Abstract

A study of the dependence of the gain-switched laser operation of chromium forsterite on crystal parameters is presented. Results are reported for a wide range of chromium (IV) ion concentration: 0.02–0.12 at. % and 12–41 figure of merit, with emphasis on performance of the recently developed material with a dopant level of >0.10 at. %. Threshold and slope efficiency calculations are compared with measured performance for all crystals, with variation of pump polarization and output coupling. With 3% output coupling, the lowest threshold of 1.8 mJ, and highest slope efficiency of 13% were measured for a short, high-dopant-level crystal. With 33% output coupling a slope efficiency of 44% was measured for this crystal. Results demonstrate the considerable potential of short, high-dopant-level crystals for applications such as amplification, diode pumping, and narrow-bandwidth operation.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: is Cr4+ the lasing ion?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Hou, H. Zhu, Y. Shenghui, W. Sitinh, B. Hu, “Growth of Cr4+:Mg2SiO4 crystal by Czochralski method,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 84–89 (1993).
  21. B. Hu, H. Zhu, P. Deng, P. Pan, “Growth and perfection of chromium-doped forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 991–995 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. F. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1582–1595 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).
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  27. M. G. Livshits, Y. A. Mishkel, A. A. Tarasov, “Thermooptical and thermophysical characteristics of forsterite crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1204–1206 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1995

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion concentration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116, 131–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, Y. Nobe, “The behavior of chromium ions in forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 996–1000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Hu, H. Zhu, P. Deng, P. Pan, “Growth and perfection of chromium-doped forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 991–995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, B. I. Minkov, “Generation of 25-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser with optimized group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1541–1543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

T. J. Carrig, C. R. Pollock, “Tunable, cw operation of a multiwatt forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1662–1663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Behrens, M. G. Jani, R. C. Powell, H. C. Verdun, A. Pinto, “Lasing properties of chromium-aluminium-doped forsterite pumped with an alexandrite laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2042–2049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Moncorgé, G. Cormier, D. J. Simkin, J. A. Capobianco, “Fluorescence analysis of chromium-doped forsterite (Mg2SiO4),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 114–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Livshits, Y. A. Mishkel, A. A. Tarasov, “Thermooptical and thermophysical characteristics of forsterite crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1204–1206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

V. Petricevic, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, “Forsterite laser tunes in near-IR,” Laser Focus World 11, 109–115 (1990).

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Continuous-wave laser operation of chromium-doped forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 14, 612–614 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: is Cr4+ the lasing ion?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. F. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1582–1595 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

1966

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

A. Seas, V. Petricevic, R. R. Alfano, “Generation of sub-100-fs pulses from a cw mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 937–939 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petricevic, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, “Forsterite laser tunes in near-IR,” Laser Focus World 11, 109–115 (1990).

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Continuous-wave laser operation of chromium-doped forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 14, 612–614 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: is Cr4+ the lasing ion?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Andrauskas, D. M.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, H.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baryshevski, V. G.

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Behrens, E. G.

E. G. Behrens, M. G. Jani, R. C. Powell, H. C. Verdun, A. Pinto, “Lasing properties of chromium-aluminium-doped forsterite pumped with an alexandrite laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2042–2049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J. A.

R. Moncorgé, G. Cormier, D. J. Simkin, J. A. Capobianco, “Fluorescence analysis of chromium-doped forsterite (Mg2SiO4),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 114–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T. J.

Casperson, L. W.

Clay, R. A.

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Cormier, G.

R. Moncorgé, G. Cormier, D. J. Simkin, J. A. Capobianco, “Fluorescence analysis of chromium-doped forsterite (Mg2SiO4),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 114–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Demidovich, S. A.

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deng, P.

B. Hu, H. Zhu, P. Deng, P. Pan, “Growth and perfection of chromium-doped forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 991–995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, W. M.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eilers, H.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

Findlay, D.

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Continuous-wave laser operation of chromium-doped forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 14, 612–614 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: is Cr4+ the lasing ion?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

Hodel, W.

G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y.

Y. Hou, H. Zhu, Y. Shenghui, W. Sitinh, B. Hu, “Growth of Cr4+:Mg2SiO4 crystal by Czochralski method,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 84–89 (1993).

Hu, B.

B. Hu, H. Zhu, P. Deng, P. Pan, “Growth and perfection of chromium-doped forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 991–995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hou, H. Zhu, Y. Shenghui, W. Sitinh, B. Hu, “Growth of Cr4+:Mg2SiO4 crystal by Czochralski method,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 84–89 (1993).

Huber, G.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. A.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion concentration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116, 131–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M. G.

E. G. Behrens, M. G. Jani, R. C. Powell, H. C. Verdun, A. Pinto, “Lasing properties of chromium-aluminium-doped forsterite pumped with an alexandrite laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2042–2049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jonusauskas, G.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion concentration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116, 131–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kimaev, A. E.

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).

Korzhik, M. V.

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Kuck, S.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, M. G.

M. G. Livshits, Y. A. Mishkel, A. A. Tarasov, “Thermooptical and thermophysical characteristics of forsterite crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1204–1206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

McCollum, T.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meilman, M. L.

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Mikhailov, V.

G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Minkov, B.

G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Minkov, B. I.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion concentration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116, 131–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, B. I. Minkov, “Generation of 25-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser with optimized group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1541–1543 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Mishkel, I. I.

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Mishkel, Y. A.

M. G. Livshits, Y. A. Mishkel, A. A. Tarasov, “Thermooptical and thermophysical characteristics of forsterite crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1204–1206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

R. Moncorgé, G. Cormier, D. J. Simkin, J. A. Capobianco, “Fluorescence analysis of chromium-doped forsterite (Mg2SiO4),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 114–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

P. F. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1582–1595 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nobe, Y.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, Y. Nobe, “The behavior of chromium ions in forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 996–1000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, “Optical properties and crystal growth atmosphere of forsterite,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 52–56.

Oberlé, J.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion concentration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116, 131–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Onishchukov, G.

G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pan, P.

B. Hu, H. Zhu, P. Deng, P. Pan, “Growth and perfection of chromium-doped forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 991–995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

Peterman, K.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Petricevic, V.

A. Seas, V. Petricevic, R. R. Alfano, “Generation of sub-100-fs pulses from a cw mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 937–939 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petricevic, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, “Forsterite laser tunes in near-IR,” Laser Focus World 11, 109–115 (1990).

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Continuous-wave laser operation of chromium-doped forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 14, 612–614 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: is Cr4+ the lasing ion?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, A.

E. G. Behrens, M. G. Jani, R. C. Powell, H. C. Verdun, A. Pinto, “Lasing properties of chromium-aluminium-doped forsterite pumped with an alexandrite laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2042–2049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, C. R.

Powell, R. C.

E. G. Behrens, M. G. Jani, R. C. Powell, H. C. Verdun, A. Pinto, “Lasing properties of chromium-aluminium-doped forsterite pumped with an alexandrite laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2042–2049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Rose, T. S.

Rullière, C.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion concentration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116, 131–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seas, A.

Segawa, A. Y.

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shenghui, Y.

Y. Hou, H. Zhu, Y. Shenghui, W. Sitinh, B. Hu, “Growth of Cr4+:Mg2SiO4 crystal by Czochralski method,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 84–89 (1993).

Shkadarevich, A. P.

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Simkin, D. J.

R. Moncorgé, G. Cormier, D. J. Simkin, J. A. Capobianco, “Fluorescence analysis of chromium-doped forsterite (Mg2SiO4),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 114–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singel, D. J.

Sitinh, W.

Y. Hou, H. Zhu, Y. Shenghui, W. Sitinh, B. Hu, “Growth of Cr4+:Mg2SiO4 crystal by Czochralski method,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 84–89 (1993).

Smith, R. J.

Sugimoto, A.

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, “Optical properties and crystal growth atmosphere of forsterite,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 52–56.

Tarasov, A. A.

M. G. Livshits, Y. A. Mishkel, A. A. Tarasov, “Thermooptical and thermophysical characteristics of forsterite crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1204–1206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

Thomas, L. M.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Verdun, H. C.

E. G. Behrens, M. G. Jani, R. C. Powell, H. C. Verdun, A. Pinto, “Lasing properties of chromium-aluminium-doped forsterite pumped with an alexandrite laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2042–2049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Verdun, H. R.

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Voloshin, V. A.

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitmore, M. H.

Wise, F.

Yamagishi, K.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, Y. Nobe, “The behavior of chromium ions in forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 996–1000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, “Optical properties and crystal growth atmosphere of forsterite,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 52–56.

Yamaguchi, Y.

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, Y. Nobe, “The behavior of chromium ions in forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 996–1000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, “Optical properties and crystal growth atmosphere of forsterite,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 52–56.

Yamazaki, T. F.

T. F. Yamazaki, Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., 1333-2 Haraichi Ageo, Saitama 362, Japan (private communication, 1994–1995).

Yanovsky, V.

Yen, W. M.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

B. Hu, H. Zhu, P. Deng, P. Pan, “Growth and perfection of chromium-doped forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 991–995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hou, H. Zhu, Y. Shenghui, W. Sitinh, B. Hu, “Growth of Cr4+:Mg2SiO4 crystal by Czochralski method,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 84–89 (1993).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1040–1042 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Petricevic, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in chromium-activated forsterite for near-infrared excitation: is Cr4+ the lasing ion?,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2590–2592 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Verdun, L. M. Thomas, D. M. Andrauskas, T. McCollum, A. Pinto, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser pumped with 1.06 μm radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2593–2595 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Kuck, K. Peterman, G. Huber, W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Behrens, M. G. Jani, R. C. Powell, H. C. Verdun, A. Pinto, “Lasing properties of chromium-aluminium-doped forsterite pumped with an alexandrite laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2042–2049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Moncorgé, G. Cormier, D. J. Simkin, J. A. Capobianco, “Fluorescence analysis of chromium-doped forsterite (Mg2SiO4),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 114–120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Moulton, “An investigation of the Co:MgF2 laser system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1582–1595 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, Y. Nobe, “The behavior of chromium ions in forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 996–1000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Hu, H. Zhu, P. Deng, P. Pan, “Growth and perfection of chromium-doped forsterite,” J. Cryst. Growth 128, 991–995 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Sugimoto, A. Y. Segawa, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Nobe, K. Yamagishi, P. Kim, S. Namba, “Flash lamp pumped tunable forsterite laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1833–1835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World

V. Petricevic, A. Seas, R. R. Alfano, “Forsterite laser tunes in near-IR,” Laser Focus World 11, 109–115 (1990).

Opt. Commun.

G. Onishchukov, W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, V. Mikhailov, B. Minkov, “CW lasing characteristics of high Cr4+-concentration forsterite,” Opt. Commun. 100, 137–140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion concentration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116, 131–135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett.

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

M. G. Livshits, Y. A. Mishkel, A. A. Tarasov, “Thermooptical and thermophysical characteristics of forsterite crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1204–1206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Baryshevski, V. A. Voloshin, S. A. Demidovich, A. E. Kimaev, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Efficient flashlamp-pumped chromium-activated forsterite crystal laser tunable in the infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1297–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamagishi, A. Sugimoto, Y. Nobe, “Optical properties and crystal growth atmosphere of forsterite,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 52–56.

Y. Hou, H. Zhu, Y. Shenghui, W. Sitinh, B. Hu, “Growth of Cr4+:Mg2SiO4 crystal by Czochralski method,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 84–89 (1993).

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).

T. F. Yamazaki, Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., 1333-2 Haraichi Ageo, Saitama 362, Japan (private communication, 1994–1995).

V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshits, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. I. Minkov, A. P. Shkadarevich, “Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 26–34.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pumping arrangement for the linear chromium forsterite laser cavity: OC, output coupler; HR, high reflector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output energy of the chromium forsterite laser as a function of Nd:YAG laser excitation energy for each of the five crystals in the study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output energy of the chromium forsterite laser as a function of Nd:YAG laser excitation energy for two orthogonal Nd:YAG polarization states. Results are shown for the 0.03- and 0.10-at. % Cr4+ concentration crystals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output energy of the chromium forsterite laser as a function of Nd:YAG laser excitation energy for two different output couplers. Results are shown for the 0.03- and 0.10-at. % Cr4+ concentration crystals.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of the Chromium Forsterite Laser Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental and Theoretical Laser Performance Characteristics for the Cr:Forsterite Laser Crystals

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FOM = α 1064 α 1235 ,
E p th = π hcw p 2 τ p ( L + T ) ( a 2 + 1 ) 4 στλ p [ 1 exp ( α 1 ) ] [ 1 exp ( τ p / τ ) ] ,
η s = ( T T + L ) η T η a η p η m ,
σ = πτ p hcw p 2 ( L + T ) ( a 2 + 1 ) 4 τλ p [ 1 exp ( α 1 ) ] [ 1 exp ( τ p / τ ) E p th ] .

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