Abstract

The diffraction efficiency of a grating coupler having a surface-relief grating is calculated by the use of coupled-wave theory. The grating couplers are fabricated to examine the validity of the calculated result. The dependence of the measured diffraction efficiency on the groove depth of the grating coupler agrees well with the calculated results. The array illuminator, which emits 10 and 20 beams with equal intensity, is designed and fabricated through the use of these numerical results. The uniformity error of the output beam caused by the error of the diffraction efficiency is also discussed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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