “Transport of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol to a northern mid-latitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9007–9016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

Sasano, Y.

Schaffner, S. K.

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, S. K. Schaffner, “Global optical climatology of the free tropospheric aerosol from 1.0-μm satellite occultation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5249–5267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

Shiobara, M.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

Skeens, K. M.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment. II. Measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,875–13,899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Swissler, T. J.

Tabata, I.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Takamura, T.

Takasugi, T.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Takeuchi, N.

Tanaka, M.

M. Shiobara, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Aerosol monitoring using a scanning spectral radiometer in Sendai, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 69, 57–70 (1991).

M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, T. Nakajima, “Airborne measurements of optical properties of tropospheric aerosols over an urban area,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 68, 335–344 (1990).

Tratt, D. M.

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Evidence of seasonally dependent stratosphere–troposphere exchange and purging of lower stratospheric aerosol from a multiyear lidar data set,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3139–3148 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Tratt, R. T. Menzies, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol column above Pasadena, California, observed with a midinfrared backscatter lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 807–810 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal infrared wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Trepte, C. R.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. Decoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Wood, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

K. Kai, Y. Okada, O. Uchino, I. Tabata, H. Nakamura, T. Takasugi, Y. Nikaiodou, “Lidar observation and numerical simulation of a Kosa (Asian Dust) over Tsukuba, Japan, during the spring of 1986,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 66, 457–472 (1988).

Wang, P.-H.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment. II. Measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,875–13,899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Warneck, P.

P. Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere (Academic, New York, 1987).

Winker, D. M.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. Decoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Wood, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. C.

M. T. Osborn, R. J. Decoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Wood, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wright, C.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal infrared wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wurtele, M. G.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal infrared wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Geophys. (1)

G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

D. M. Tratt, R. T. Menzies, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol column above Pasadena, California, observed with a midinfrared backscatter lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 807–810 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Osborn, R. J. Decoursey, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, D. C. Wood, “Evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud over Hampton, Virginia,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1101–1104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

A. O. Langford, T. J. O’Leary, M. H. Proffitt, M. H. Hitchman, “Transport of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol to a northern mid-latitude site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9007–9016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment. II. Measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characters,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,875–13,899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Definition of the data analysis region and boundary (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Seasonal mean aerosol extinction profiles: top left, spring; top right, summer; bottom left, fall; bottom right, winter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Seasonal mean aerosol extinction profiles with standard deviations for 1992: top left, spring; top right, summer; bottom left, fall; bottom right, winter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three-year mean aerosol extinction profiles (thin curves), air molecular extinction (medium thick curves), and modeled profiles (bold curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Seasonal changes in optical thickness for altitude ranges of 0–12 km (bold curve), 0–3 km (medium thick curve), 3–12 km (dashed curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of optical thickness on S1.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Number of Days of Lidar Observationsa

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Table 2 Parameters for Modeled Extinction Profiles

Equations (2)

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α 1 * ( z ) = A α 2 ( z ) for z h b , α 1 * ( z ) = ( A B ) α 2 ( h b ) exp [ ( z h b ) / H ] + B α 2 ( z ) for z > h b ,
τ 1 ( z 1 z 2 ) = z 1 z 2 α 1 ( z ) d z ,

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