Abstract

A Fourier-transform synthesis technique is applied to the design of inhomogeneous refractive-index optical thin films with dispersion of refractive index and absorption taken into account. Using measured properties of SiOxNy, we have designed a broadband reflector and two three-line filters with high reflectance. One of the three-line filters was manufactured by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a mixture of SiH4, N2, O2, and Ar. Good agreement between design and measured performance proves the feasibility of applying the Fourier-transform technique to the design of reflection filters even in the case of highly dispersive, absorbing material, if its optical properties are well characterized.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  40. P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Effect of process parameters on the properties of electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposited silicon-oxynitride,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 403–408 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  43. L. Bourget, B. Lane, J. Ding, “Large area ECR processing,” in Symposium A, Amorphous Insulating Thin Films II, at the European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 24–27 May 1994, paper A-VII-XII/P51 (abstract only).
  44. M. J. Hernandez, J. Garrido, J. Piqueras, “Silicon dioxide deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma: kinetic and ellipsometric studies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 581–584 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1996

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, P. V. Bulkin, “Long dual-cavity fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor with rugate mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1059–1063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Effect of process parameters on the properties of electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposited silicon-oxynitride,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 403–408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. J. Hernandez, J. Garrido, J. Piqueras, “Silicon dioxide deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma: kinetic and ellipsometric studies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 581–584 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposited by electron cyclotron plasma-enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Lim, J. H. Ryu, J. F. Wager, T. K. Plant, “Rugate filters grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 245, 141–145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. G. Bovard, “Rugate filter theory: an overview,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5427–5442 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Greenham, B. A. Nichols, R. M. Wood, N. Nourshargh, K. L. Lewis, “Optical interference filters with continuous refractive index modulations by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1018–1023 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, F. J. Burger, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition for multilayer structures of silicon nitride on silicon,” S. Afr. J. Phys. 16, 33–36 (1993).

1992

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Computation speeds of different optical thin-film synthesis methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3790–3799 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Fabricius, “Gradient-index filters: designing filters with steep skirts, high reflection, and quintic matching layers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5191–5196 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabricius, “Gradient-index filters: conversion into a two-index solution by taking into account dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5216–5220 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Macleod, “New techniques revolutionize thin-film optical coatings,” Laser Focus World 28(11), 111–120 (1992).

R. Overend, D. R. Gibson, R. Marshall, K. Lewis, “Rugate filter fabrication using neutral cluster beam deposition,” Vacuum 43, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. G. Bovard, “Ion-assisted processing of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 206, 224–229 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

1988

1983

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978

1976

L. Sossi, “On the theory of synthesis of multilayer dielectric light filters,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 25, 171–176 (1976).

1974

L. Sossi, “A method for the synthesis of multilayer dielectric interference coatings,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 23, 223–237 (1974).

1968

L. Sossi, P. Kard, “On the theory of the reflection and transmission of light by a thin inhomogeneous dielectric film,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 17, 41–48 (1968).

1967

Allen, J.

J. Allen, B. D. Herrington, S. Jansen, J. C. Blomfield, “Graded rugate filters for head-up displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 134–136.

J. Allen, P. G. Girow, B. Herrington, P. Gee, “Rugate filters for image projection in head-mounted displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 470–475 (1994).

Bartholomew, C. S.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. R. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SixNy on room temperature polycarbonate,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jacobson, ed., Proc. Soc. SPIE821, 198–204 (1987).

Betz, H. T.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. R. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SixNy on room temperature polycarbonate,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jacobson, ed., Proc. Soc. SPIE821, 198–204 (1987).

Blomfield, J. C.

J. Allen, B. D. Herrington, S. Jansen, J. C. Blomfield, “Graded rugate filters for head-up displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 134–136.

Bourget, L.

L. Bourget, B. Lane, J. Ding, “Large area ECR processing,” in Symposium A, Amorphous Insulating Thin Films II, at the European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 24–27 May 1994, paper A-VII-XII/P51 (abstract only).

Bovard, B. G.

Bulkin, P. V.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, P. V. Bulkin, “Long dual-cavity fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor with rugate mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1059–1063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Effect of process parameters on the properties of electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposited silicon-oxynitride,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 403–408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposited by electron cyclotron plasma-enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, F. J. Burger, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition for multilayer structures of silicon nitride on silicon,” S. Afr. J. Phys. 16, 33–36 (1993).

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “ECR plasma CVD for rugate filters manufacturing,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 462–469 (1994).

Burger, F. J.

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, F. J. Burger, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition for multilayer structures of silicon nitride on silicon,” S. Afr. J. Phys. 16, 33–36 (1993).

Burton, R. L.

Campbell, J. H.

M. L. Elder, K. S. Jancaitis, D. Milam, J. H. Campbell, “Optical characterization of damage resistant ‘kilolayer’ rugate filters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Report UCRL-JC-105036. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Carosella, C. A.

Chtcherbakov, A. A.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, P. V. Bulkin, “Long dual-cavity fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor with rugate mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1059–1063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chumakov, A. A.

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Delano, E.

Ding, J.

L. Bourget, B. Lane, J. Ding, “Large area ECR processing,” in Symposium A, Amorphous Insulating Thin Films II, at the European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 24–27 May 1994, paper A-VII-XII/P51 (abstract only).

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Donovan, E. P.

Elder, M. L.

M. L. Elder, K. S. Jancaitis, D. Milam, J. H. Campbell, “Optical characterization of damage resistant ‘kilolayer’ rugate filters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Report UCRL-JC-105036. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Fabricius, H.

Garrido, J.

M. J. Hernandez, J. Garrido, J. Piqueras, “Silicon dioxide deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma: kinetic and ellipsometric studies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 581–584 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gee, P.

J. Allen, P. G. Girow, B. Herrington, P. Gee, “Rugate filters for image projection in head-mounted displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 470–475 (1994).

Gibson, D. R.

R. Overend, D. R. Gibson, R. Marshall, K. Lewis, “Rugate filter fabrication using neutral cluster beam deposition,” Vacuum 43, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Girow, P. G.

J. Allen, P. G. Girow, B. Herrington, P. Gee, “Rugate filters for image projection in head-mounted displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 470–475 (1994).

Gluck, N. S.

Greenham, A. G.

A. G. Greenham, B. A. Nichols, R. M. Wood, N. Nourshargh, K. L. Lewis, “Optical interference filters with continuous refractive index modulations by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1018–1023 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grieser, J. L.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. R. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SixNy on room temperature polycarbonate,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jacobson, ed., Proc. Soc. SPIE821, 198–204 (1987).

Gunning, W. J.

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, N. S. Gluck, “Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2945–2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sankur, W. Southwell, R. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Rugate filter deposition by the OMVPE technique,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 125–127.

W. H. Southwell, R. L. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Using wavelets to design gradient-index interference coatings,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski, P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 46–59 (1993).

Hall, R.

H. Sankur, W. Southwell, R. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Rugate filter deposition by the OMVPE technique,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 125–127.

Hall, R. L.

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, N. S. Gluck, “Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2945–2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, R. L. Hall, “Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2949–2951 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, R. L. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Using wavelets to design gradient-index interference coatings,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski, P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 46–59 (1993).

Hernandez, M. J.

M. J. Hernandez, J. Garrido, J. Piqueras, “Silicon dioxide deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma: kinetic and ellipsometric studies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 581–584 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herrington, B.

J. Allen, P. G. Girow, B. Herrington, P. Gee, “Rugate filters for image projection in head-mounted displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 470–475 (1994).

Herrington, B. D.

J. Allen, B. D. Herrington, S. Jansen, J. C. Blomfield, “Graded rugate filters for head-up displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 134–136.

Hubler, G. K.

Jancaitis, K. S.

M. L. Elder, K. S. Jancaitis, D. Milam, J. H. Campbell, “Optical characterization of damage resistant ‘kilolayer’ rugate filters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Report UCRL-JC-105036. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Jansen, S.

J. Allen, B. D. Herrington, S. Jansen, J. C. Blomfield, “Graded rugate filters for head-up displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 134–136.

Kahn, A. D. F.

Kard, P.

L. Sossi, P. Kard, “On the theory of the reflection and transmission of light by a thin inhomogeneous dielectric film,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 17, 41–48 (1968).

Khudobin, S. A.

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lacquet, B. M.

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Effect of process parameters on the properties of electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposited silicon-oxynitride,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 403–408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposited by electron cyclotron plasma-enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, F. J. Burger, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition for multilayer structures of silicon nitride on silicon,” S. Afr. J. Phys. 16, 33–36 (1993).

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “ECR plasma CVD for rugate filters manufacturing,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 462–469 (1994).

Lane, B.

L. Bourget, B. Lane, J. Ding, “Large area ECR processing,” in Symposium A, Amorphous Insulating Thin Films II, at the European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 24–27 May 1994, paper A-VII-XII/P51 (abstract only).

Lewis, K.

R. Overend, D. R. Gibson, R. Marshall, K. Lewis, “Rugate filter fabrication using neutral cluster beam deposition,” Vacuum 43, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, K. L.

A. G. Greenham, B. A. Nichols, R. M. Wood, N. Nourshargh, K. L. Lewis, “Optical interference filters with continuous refractive index modulations by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1018–1023 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Lim, S.

S. Lim, J. H. Ryu, J. F. Wager, T. K. Plant, “Rugate filters grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 245, 141–145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, D.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, “New techniques revolutionize thin-film optical coatings,” Laser Focus World 28(11), 111–120 (1992).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, U.K., 1986).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, R.

R. Overend, D. R. Gibson, R. Marshall, K. Lewis, “Rugate filter fabrication using neutral cluster beam deposition,” Vacuum 43, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maximov, I. A.

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, G. M.

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

M. L. Elder, K. S. Jancaitis, D. Milam, J. H. Campbell, “Optical characterization of damage resistant ‘kilolayer’ rugate filters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Report UCRL-JC-105036. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Murarka, N. R.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. R. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SixNy on room temperature polycarbonate,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jacobson, ed., Proc. Soc. SPIE821, 198–204 (1987).

Nichols, B. A.

A. G. Greenham, B. A. Nichols, R. M. Wood, N. Nourshargh, K. L. Lewis, “Optical interference filters with continuous refractive index modulations by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1018–1023 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nourshargh, N.

A. G. Greenham, B. A. Nichols, R. M. Wood, N. Nourshargh, K. L. Lewis, “Optical interference filters with continuous refractive index modulations by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1018–1023 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Overend, R.

R. Overend, D. R. Gibson, R. Marshall, K. Lewis, “Rugate filter fabrication using neutral cluster beam deposition,” Vacuum 43, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piqueras, J.

M. J. Hernandez, J. Garrido, J. Piqueras, “Silicon dioxide deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma: kinetic and ellipsometric studies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 581–584 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plant, T. K.

S. Lim, J. H. Ryu, J. F. Wager, T. K. Plant, “Rugate filters grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 245, 141–145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

S. Lim, J. H. Ryu, J. F. Wager, T. K. Plant, “Rugate filters grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 245, 141–145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, W. Southwell, R. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Rugate filter deposition by the OMVPE technique,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 125–127.

Shapoval, S. Yu.

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sossi, L.

L. Sossi, “On the theory of synthesis of multilayer dielectric light filters,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 25, 171–176 (1976).

L. Sossi, “A method for the synthesis of multilayer dielectric interference coatings,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 23, 223–237 (1974).

L. Sossi, P. Kard, “On the theory of the reflection and transmission of light by a thin inhomogeneous dielectric film,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 17, 41–48 (1968).

Southwell, W.

H. Sankur, W. Southwell, R. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Rugate filter deposition by the OMVPE technique,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 125–127.

Southwell, W. H.

Spammer, S. J.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, P. V. Bulkin, “Long dual-cavity fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor with rugate mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1059–1063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spence, R. A.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. R. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SixNy on room temperature polycarbonate,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jacobson, ed., Proc. Soc. SPIE821, 198–204 (1987).

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, P. V. Bulkin, “Long dual-cavity fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor with rugate mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1059–1063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Effect of process parameters on the properties of electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposited silicon-oxynitride,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 403–408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposited by electron cyclotron plasma-enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, F. J. Burger, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition for multilayer structures of silicon nitride on silicon,” S. Afr. J. Phys. 16, 33–36 (1993).

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “ECR plasma CVD for rugate filters manufacturing,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 462–469 (1994).

Van Vechten, D.

Verly, P. G.

P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Iterative correction process for optical thin film synthesis with the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3672–3684 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, W. J. Wild, R. L. Burton, “Synthesis of high rejection filters with the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2864–2875 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Verly, “Fourier transform technique with frequency filtering for antireflection coatings design,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 161–167 (1994).

Wager, J. F.

S. Lim, J. H. Ryu, J. F. Wager, T. K. Plant, “Rugate filters grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 245, 141–145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wild, W. J.

Wood, R. M.

A. G. Greenham, B. A. Nichols, R. M. Wood, N. Nourshargh, K. L. Lewis, “Optical interference filters with continuous refractive index modulations by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1018–1023 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woodberry, F. J.

Appl. Opt.

J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Lowe, “Optical thin film synthesis program based on the use of Fourier transforms,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3039–3050 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, W. J. Wild, R. L. Burton, “Synthesis of high rejection filters with the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2864–2875 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Verly, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Iterative correction process for optical thin film synthesis with the Fourier transform method,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3672–3684 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Bovard, “Derivation of a matrix describing a rugate dielectric thin film,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1998–2005 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Bovard, “Rugate filter design: the modified Fourier transform technique,” Appl. Opt. 29, 24–30 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Bovard, “Rugate filter theory: an overview,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5427–5442 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabricius, “Gradient-index filters: designing filters with steep skirts, high reflection, and quintic matching layers,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5191–5196 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabricius, “Gradient-index filters: conversion into a two-index solution by taking into account dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5216–5220 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, “Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5091–5094 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, R. L. Hall, “Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2949–2951 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Gunning, R. L. Hall, F. J. Woodberry, W. H. Southwell, N. S. Gluck, “Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2945–2948 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Donovan, D. Van Vechten, A. D. F. Kahn, C. A. Carosella, G. K. Hubler, “Near infrared rugate filter fabrication by ion beam assisted deposition of Si(1−x)Nx films,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2940–2944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Computation speeds of different optical thin-film synthesis methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3790–3799 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wild, “Analytic improvement of Sossi’s Q function,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3272–3273 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat.

L. Sossi, P. Kard, “On the theory of the reflection and transmission of light by a thin inhomogeneous dielectric film,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 17, 41–48 (1968).

L. Sossi, “A method for the synthesis of multilayer dielectric interference coatings,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 23, 223–237 (1974).

L. Sossi, “On the theory of synthesis of multilayer dielectric light filters,” Eesti NSV Tead. Akad. Toim. Fuus. Mat. 25, 171–176 (1976).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Properties and applications of electron cyclotron plasma deposited SiOxNy films with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 484–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Effect of process parameters on the properties of electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposited silicon-oxynitride,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 187, 403–408 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. E

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

M. J. Hernandez, J. Garrido, J. Piqueras, “Silicon dioxide deposition by electron cyclotron resonance plasma: kinetic and ellipsometric studies,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 581–584 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World

H. A. Macleod, “New techniques revolutionize thin-film optical coatings,” Laser Focus World 28(11), 111–120 (1992).

Opt. Eng.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, P. V. Bulkin, “Long dual-cavity fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain sensor with rugate mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1059–1063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Optical properties of SiNx deposited by electron cyclotron plasma-enhanced deposition,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2894–2897 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Greenham, B. A. Nichols, R. M. Wood, N. Nourshargh, K. L. Lewis, “Optical interference filters with continuous refractive index modulations by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1018–1023 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Afr. J. Phys.

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, F. J. Burger, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition for multilayer structures of silicon nitride on silicon,” S. Afr. J. Phys. 16, 33–36 (1993).

Thin Solid Films

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “Electron cyclotron resonance plasma deposition of SiNx for optical applications,” Thin Solid Films 241, 247–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bovard, “Ion-assisted processing of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 206, 224–229 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Lim, J. H. Ryu, J. F. Wager, T. K. Plant, “Rugate filters grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 245, 141–145 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

R. Overend, D. R. Gibson, R. Marshall, K. Lewis, “Rugate filter fabrication using neutral cluster beam deposition,” Vacuum 43, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu. Shapoval, P. V. Bulkin, A. A. Chumakov, S. A. Khudobin, I. A. Maximov, G. M. Mikhailov, “Compact ECR source of ions and radicals for semiconductor surface treatment,” Vacuum 43, 195–197 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Bourget, B. Lane, J. Ding, “Large area ECR processing,” in Symposium A, Amorphous Insulating Thin Films II, at the European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 24–27 May 1994, paper A-VII-XII/P51 (abstract only).

P. G. Verly, “Fourier transform technique with frequency filtering for antireflection coatings design,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 161–167 (1994).

M. L. Elder, K. S. Jancaitis, D. Milam, J. H. Campbell, “Optical characterization of damage resistant ‘kilolayer’ rugate filters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, Report UCRL-JC-105036. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

J. Allen, P. G. Girow, B. Herrington, P. Gee, “Rugate filters for image projection in head-mounted displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 470–475 (1994).

P. V. Bulkin, P. L. Swart, B. M. Lacquet, “ECR plasma CVD for rugate filters manufacturing,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, A. Duparre, G. Emiliani, J.-P. Gailiard, K. H. Guenther, R. P. Nutterfield, E. P. Pelletier, H. Rudigier, A. MacLeod, C. Boccara, eds., Proc. SPIE2253, 462–469 (1994).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, Bristol, U.K., 1986).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Southwell, “Use of gradient index for spectral filters,” in Solid State Optical Control Devices, P. A. Yeh, ed., Proc. SPIE464, 110–114 (1984).

W. H. Southwell, R. L. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Using wavelets to design gradient-index interference coatings,” in Inhomogeneous and Quasi-inhomogeneous Optical Coatings, J. A. Dobrowolski, P. G. Verly, eds., Proc. SPIE2046, 46–59 (1993).

H. Sankur, W. Southwell, R. Hall, W. J. Gunning, “Rugate filter deposition by the OMVPE technique,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 125–127.

C. S. Bartholomew, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. R. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SixNy on room temperature polycarbonate,” in Modeling of Optical Thin Films, M. R. Jacobson, ed., Proc. Soc. SPIE821, 198–204 (1987).

J. Allen, B. D. Herrington, S. Jansen, J. C. Blomfield, “Graded rugate filters for head-up displays,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of OSA 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 134–136.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Target, design (after 10 successive approximations) and predicted reflectance curves of 50% reflectors designed for (a) non-dispersive and lossless material, (b) dispersive and lossless material, and (c) dispersive and lossy material. Predicted reflectance response in each case was calculated with a complex refractive index of real material (SiO x N y ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index profile (at a reference wavelength of 1000 nm) of the 50% reflector. [The response is depicted in Fig. 1(c).]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Target and predicted reflectance curve (after eight successive approximations) of the design example of a three-line rugate filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive-index profile (at a reference wavelength of 755 nm) of the design example of a three-line rugate filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Target and predicted reflectance curves of a three-line rugate filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index profile (at a reference wavelength of 755 nm) of the three-line rugate filter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic representation of the computer-controlled ECR system for the deposition of silicon oxynitride: MFC1–MFC3, mass flow; MW, microwave.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal gas-flow dependencies required for growth of the three-line rugate filter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured and predicted reflectance of the three-line rugate filter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured and predicted transmittance of the three-line rugate filter.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

+ d n d x 1 2 n exp ( i 2 π w x ) d x = Q ( w ) exp [ i ϕ ( w ) ] ,
x = 2 0 z n ( u ) d u ,
Q = [ ln ( T ) ] 1 / 2 .
ϕ ( w ) = c w × sin ( h w ) ,
ϕ ( w ) = π w w min + w max π 2 sin ( K π w w min w max w min ) ,
n ( x ) = exp { 2 π w min w max Q ( w ) w sin [ ϕ ( w ) 2 π w x ] d w } .
n exp = n [ n min n max n ( x ) min n ( x ) max ] 1 / 2 ,

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