Abstract

A research program involving two applications of tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) with multipass, long-path absorption cells to the detection of explosives contamination in soils is reported. In the first application, sensitive, specific real-time species concentration measurements by TILDAS have led to new understanding of the processes involved in explosives detection by the heating of contaminated soils and the quantification of the resulting pyrolysis gases. In the second, we present results of our calculations of the properties of astigmatic off-axis resonator absorption cells, which show that useful TILDAS path lengths can be achieved inside a cone penetrometer probe.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. E. Kolb, J. C. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, “Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation for measuring stable gases in the natural environment,” in Methods in Ecology: Trace Gases, P. A. Matson, R. C. Harriss, eds. (Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1995), pp. 258–290.
  2. H. I. Schiff, G. J. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermediates 20, 525–556 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Cheng, F. Bien, “Temperature profile measurements using CO line absorption at different vibrational levels,”AIAA J. 19, 1071–1076 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 24, 227–237 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Rosier, P. Gicquel, D. Henry, A. Coppalle, “Carbon monoxide concentrations and temperature measurements in a low pressure CH4–O2–NH3 flame,” Appl. Opt. 27, 360–364 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Rosier, P. Gicquel, D. Henry, A. Coppalle, “Flame analysis by diode laser spectroscopy,” Rech. Aerosp. 1988, 45–53 (1988).
  7. K. L. McNesby, R. G. Daniel, J. B. Morris, A. W. Miziolek, “Tomographic analysis of CO absorption in a low-pressure flame,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3318–3324 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).
  11. J. Wormhoudt, P. L. Kebabian, C. E. Kolb, “Embedded infrared fiber optic absorption studies of nitramine propellant strand burning,” Aerodyne Res. Rep. ARI-RR-1099 (Aerodyne Research, Billerica, Mass., 1994).
  12. E. R. Cespedes, B. H. Miles, S. H. Lieberman, “Development of optical sensors for the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS),” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Pub. SP-89 (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 621–632.
  13. E. R. Cespedes, S. S. Cooper, W. M. Davis, W. J. Buttner, W. C. Vickers, “In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system,” in Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, I. D. Aggarwal, S. Farquharson, E. Koglin, eds., Proc. SPIE2367, 33–42 (1994).
  14. T. B. Brill, K. J. James, “Thermal decomposition of energetic materials. 62. Reconciliation of the kinetics and mechanisms of TNT on the time scale from microseconds to hours,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 8759–8763 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. B. Brill, K. James, “Kinetics and mechanisms of thermal decomposition of nitroaromatic explosives,” Chem. Rev. 93, 2667–2692 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. R. Herriott, H. J. Schulte, “Folded optical delay lines,” Appl. Opt. 4, 883–889 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

H. I. Schiff, G. J. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermediates 20, 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. B. Brill, K. J. James, “Thermal decomposition of energetic materials. 62. Reconciliation of the kinetics and mechanisms of TNT on the time scale from microseconds to hours,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 8759–8763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Brill, K. James, “Kinetics and mechanisms of thermal decomposition of nitroaromatic explosives,” Chem. Rev. 93, 2667–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1981 (2)

W. Cheng, F. Bien, “Temperature profile measurements using CO line absorption at different vibrational levels,”AIAA J. 19, 1071–1076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Bechara, J.

H. I. Schiff, G. J. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermediates 20, 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bien, F.

W. Cheng, F. Bien, “Temperature profile measurements using CO line absorption at different vibrational levels,”AIAA J. 19, 1071–1076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brill, T. B.

T. B. Brill, K. J. James, “Thermal decomposition of energetic materials. 62. Reconciliation of the kinetics and mechanisms of TNT on the time scale from microseconds to hours,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 8759–8763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Brill, K. James, “Kinetics and mechanisms of thermal decomposition of nitroaromatic explosives,” Chem. Rev. 93, 2667–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buttner, W. J.

E. R. Cespedes, S. S. Cooper, W. M. Davis, W. J. Buttner, W. C. Vickers, “In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system,” in Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, I. D. Aggarwal, S. Farquharson, E. Koglin, eds., Proc. SPIE2367, 33–42 (1994).

Carduner, K. R.

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cespedes, E. R.

E. R. Cespedes, S. S. Cooper, W. M. Davis, W. J. Buttner, W. C. Vickers, “In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system,” in Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, I. D. Aggarwal, S. Farquharson, E. Koglin, eds., Proc. SPIE2367, 33–42 (1994).

E. R. Cespedes, B. H. Miles, S. H. Lieberman, “Development of optical sensors for the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS),” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Pub. SP-89 (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 621–632.

Cheng, W.

W. Cheng, F. Bien, “Temperature profile measurements using CO line absorption at different vibrational levels,”AIAA J. 19, 1071–1076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, A. D.

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, S. S.

E. R. Cespedes, S. S. Cooper, W. M. Davis, W. J. Buttner, W. C. Vickers, “In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system,” in Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, I. D. Aggarwal, S. Farquharson, E. Koglin, eds., Proc. SPIE2367, 33–42 (1994).

Coppalle, A.

Daniel, R. G.

Davis, W. M.

E. R. Cespedes, S. S. Cooper, W. M. Davis, W. J. Buttner, W. C. Vickers, “In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system,” in Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, I. D. Aggarwal, S. Farquharson, E. Koglin, eds., Proc. SPIE2367, 33–42 (1994).

Fried, A.

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gicquel, P.

Hanson, R. K.

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Henry, B.

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henry, D.

Herriott, D. R.

James, K.

T. B. Brill, K. James, “Kinetics and mechanisms of thermal decomposition of nitroaromatic explosives,” Chem. Rev. 93, 2667–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

James, K. J.

T. B. Brill, K. J. James, “Thermal decomposition of energetic materials. 62. Reconciliation of the kinetics and mechanisms of TNT on the time scale from microseconds to hours,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 8759–8763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karecki, D. R.

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kebabian, P. L.

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wormhoudt, P. L. Kebabian, C. E. Kolb, “Embedded infrared fiber optic absorption studies of nitramine propellant strand burning,” Aerodyne Res. Rep. ARI-RR-1099 (Aerodyne Research, Billerica, Mass., 1994).

Kolb, C. E.

J. Wormhoudt, P. L. Kebabian, C. E. Kolb, “Embedded infrared fiber optic absorption studies of nitramine propellant strand burning,” Aerodyne Res. Rep. ARI-RR-1099 (Aerodyne Research, Billerica, Mass., 1994).

C. E. Kolb, J. C. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, “Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation for measuring stable gases in the natural environment,” in Methods in Ecology: Trace Gases, P. A. Matson, R. C. Harriss, eds. (Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1995), pp. 258–290.

J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).

Leong, R. Y.

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, S. H.

E. R. Cespedes, B. H. Miles, S. H. Lieberman, “Development of optical sensors for the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS),” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Pub. SP-89 (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 621–632.

Mackay, G. I.

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. J.

H. I. Schiff, G. J. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermediates 20, 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).

McNesby, K. L.

Merrick, M.

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miake-Lye, R. C.

J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).

Miles, B. H.

E. R. Cespedes, B. H. Miles, S. H. Lieberman, “Development of optical sensors for the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS),” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Pub. SP-89 (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 621–632.

Miziolek, A. W.

Morris, J. B.

Nelson, D. D.

J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).

Pyzdrowski, T.

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzi, R. A.

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosier, B.

Sams, R.

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. J. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermediates 20, 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schoenung, S. M.

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schuetzle, D.

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, H. J.

Stokes, J.

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, W. C.

E. R. Cespedes, S. S. Cooper, W. M. Davis, W. J. Buttner, W. C. Vickers, “In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system,” in Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, I. D. Aggarwal, S. Farquharson, E. Koglin, eds., Proc. SPIE2367, 33–42 (1994).

Wormhoudt, J.

J. Wormhoudt, P. L. Kebabian, C. E. Kolb, “Embedded infrared fiber optic absorption studies of nitramine propellant strand burning,” Aerodyne Res. Rep. ARI-RR-1099 (Aerodyne Research, Billerica, Mass., 1994).

J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).

Wormhoudt, J. C.

C. E. Kolb, J. C. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, “Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation for measuring stable gases in the natural environment,” in Methods in Ecology: Trace Gases, P. A. Matson, R. C. Harriss, eds. (Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1995), pp. 258–290.

Zahniser, M. S.

J. B. McManus, P. L. Kebabian, M. S. Zahniser, “Astigmatic mirror multipass absorption cells for long-path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3336–3348 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Kolb, J. C. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, “Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation for measuring stable gases in the natural environment,” in Methods in Ecology: Trace Gases, P. A. Matson, R. C. Harriss, eds. (Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1995), pp. 258–290.

J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).

AIAA J. (1)

W. Cheng, F. Bien, “Temperature profile measurements using CO line absorption at different vibrational levels,”AIAA J. 19, 1071–1076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Chem. Rev. (1)

T. B. Brill, K. James, “Kinetics and mechanisms of thermal decomposition of nitroaromatic explosives,” Chem. Rev. 93, 2667–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Tech. (1)

S. M. Schoenung, R. K. Hanson, “CO and temperature measurements in a flat flame by laser absorption spectroscopy and probe techniques,” Combust. Sci. Tech. 24, 227–237 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. R. Carduner, A. D. Colvin, R. Y. Leong, D. Schuetzle, G. I. Mackay, D. R. Karecki, H. I. Schiff, “Application of tunable diode laser spectroscopy to the real-time analysis of engine oil economy,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 26, 930–934 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

A. Fried, B. Henry, R. A. Ragazzi, M. Merrick, J. Stokes, T. Pyzdrowski, R. Sams, “Measurements of carbonyl sulfide in automotive emissions and an assessment of its importance to the global sulfur cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 14621–14634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. B. Brill, K. J. James, “Thermal decomposition of energetic materials. 62. Reconciliation of the kinetics and mechanisms of TNT on the time scale from microseconds to hours,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 8759–8763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rech. Aerosp. (1)

B. Rosier, P. Gicquel, D. Henry, A. Coppalle, “Flame analysis by diode laser spectroscopy,” Rech. Aerosp. 1988, 45–53 (1988).

Res. Chem. Intermediates (1)

H. I. Schiff, G. J. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” Res. Chem. Intermediates 20, 525–556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. E. Kolb, J. C. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, “Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation for measuring stable gases in the natural environment,” in Methods in Ecology: Trace Gases, P. A. Matson, R. C. Harriss, eds. (Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1995), pp. 258–290.

J. Wormhoudt, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, R. C. Miake-Lye, C. E. Kolb, “Infrared tunable diode laser measurements of nitrogen oxide species in an aircraft engine exhaust,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., Proc. SPIE2546, 552–561 (1995).

J. Wormhoudt, P. L. Kebabian, C. E. Kolb, “Embedded infrared fiber optic absorption studies of nitramine propellant strand burning,” Aerodyne Res. Rep. ARI-RR-1099 (Aerodyne Research, Billerica, Mass., 1994).

E. R. Cespedes, B. H. Miles, S. H. Lieberman, “Development of optical sensors for the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS),” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Pub. SP-89 (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 621–632.

E. R. Cespedes, S. S. Cooper, W. M. Davis, W. J. Buttner, W. C. Vickers, “In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system,” in Optical Sensors for Environmental and Chemical Process Monitoring, I. D. Aggarwal, S. Farquharson, E. Koglin, eds., Proc. SPIE2367, 33–42 (1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of pyrolyzer region of the current cone penetrometer explosives probe. Air pumped from the surface passes out through four air supply ports and between the pyrolyzer and heated soil before being drawn back into probe and sent to the electrochemical sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of key elements of a laboratory investigation of heating explosives-contaminated soil, including soil sample, planar spiral heating element with central sampling tube, and laser absorption multipass cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of tunable infrared diode laser system capable of simultaneous operation of two lasers in a coaligned off-table beam (sent to the multipass cell shown in Fig. 2) and in a reference-beam path that provides diode frequency calibration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of pyrolysis product concentrations measured in experimental configuration shown in Fig. 2. Signal rise times are determined by the rate of soil heating after the heating elements is applied, while NO2 decay shows time response of multipass cell, determined by gas flow rate. ppm, parts in 106; ppb, parts in 109.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Minimum Detectable Mixing Fractions for a 5.2-m Total Path and an Assumed Minimum Detectable Peak Absorbance of 10−5

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω m ( λ d / π ) 1 / 2 .
S min W / N .
S min 1 . 75 W N 0 . 45 .
N max = [ ( 1 . 75 W / α ) ( λ d / π ) 1 / 2 ] 2 . 22 .
OPL = N max d = d 0 . 11 [ ( 1 . 75 W / α ) ( λ / π ) 1 / 2 ] 2 . 22 .
W < ( tube i .d . ) / 2 .

Metrics