Abstract

An interferometric technique is described for detecting and locating perturbations along an optical fiber. This distributed sensor, based on a modified fiber-ring interferometer, has a position-dependent response to time-varying disturbances such as strain or temperature. These disturbances cause a phase shift that is detected and converted to spatial information. The sensor consists of two parts, namely, a reflecting-fiber-ring interferometer and a differentiating-ring interferometer. The reflecting ring consists of a fiber ring with one port of the coupler connected to a reflector. Consequently the output port of the reflecting-ring interferometer is the same as the input port. Because it is an inherent zero-path-imbalanced system, a short-coherence-length source such as a light-emitting diode can be used. Any time-varying perturbation on the fiber in the ring results in a detector signal proportional to the product of the rate-of-phase change caused by the perturbation and the distance of the perturbation relative to the center of the fiber ring. The second part of the system, a differentiating-ring interferometer, consists of the same fiber-ring interferometer modified only slightly. The output of this part of the sensor is proportional only to the rate of phase change as a result of the unknown perturbation and contains no distance information. By dividing the output of the reflecting-ring interferometer by the output of the differentiating-ring interferometer, we determine disturbance location. Results obtained with a 155-m distributed fiber sensor are discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).
  2. J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Sixth European Fibre Optic Communications/Local Area Networks Exposition (Information Gate Keepers, Inc. (Europe), Basle, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 276–279.
  3. E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensor concepts,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1991).
  4. E. Ronnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (IROE-CNR, Firenze, Italy, 1993), Postdeadline paper 7.
  5. A. Booysen, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, J. Meyer, “New ring resonator utilizing a double cavity and a low coherence length source,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors XI, R. P. De-Paula, ed., Proc. SPIE2070, 225–233 (1993).
  6. S. J. Spammer, P. L. Swart, “Differentiating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3250–3253 (1995).

1995 (1)

Blotekjaer, K.

E. Ronnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (IROE-CNR, Firenze, Italy, 1993), Postdeadline paper 7.

Booysen, A.

A. Booysen, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, J. Meyer, “New ring resonator utilizing a double cavity and a low coherence length source,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors XI, R. P. De-Paula, ed., Proc. SPIE2070, 225–233 (1993).

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Sixth European Fibre Optic Communications/Local Area Networks Exposition (Information Gate Keepers, Inc. (Europe), Basle, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 276–279.

Krakenes, K.

E. Ronnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (IROE-CNR, Firenze, Italy, 1993), Postdeadline paper 7.

Meyer, J.

A. Booysen, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, J. Meyer, “New ring resonator utilizing a double cavity and a low coherence length source,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors XI, R. P. De-Paula, ed., Proc. SPIE2070, 225–233 (1993).

Pearce, D. A. J.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Sixth European Fibre Optic Communications/Local Area Networks Exposition (Information Gate Keepers, Inc. (Europe), Basle, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 276–279.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).

Ronnekleiv, E.

E. Ronnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (IROE-CNR, Firenze, Italy, 1993), Postdeadline paper 7.

Spammer, S. J.

S. J. Spammer, P. L. Swart, “Differentiating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3250–3253 (1995).

A. Booysen, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, J. Meyer, “New ring resonator utilizing a double cavity and a low coherence length source,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors XI, R. P. De-Paula, ed., Proc. SPIE2070, 225–233 (1993).

Strong, A. P.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Sixth European Fibre Optic Communications/Local Area Networks Exposition (Information Gate Keepers, Inc. (Europe), Basle, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 276–279.

Swart, P. L.

S. J. Spammer, P. L. Swart, “Differentiating Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3250–3253 (1995).

A. Booysen, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, J. Meyer, “New ring resonator utilizing a double cavity and a low coherence length source,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors XI, R. P. De-Paula, ed., Proc. SPIE2070, 225–233 (1993).

Udd, E.

E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensor concepts,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1991).

Wade, C. A.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Sixth European Fibre Optic Communications/Local Area Networks Exposition (Information Gate Keepers, Inc. (Europe), Basle, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 276–279.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (5)

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors V, R. P. DePaula, E. Udd, eds., Proc. SPIE838, 325–328 (1987).

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fiber sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Sixth European Fibre Optic Communications/Local Area Networks Exposition (Information Gate Keepers, Inc. (Europe), Basle, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 276–279.

E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensor concepts,” in Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, J. P. Dakin, A. D. Kersey, eds., Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1991).

E. Ronnekleiv, K. Blotekjaer, K. Krakenes, “Distributed fiber sensor for location of disturbances,” Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (IROE-CNR, Firenze, Italy, 1993), Postdeadline paper 7.

A. Booysen, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, J. Meyer, “New ring resonator utilizing a double cavity and a low coherence length source,” in Fiber Optic and Laser Sensors XI, R. P. De-Paula, ed., Proc. SPIE2070, 225–233 (1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflective-ring interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differentiating interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distributed-interferometric-sensor system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ring interferometer output, y r (t).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Differentiating interferometer output, y d (t).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output signal, y r (t)/y d (t).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured versus actual location of disturbances.

Equations (11)

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I k + 1 / I k = p = α 2 t c 2 t f 2 ,
F = π p 1 / 2 1 p .
y r ( t ) ϕ [ t T + τ ( z ) ] ϕ [ t T τ ( z ) ] = 2 τ ( z ) ϕ [ t + τ ( z ) ] ϕ [ t τ ( z ) ] 2 τ ( z )
f r max 1 2 π2 T = c 2 π n L ,
y r ( t ) = 2 n c z d ϕ d t .
y d ( t ) ϕ ( t ) ϕ ( t 2 T D ) ,
f d max 1 4 π T D = c 4 π n L D .
y d ( t ) 2 T D d ϕ d t = 2 n L D c d ϕ d t .
y ( z ) = y r ( t ) y d ( t ) = z L D .
Δ ϕ = ϕ [ t n c ( L L z ) ] ϕ [ t n c ( L p + L L + z ) ] ,
Δ ϕ = ϕ [ t n c ( L p + L L z ) ] ϕ [ t n c ( L L + z ) ] .

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