Abstract

A new technique of microlens array fabrication based on the use of excimer laser radiation is described. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates are treated with many low-energy KrF laser pulses and exposed to styrene vapor. The irradiated material swells, producing spherical microlenses that are stabilized by UV polymerization. The chemistry of this process and the optical quality of the lenses are discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. F. Borelli, D. L. Morse, R. H. Bellmann, W. L. Morgan, “Photolytic technique for producing microlenses in photosensitive glass,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2520–2525 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Hutley, “Optical techniques for generation of microlens array,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253–265 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Mihailov, S. Lazare, “Fabrication of refractive microlens arrays by excimer laser ablation of amorphous Teflon,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6211–6218 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Fritz, “Herstellung von mikrolinsen aus PMMA durch belichtung mit synchrotronstrahlung und styrol-diffusion und ihre charakterisierung,” Master’s thesis (Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).
  9. M. Kufner, S. Kufner, S. Lazare, P. Pichon, P. Chavel, “Microlenses in PMMA fabricated by particle or electromagnetic irradiation and monomer diffusion,” in Microlens Arrays, Vol. 3 (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 5–8.

1993

S. Mihailov, S. Lazare, “Fabrication of refractive microlens arrays by excimer laser ablation of amorphous Teflon,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6211–6218 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. C. Hutley, “Optical techniques for generation of microlens array,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253–265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

1981

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, H.

J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bellmann, R. H.

Borelli, N. F.

Chavel, P.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, S. Lazare, P. Pichon, P. Chavel, “Microlenses in PMMA fabricated by particle or electromagnetic irradiation and monomer diffusion,” in Microlens Arrays, Vol. 3 (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 5–8.

Choi, J. O.

J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corelli, J. C.

J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Frank, M.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, A.

A. Fritz, “Herstellung von mikrolinsen aus PMMA durch belichtung mit synchrotronstrahlung und styrol-diffusion und ihre charakterisierung,” Master’s thesis (Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, “Optical techniques for generation of microlens array,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253–265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Kufner, M.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, S. Lazare, P. Pichon, P. Chavel, “Microlenses in PMMA fabricated by particle or electromagnetic irradiation and monomer diffusion,” in Microlens Arrays, Vol. 3 (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 5–8.

Kufner, S.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, S. Lazare, P. Pichon, P. Chavel, “Microlenses in PMMA fabricated by particle or electromagnetic irradiation and monomer diffusion,” in Microlens Arrays, Vol. 3 (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 5–8.

Lazare, S.

S. Mihailov, S. Lazare, “Fabrication of refractive microlens arrays by excimer laser ablation of amorphous Teflon,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6211–6218 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, S. Lazare, P. Pichon, P. Chavel, “Microlenses in PMMA fabricated by particle or electromagnetic irradiation and monomer diffusion,” in Microlens Arrays, Vol. 3 (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 5–8.

Mihailov, S.

S. Mihailov, S. Lazare, “Fabrication of refractive microlens arrays by excimer laser ablation of amorphous Teflon,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6211–6218 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moisel, J.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. A.

J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W. L.

Morse, D. L.

Nishizawa, K.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, M.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pichon, P.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, S. Lazare, P. Pichon, P. Chavel, “Microlenses in PMMA fabricated by particle or electromagnetic irradiation and monomer diffusion,” in Microlens Arrays, Vol. 3 (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 5–8.

Sanada, T.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, J. P.

J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Testorf, M.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

Yamamoto, N.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

S. Mihailov, S. Lazare, “Fabrication of refractive microlens arrays by excimer laser ablation of amorphous Teflon,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6211–6218 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Mod. Opt.

M. C. Hutley, “Optical techniques for generation of microlens array,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253–265 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. O. Choi, J. A. Moore, J. C. Corelli, J. P. Silverman, H. Bakhru, “Degradation of poly(methylmethacrylate) by deep ultraviolet, x-ray, electron beam and proton beam irradiating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 2286–2289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of distributed index planar microlenses prepared from ion exchange technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296–L298 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, M. Frank, J. Moisel, M. Testorf, “Microlenses in PMMA with high relative aperture: a parameter study,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 9–19 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Fritz, “Herstellung von mikrolinsen aus PMMA durch belichtung mit synchrotronstrahlung und styrol-diffusion und ihre charakterisierung,” Master’s thesis (Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, S. Lazare, P. Pichon, P. Chavel, “Microlenses in PMMA fabricated by particle or electromagnetic irradiation and monomer diffusion,” in Microlens Arrays, Vol. 3 (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 5–8.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process: (a) KrF excimer laser (248 nm) irradiation of PMMA, (b) styrene diffusion, (c) mercury lamp (365 nm) copolymerization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy loss versus depth in PMMA for photon and proton irradiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Confocal micro-Raman spectrum of PMMA: a, virgin PMMA; b, after 16,000 pulses at 10 mJ/cm2 and 20 Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative concentration of (a) isolated olefine bonds and (b) dienes versus depth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative concentration of styrene as a function of depth (a) inside and (b) outside a lens. Negative value of depth corresponds to the swollen part of the lens above the PMMA surface. Raman intensity has been referenced to a constant peak corresponding to the CO vibration at 1720 cm−1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative height of microlenses versus dose at 248 nm, 10 mJ/cm2, and 20 Hz. 100% = 10.6 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning electron microscope picture of a typical microlens array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cross-sectional profile of a microlens measured with a Tencor stylus profilometer. The solid curve denotes the actual data, and the dotted curve is the theoretical parabolic fit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Imaging setup for testing microlenses.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Imaging experiment with a spatial frequency of 100 line pairs/mm (left half of the photograph).

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