Abstract

The reflectance of a W–B4C multilayer mirror, with a period thickness that increased with depth into the multilayer, was measured at near-normal incidence with synchrotron radiation and at grazing incidence with Cu Kα radiation. The period thickness increased linearly from 17.9 Å at the top of the multilayer structure to 21.9 Å at the substrate while the same ratio of nodal layer to period thickness was maintained. For a grazing angle of 80° (10° from normal incidence), the peak reflectance was 1.1% at a wavelength of 36 Å, and the reflectance profile was 1 Å wide. For Cu Kα radiation the reflectance peaked at a grazing angle of 2.4° and was 0.4° wide. Compared with a W–B4C multilayer mirror with a constant period thickness, the depth-graded multilayer mirror has wider reflectance profiles at near-normal and grazing incidences, resulting in larger integrated reflectances and wider fields of view.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. S. Heavens, H. M. Liddell, “Staggered broad-band reflecting multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 5, 373–376 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Nagel, J. V. Gilfrich, T. W. Barbee, “Bragg diffractors with graded-thickness multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 63–65 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Meekins, R. G. Cruddace, H. Gursky, “Optimization of layered synthetic microstructures for narrowband reflectivity at soft x-ray and EUV wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2757–2763 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. Meekins, R. G. Cruddace, H. Gursky, “Optimization of layered synthetic microstructures for broadband reflectivity at soft x-ray and EUV wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 26, 990–994 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Gu, G. V. Marr, M. A. Player, “Optimization of reflectivity of periodic and quasiperiodic multilayer films at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 77, 99–106 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Mezei, “Novel polarized neutron devices: supermirror and spin component amplifier,” Commun. Phys. 1, 81 (1976).
  7. J. Wood, “Status of supermirror research at OSMC,” in Neutron Optical Devices and Applications, C. F. Majkrzak, J. L. Wood, ed., Proc. SPIE1738, 22 (1992).
  8. S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18, 672–674 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).
  10. A. F. Jankowski, D. M. Makowiecki, “Manufacture, structure and performance of W–B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 64–74 (1988).
  11. A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. 7620-95-7738 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  17. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30,000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1990 (1)

E. Gu, G. V. Marr, M. A. Player, “Optimization of reflectivity of periodic and quasiperiodic multilayer films at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 77, 99–106 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

J. F. Meekins, R. G. Cruddace, H. Gursky, “Optimization of layered synthetic microstructures for narrowband reflectivity at soft x-ray and EUV wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2757–2763 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nagel, J. V. Gilfrich, T. W. Barbee, “Bragg diffractors with graded-thickness multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 63–65 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

F. Mezei, “Novel polarized neutron devices: supermirror and spin component amplifier,” Commun. Phys. 1, 81 (1976).

1966 (1)

Barbee, T. W.

D. J. Nagel, J. V. Gilfrich, T. W. Barbee, “Bragg diffractors with graded-thickness multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 63–65 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, F.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

Craig, W. W.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30,000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Freund, A.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

Gilfrich, J. V.

D. J. Nagel, J. V. Gilfrich, T. W. Barbee, “Bragg diffractors with graded-thickness multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 63–65 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

Gu, E.

E. Gu, G. V. Marr, M. A. Player, “Optimization of reflectivity of periodic and quasiperiodic multilayer films at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 77, 99–106 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30,000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gursky, H.

Gutman, G.

Heavens, O. S.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30,000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herman, G. S.

Hoghoj, P.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

Hunter, W. R.

J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. 7620-95-7738 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Jankowski, A. F.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, D. M. Makowiecki, “Manufacture, structure and performance of W–B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 64–74 (1988).

Joensen, K. D.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

Kabler, M. N.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kirkland, J. P.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. 7620-95-7738 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Liddell, H. M.

Makowiecki, D. M.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, D. M. Makowiecki, “Manufacture, structure and performance of W–B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 64–74 (1988).

Marr, G. V.

E. Gu, G. V. Marr, M. A. Player, “Optimization of reflectivity of periodic and quasiperiodic multilayer films at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 77, 99–106 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meekins, J. F.

Mezei, F.

F. Mezei, “Novel polarized neutron devices: supermirror and spin component amplifier,” Commun. Phys. 1, 81 (1976).

Morales, R. I.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, D. J.

D. J. Nagel, J. V. Gilfrich, T. W. Barbee, “Bragg diffractors with graded-thickness multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 63–65 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Player, M. A.

E. Gu, G. V. Marr, M. A. Player, “Optimization of reflectivity of periodic and quasiperiodic multilayer films at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 77, 99–106 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. 7620-95-7738 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Rosen, R. S.

Sadeghi, H. R.

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schrawyer, L. R.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. 7620-95-7738 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Stearns, D. G.

Susini, J.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

Vernon, S. P.

Wall, M. A.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. T.

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

J. F. Seely, G. Gutman, J. Wood, G. S. Herman, M. P. Kowalski, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Normal-incidence reflectance of W/B4C multilayer mirrors in the 34–50 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3541–3543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

J. Wood, “Status of supermirror research at OSMC,” in Neutron Optical Devices and Applications, C. F. Majkrzak, J. L. Wood, ed., Proc. SPIE1738, 22 (1992).

Ziegler, E.

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (4)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50–30,000 eV, Z=1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Commun. Phys. (1)

F. Mezei, “Novel polarized neutron devices: supermirror and spin component amplifier,” Commun. Phys. 1, 81 (1976).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, M. A. Wall, W. W. Craig, R. I. Morales, D. M. Makowiecki, “Interfacial bonding in W/C and W/B4C multilayers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2914–2918 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (2)

W. R. Hunter, R. T. Williams, J. C. Rife, J. P. Kirkland, M. N. Kabler, “A grating/crystal monochromator for the spectral range 5 eV to 5 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 141–153 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Nagel, J. V. Gilfrich, T. W. Barbee, “Bragg diffractors with graded-thickness multilayers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 63–65 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Gu, G. V. Marr, M. A. Player, “Optimization of reflectivity of periodic and quasiperiodic multilayer films at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Opt. Commun. 77, 99–106 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Uncertainties in reflectance measurements made on the NRL beamline X24C,” NRL Memorandum Rep. 7620-95-7738 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1995).

K. D. Joensen, P. Hoghoj, F. Christenson, P. Gorenstein, J. Susini, E. Ziegler, A. Freund, J. Wood, “Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation,” in Multilayer and Grazing Incidence X-Ray/EUV Optics II, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, ed., Proc. SPIE2011, 360–372 (1993).

A. F. Jankowski, D. M. Makowiecki, “Manufacture, structure and performance of W–B4C multilayer x-ray mirrors,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. SPIE984, 64–74 (1988).

J. Wood, “Status of supermirror research at OSMC,” in Neutron Optical Devices and Applications, C. F. Majkrzak, J. L. Wood, ed., Proc. SPIE1738, 22 (1992).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured reflectance (data points) and the calculated reflectance (solid curve) of the depth-graded W–B4C multilayer mirror at a grazing angle of 80° for 90% p-polarized radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectance of the W–B4C depth-graded multilayer as a function of grazing angle and at a wavelength of 36.5 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Reflectances of the two W–B4C depth-graded multilayer mirrors measured for Cu Kα radiation with a wavelength of 1.543 Å. The detector partially occulted the radiation beam at grazing angles less than 0.3°. (c) Calculated reflectance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectances, calculated at a 1° grazing angle, of (a) the W–B4C depth-graded multilayer (solid curve), (b) the W–B4C multilayer with a constant period thickness of 19 Å (dashed curve), and (c) a thick W coating (dashed-dotted curve).

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