Abstract

The stability of the responsivity of trap detectors under vacuum has been studied by means of a special chamber designed for the test of photodetectors at low pressure. The first experiments at a wavelength of 647 nm show that the responsivity variations are smaller than the uncertainties of the measurements, approximately 3 parts in 105, when the detector operates successively in air, under vacuum, and then again in air. Calculations based on experiments with single windowless photodiodes indicate that the change in trap responsivity that is due to vacuum effects should be smaller than 1 part in 105, at least in the visible part of the wavelength range. This stability makes trap detectors suitable for cryogenic radiometry when one uses transfer detectors under vacuum.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. D. Stock, H. Hofer, “Present state of the PTB primary standard for radiant power based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 291–296 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. P. Boivin, “Monochromator based cryogenic radiometry at the NRCC,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).
  3. N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, “Report on the international comparison of spectral responsivity of silicon detectors,” Rapport BIPM 94-9 (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sevres, France, 1994).
  5. J. M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30, 327–333 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Gardner, “Transmission trap detectors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5914–5918 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, O. Touyar, J. Bastie, “First results of measurements with the BIPM cryogenic radiometer and comparison with the INM cryogenic radiometer,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).
  8. R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1994

1993

K. D. Stock, H. Hofer, “Present state of the PTB primary standard for radiant power based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 291–296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30, 327–333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bastie, J.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, O. Touyar, J. Bastie, “First results of measurements with the BIPM cryogenic radiometer and comparison with the INM cryogenic radiometer,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

Boivin, L. P.

L. P. Boivin, “Monochromator based cryogenic radiometry at the NRCC,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

Bonhoure, J.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. L.

Goebel, R.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, “Report on the international comparison of spectral responsivity of silicon detectors,” Rapport BIPM 94-9 (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sevres, France, 1994).

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, O. Touyar, J. Bastie, “First results of measurements with the BIPM cryogenic radiometer and comparison with the INM cryogenic radiometer,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

Hofer, H.

K. D. Stock, H. Hofer, “Present state of the PTB primary standard for radiant power based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 291–296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, “Report on the international comparison of spectral responsivity of silicon detectors,” Rapport BIPM 94-9 (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sevres, France, 1994).

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, O. Touyar, J. Bastie, “First results of measurements with the BIPM cryogenic radiometer and comparison with the INM cryogenic radiometer,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

Palmer, J. M.

J. M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30, 327–333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pello, R.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, “Report on the international comparison of spectral responsivity of silicon detectors,” Rapport BIPM 94-9 (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sevres, France, 1994).

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, O. Touyar, J. Bastie, “First results of measurements with the BIPM cryogenic radiometer and comparison with the INM cryogenic radiometer,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

Stock, K. D.

K. D. Stock, H. Hofer, “Present state of the PTB primary standard for radiant power based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 291–296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Touyar, O.

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, O. Touyar, J. Bastie, “First results of measurements with the BIPM cryogenic radiometer and comparison with the INM cryogenic radiometer,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

Appl. Opt.

Metrologia

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, J. Bonhoure, “Effects of humidity and cleaning on the sensitivity of Si photodiodes,” Metrologia 28, 211–215 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Palmer, “Alternative configurations for trap detectors,” Metrologia 30, 327–333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Stock, H. Hofer, “Present state of the PTB primary standard for radiant power based on cryogenic radiometry,” Metrologia 30, 291–296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Fox, “Trap detectors and their properties,” Metrologia 28, 197–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, “Report on the international comparison of spectral responsivity of silicon detectors,” Rapport BIPM 94-9 (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sevres, France, 1994).

L. P. Boivin, “Monochromator based cryogenic radiometry at the NRCC,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

R. Köhler, R. Goebel, R. Pello, O. Touyar, J. Bastie, “First results of measurements with the BIPM cryogenic radiometer and comparison with the INM cryogenic radiometer,” to be published in Metrologia32 (1996).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement. Side and top views of the vacuum chamber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative responsivity variations of detectors when placed under vacuum in two different experiments: reflection trap detector (filled diamonds) and single windowless photodiode (open squares).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty Budget

Metrics