Abstract

Optical properties obtained from spectrophotometer measurements of reflectance and transmittance were determined for both frozen-ground and intact soft tissues. The tissues used in these experiments were calf aorta, rat jejunum, and rabbit sciatic nerve. Tissue specimens from each tissue type were frozen in liquid nitrogen and then ground with a pestle and mortar into a fine powder. A tissue paste formed once the powder returned to room temperature. The tissue paste was then sandwiched between glass slides for spectrophotometer measurements. For comparison, the optical properties of the intact specimens were also measured. Total transmission and diffuse reflection were obtained on a Varian Cary 5E spectrophotometer (400–850 nm). Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the tissues were determined with the Inverse Adding Doubling method. Our results suggested that within the 400-nm to 850-nm spectrum, optical properties of the ground tissue approximated intact tissue within limits of experimental error.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. van Wieringen, J. F. Beek, H. J. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Prahl, Inverse Adding Doubling program, software for Macintosh computers (Laser Research Center, St. Vincent Hospital, Portland, Ore., 1993).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Welsch, R. Birngruber, K.-P. Boergen, V. P. Gabel, F. Hillenkamp, “The influence of scattering on the wavelength-dependent of light absorption in blood,” in Proceedings of Laser Medical Biology (GSF Neuherberg, 1977), Vol. 6SF, pp. 14-1–14-8.

1994 (2)

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. F. Çilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Optical properties of human aorta: are they affected by cryopreservation?”Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 396–402 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Beek, J. F.

Birngruber, R.

H. Welsch, R. Birngruber, K.-P. Boergen, V. P. Gabel, F. Hillenkamp, “The influence of scattering on the wavelength-dependent of light absorption in blood,” in Proceedings of Laser Medical Biology (GSF Neuherberg, 1977), Vol. 6SF, pp. 14-1–14-8.

Boergen, K.-P.

H. Welsch, R. Birngruber, K.-P. Boergen, V. P. Gabel, F. Hillenkamp, “The influence of scattering on the wavelength-dependent of light absorption in blood,” in Proceedings of Laser Medical Biology (GSF Neuherberg, 1977), Vol. 6SF, pp. 14-1–14-8.

Bottiroli, G.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, D. M.

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Çilesiz, I. F.

I. F. Çilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Optical properties of human aorta: are they affected by cryopreservation?”Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 396–402 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. F. Çilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Light dosimetry: effects of dehydration and thermal damage on the optical properties of human aorta,” Appl. Opt. 32, 477–487 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croce, A. C.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dal Fante, M.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Palma, S.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franks, F.

F. Franks, Biophysics and Biochemistry at Low Temperatures (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1985).

Fumagalli, S.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabel, V. P.

H. Welsch, R. Birngruber, K.-P. Boergen, V. P. Gabel, F. Hillenkamp, “The influence of scattering on the wavelength-dependent of light absorption in blood,” in Proceedings of Laser Medical Biology (GSF Neuherberg, 1977), Vol. 6SF, pp. 14-1–14-8.

Hillenkamp, F.

H. Welsch, R. Birngruber, K.-P. Boergen, V. P. Gabel, F. Hillenkamp, “The influence of scattering on the wavelength-dependent of light absorption in blood,” in Proceedings of Laser Medical Biology (GSF Neuherberg, 1977), Vol. 6SF, pp. 14-1–14-8.

Jacques, S. L.

Keijzer, M.

Marchesini, R.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meryman, H. T.

H. T. Meryman, Cryobiology (Academic, New York, 1966).

Patterson, M. S.

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, J. W.

Pignoli, E.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. van Wieringen, J. F. Beek, H. J. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Prahl, Inverse Adding Doubling program, software for Macintosh computers (Laser Research Center, St. Vincent Hospital, Portland, Ore., 1993).

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

Sichirollo, A. E.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, P.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

Tomatis, S.

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Wieringen, N.

Welch, A. J.

I. F. Çilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Optical properties of human aorta: are they affected by cryopreservation?”Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 396–402 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. F. Çilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Light dosimetry: effects of dehydration and thermal damage on the optical properties of human aorta,” Appl. Opt. 32, 477–487 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Welsch, H.

H. Welsch, R. Birngruber, K.-P. Boergen, V. P. Gabel, F. Hillenkamp, “The influence of scattering on the wavelength-dependent of light absorption in blood,” in Proceedings of Laser Medical Biology (GSF Neuherberg, 1977), Vol. 6SF, pp. 14-1–14-8.

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G.

G. Yoon, “Absorption and scattering of laser light in biological media—mathematical modeling and methods for determining optical properties,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1988).

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, D. M. Burns, “Effect of photosensitizer concentration in tissue on the penetration depth of photoactivating light,” Lasers Med. Sci. 1, 235–244 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

I. F. Çilesiz, A. J. Welch, “Optical properties of human aorta: are they affected by cryopreservation?”Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 396–402 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Exυiυo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

S. T. Flock, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, “Total attenuation coefficients and scattering phase functions of tissues and phantom materials at 633 nm,” Med. Phys. 14, 835–841 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. A. Prahl, Inverse Adding Doubling program, software for Macintosh computers (Laser Research Center, St. Vincent Hospital, Portland, Ore., 1993).

H. Welsch, R. Birngruber, K.-P. Boergen, V. P. Gabel, F. Hillenkamp, “The influence of scattering on the wavelength-dependent of light absorption in blood,” in Proceedings of Laser Medical Biology (GSF Neuherberg, 1977), Vol. 6SF, pp. 14-1–14-8.

G. Yoon, “Absorption and scattering of laser light in biological media—mathematical modeling and methods for determining optical properties,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1988).

H. T. Meryman, Cryobiology (Academic, New York, 1966).

F. Franks, Biophysics and Biochemistry at Low Temperatures (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1985).

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