Abstract

We report an experimental investigation and comparison with simulation of the x-ray focusing of a flat, square profile microchannel plate. We use x rays with an energy of ~1.5 keV from a laser-produced plasma. The images were recorded with x-ray film. We find the focal structure to be consistent with theoretical expectations. The angular resolution of the focus is 0.96 mrad, which is a major improvement over previous results. The measured peak intensity gain is 27 ± 4, which is ~33% of that for a perfect optic.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. A. Stern, Z. Kalman, A. Lewis, K. Lieberman, “Simple method for focusing X-rays using tapered capillaries,” Appl. Opt. 27, 5135–5139 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Kumakhov, F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. N. Chapman, A. V. Rode, “Geometric optics of arrays of reflective surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2419–2436 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, M. R. Sims, K. Roxburgh, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 41–52 (1992).
  6. P. Kaaret, P. Geissbuhler, A. Chen, E. Glavinas, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7339–7343 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. P. Angel, “The lobster-eye telescope,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364–373 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. K. H. Schmidt, “A proposed x-ray focusing device with wide field of view for use in x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 127, 285–292 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray focusing using square channel capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).
  11. G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. See, for example, M. F. Land, “Animal eyes with mirror optics,” Sci. Am. 239 (6), 88–99 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for example, M. Lampton, “The microchannel image intensifier,” Sci. Am. 245 (5), 46–55 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. D. Hendricks, ed. Laser Program Annual Report, Rep. UCRL-50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983) pp. 5–35.
  15. B. L. Henke, J. Y. Uejio, G. F. Stone, C. H. Dittmore, F. G. Fujiwara, “High-energy x-ray response of photographic films: models and measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1540–1550 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Yoneda, “Anomalous surface reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2010–2013 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Debye, “Interference of Röntgen rays and heat motions,” Ann. Phys. 43, 49–95 (1914).
  18. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  19. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).
  20. G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).
  21. A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “X-ray focusing with 11μm square pore microchannel plates,” in X-ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds, Proc. SPIE2519, 40–49 (1995).

1996 (1)

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray focusing using square channel capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. A. Kumakhov, F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

See, for example, M. Lampton, “The microchannel image intensifier,” Sci. Am. 245 (5), 46–55 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “The lobster-eye telescope,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364–373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

See, for example, M. F. Land, “Animal eyes with mirror optics,” Sci. Am. 239 (6), 88–99 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. K. H. Schmidt, “A proposed x-ray focusing device with wide field of view for use in x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 127, 285–292 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Y. Yoneda, “Anomalous surface reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2010–2013 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1914 (1)

P. Debye, “Interference of Röntgen rays and heat motions,” Ann. Phys. 43, 49–95 (1914).

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, “The lobster-eye telescope,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364–373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Brunton, A. N.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “X-ray focusing with 11μm square pore microchannel plates,” in X-ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds, Proc. SPIE2519, 40–49 (1995).

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman, A. V. Rode, “Geometric optics of arrays of reflective surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2419–2436 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray focusing using square channel capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

Debye, P.

P. Debye, “Interference of Röntgen rays and heat motions,” Ann. Phys. 43, 49–95 (1914).

Dittmore, C. H.

Emberson, D. L.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

Feller, W. B.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “X-ray focusing with 11μm square pore microchannel plates,” in X-ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds, Proc. SPIE2519, 40–49 (1995).

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Fraser, G. W.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, M. R. Sims, K. Roxburgh, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 41–52 (1992).

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “X-ray focusing with 11μm square pore microchannel plates,” in X-ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds, Proc. SPIE2519, 40–49 (1995).

Fujiwara, F. G.

Geissbuhler, P.

Glavinas, E.

Haycocks, J.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

Henke, B. L.

Kaaret, P.

Kalman, Z.

Komarov, F. F.

M. A. Kumakhov, F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kumakhov, M. A.

M. A. Kumakhov, F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lampton, M.

See, for example, M. Lampton, “The microchannel image intensifier,” Sci. Am. 245 (5), 46–55 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Land, M. F.

See, for example, M. F. Land, “Animal eyes with mirror optics,” Sci. Am. 239 (6), 88–99 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lees, J. E.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, M. R. Sims, K. Roxburgh, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 41–52 (1992).

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “X-ray focusing with 11μm square pore microchannel plates,” in X-ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds, Proc. SPIE2519, 40–49 (1995).

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

Lewis, A.

Lieberman, K.

Nugent, K.

S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray focusing using square channel capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. F.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, M. R. Sims, K. Roxburgh, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 41–52 (1992).

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

Peele, A. G.

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Priedhorsky, W. C.

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).

Rode, A. V.

Roxburgh, K.

G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, M. R. Sims, K. Roxburgh, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 41–52 (1992).

Schmidt, W. K. H.

W. K. H. Schmidt, “A proposed x-ray focusing device with wide field of view for use in x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 127, 285–292 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sims, M. R.

G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, M. R. Sims, K. Roxburgh, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 41–52 (1992).

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Stedman, M.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

Steenstrup, S.

S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stern, E. A.

Stevenson, A.

S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G. F.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Uejio, J. Y.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

White, P. L.

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “X-ray focusing with 11μm square pore microchannel plates,” in X-ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds, Proc. SPIE2519, 40–49 (1995).

Wilkins, S. W.

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray focusing using square channel capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Willingale, R.

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

Yoneda, Y.

Y. Yoneda, “Anomalous surface reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2010–2013 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

P. Debye, “Interference of Röntgen rays and heat motions,” Ann. Phys. 43, 49–95 (1914).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. R. P. Angel, “The lobster-eye telescope,” Astrophys. J. 233, 364–373 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

W. C. Priedhorsky, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, “X-ray all-sky monitor with extraordinary sensitivity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 279, 733–750 (1996).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

W. K. H. Schmidt, “A proposed x-ray focusing device with wide field of view for use in x-ray astronomy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 127, 285–292 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, W. B. Feller, “X-ray focusing using square pore microchannel plates: first observation of cruxiform image structure,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 324, 404–407 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. A. Kumakhov, F. F. Komarov, “Multiple reflection from surface x-ray optics,” Phys. Rep. 191, 289–350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Y. Yoneda, “Anomalous surface reflection of x-rays,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2010–2013 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. W. Wilkins, A. Stevenson, K. Nugent, H. N. Chapman, S. Steenstrup, “On the concentration, focusing and collimation of x-rays and neutrons using microchannel plates and configurations of holes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1026–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray focusing using square channel capillary arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1542–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am. (2)

See, for example, M. F. Land, “Animal eyes with mirror optics,” Sci. Am. 239 (6), 88–99 (1978).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. Lampton, “The microchannel image intensifier,” Sci. Am. 245 (5), 46–55 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

C. D. Hendricks, ed. Laser Program Annual Report, Rep. UCRL-50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983) pp. 5–35.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran: the Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986).

G. W. Fraser, A. N. Brunton, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, R. Willingale, D. L. Emberson, W. B. Feller, M. Stedman, J. Haycocks, “Development of microchannel plate (MCP) x-ray optics,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics III, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds, Proc. SPIE2011, 215–226 (1993).

A. N. Brunton, G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, W. B. Feller, P. L. White, “X-ray focusing with 11μm square pore microchannel plates,” in X-ray and Ultraviolet Sensors and Applications, R. B. Hoover, M. B. Williams, eds, Proc. SPIE2519, 40–49 (1995).

G. W. Fraser, J. E. Lees, J. F. Pearson, M. R. Sims, K. Roxburgh, “X-ray focusing using microchannel plates,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1546, 41–52 (1992).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Principle of one-dimensional focusing, point to point. Focal aberration is due to channel length. (b) One-dimensional focusing for a distant object.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical micrograph of our MCP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental layout. The laser pulse is focused onto the copper target that produces a plasma. The x-ray emission is then focused by the MCP onto the x-ray film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmitted intensity spectrum through 60-μm Al filter. The spectrum was taken to be monoenergetic at an energy of 1.5 keV in our analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of focal distribution produced by the MCP optic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

One-dimensional scan, along a focal arm, of intensity gain.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated intensity along a focal arm overlaid onto the data in Fig. 6. The agreement is excellent.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Production Method for Microchannel Plates

Metrics