Abstract

The proposed multilayer technology makes it possible to approximate a continuous phase distribution by discrete phase steps. Compared with binary techniques, a higher diffraction efficiency can be achieved. In most known processes a bulk substrate is used and etched directly; therefore it is difficult to control the height of the phase steps. We propose applying layers of a well-known thickness and structuring them with a selective etching process. In this new multilayer process for reflecting elements a system of metal and dielectric layers is used that can easily be produced by standard methods.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Ferstl, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Blazed Fresnel zone lenses approximated by discrete step profiles: effects of fabrication errors,” in Holographic International ’92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 89–99 (1992).
  2. L. Pin, H. Dahsiung, “Reflective 16 phase level kinoform for beam array generator,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 184–188 (1992).
  3. K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Multiple phase level computer-generated holograms etched in fused silica,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 91–96 (1989).
  4. M. P. Dames, R. J. Dowling, P. McKee, D. Wood, “Efficient optical elements to generate intensity weighted spot arrays: design and fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2685–2691 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, N. Streibl, “Optimization and reconstruction of high-frequency surface relief gratings,” Optik 90, 32–36 (1992).
  6. M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780–1787 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

1994 (1)

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

1992 (1)

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, N. Streibl, “Optimization and reconstruction of high-frequency surface relief gratings,” Optik 90, 32–36 (1992).

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

Dahsiung, H.

L. Pin, H. Dahsiung, “Reflective 16 phase level kinoform for beam array generator,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 184–188 (1992).

Dames, M. P.

Dowling, R. J.

Ferstl, M.

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Blazed Fresnel zone lenses approximated by discrete step profiles: effects of fabrication errors,” in Holographic International ’92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 89–99 (1992).

Finlan, J. M.

K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Multiple phase level computer-generated holograms etched in fused silica,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 91–96 (1989).

Flood, K. M.

K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Multiple phase level computer-generated holograms etched in fused silica,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 91–96 (1989).

Gaylord, T. K.

Haidner, H.

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, N. Streibl, “Optimization and reconstruction of high-frequency surface relief gratings,” Optik 90, 32–36 (1992).

Kipfer, P.

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, N. Streibl, “Optimization and reconstruction of high-frequency surface relief gratings,” Optik 90, 32–36 (1992).

Krackhardt, U.

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

Kuhlow, B.

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Blazed Fresnel zone lenses approximated by discrete step profiles: effects of fabrication errors,” in Holographic International ’92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 89–99 (1992).

McKee, P.

Moharam, M. G.

Pawlowski, E.

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Blazed Fresnel zone lenses approximated by discrete step profiles: effects of fabrication errors,” in Holographic International ’92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 89–99 (1992).

Pin, L.

L. Pin, H. Dahsiung, “Reflective 16 phase level kinoform for beam array generator,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 184–188 (1992).

Schwider, J.

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

Streibl, N.

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, N. Streibl, “Optimization and reconstruction of high-frequency surface relief gratings,” Optik 90, 32–36 (1992).

Wood, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Optik (2)

U. Krackhardt, N. Streibl, J. Schwider, “Fabrication errors of computer generated multilevel phase holograms,” Optik 95, 137–146 (1994).

H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, N. Streibl, “Optimization and reconstruction of high-frequency surface relief gratings,” Optik 90, 32–36 (1992).

Other (3)

M. Ferstl, B. Kuhlow, E. Pawlowski, “Blazed Fresnel zone lenses approximated by discrete step profiles: effects of fabrication errors,” in Holographic International ’92, Y. N. Denisyuk, F. Wyrowski, eds., Proc. SPIE1732, 89–99 (1992).

L. Pin, H. Dahsiung, “Reflective 16 phase level kinoform for beam array generator,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication, C. Roychoudhuri, W. B. Veldkamp, eds., Proc. SPIE1751, 184–188 (1992).

K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Multiple phase level computer-generated holograms etched in fused silica,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1052, 91–96 (1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Different types of decomposition for fabricating multilevel structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process of the multilayer system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lithographic process for metal-resist technology.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction spectrum of the four-level reflection grating. (The spectrum was measured at an incidence angle of 20°; the reflected zero order appears at 40° in this plot.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multilayer structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface profilometer trace for a section of the four-level grating. (The lateral size of the structures and especially the shape of the sidewalls cannot be taken from this plot, because the radius of the measuring head is ~5 μm.)

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffraction Efficiency of the Holograms as a Function of Numbers of Levels

Tables Icon

Table 2 Diffraction Efficiency of the Holograms as a Function of Alignment Errors

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