Deterministic microgrinding of precision optical components with rigid, computer-controlled machining centers and high-speed tool spindles is now possible on a commercial scale. Platforms such as the Opticam systems at the Center for Optics Manufacturing produce convex and concave spherical surfaces with radii from 5 mm to ∞, i.e., planar, and work diameters from 10 to 150 mm. Aspherical surfaces are also being manufactured. The resulting specular surfaces have a typical rms microroughness of 20 nm, 1 μm of subsurface damage, and a figure error of less than 1 wave peak to valley. Surface roughness under deterministic microgrinding conditions (fixed infeed rate) with bound abrasive diamond ring tools with various degrees of bond hardness is correlated to a material length scale, identified as a ductility index, involving the hardness and fracture toughness of glasses. This result is in contrast to loose abrasive grinding (fixed nominal pressure), in which surface microroughness is determined by the elastic stiffness and the hardness of the glass. We summarize measurements of fracture toughness and microhardness by microindentation for crown and flint optical glasses, and fused silica. The microindentation fracture toughness in nondensifying optical glasses is in good agreement with bulk fracture toughness measurement methods.
© 1996 Optical Society of AmericaFull Article | PDF Article
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