Abstract

Thin silicon nitride (Si1– xNx) films were synthesized without substrate heating by means of reactive argon-ion sputtering of either silicon or a silicon nitride target in the 1000–1500-eV energy range at a nitrogen partial pressure of 1.3 × 10−2 Pa and with simultaneous nitrogen ion-assisted bombardment in the 300–500-eV low energy range. The extinction coefficient and refractive index of the films were directly dependent on the N+ ion-to-atom arrival ratio, assisted ion energy, film growth rate, and indicated a correlation with film stoichiometry and disorder. Si3N4 films were obtained for N+ ion/Si atom arrival ratios from 0.6 to 1.7 and for different Si:N atom arrival rates and had a refractive index as high as 2.04 (633 nm) and a low hydrogen content as indicated by IR spectra.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Katagiri, H. Ukita, “Ion beam sputtered (SiO2)x (Si3 N4)1–x antireflection coatings on laser facets produced using O2–N2 discharges,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5074–5079 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shokrani, V. J. Kapoor, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon and silicon dioxide films for indium phosphide MISFET technology,” in Plasma Properties, Deposition and Etching, J. J. Pouch, S. A. Alterovitz, eds., Vols. 140–142 of Materials Science Forum (Trans Tech Publications, Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 285–300.
  5. J. K. Hirvonen, Ion Beam Assisted Thin Film Deposition, Materials Science Reports 6 (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 215–227.
  6. D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, C. Schwebel, A. Bossesbouef, “Low temperature deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 638–644 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Grill, “Ion beam reactively sputtered silicon nitride coatings,” Vacuum 33, 329–332 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Fourrier, A. Bosseboeuf, D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, “Annealing effect on mechanical stress in reactive ion-beam sputter-deposited silicon nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (7), 1469–1474 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. P. Donovan, C. A. Carosella, K. S. Grabowski, W. D. Coleman, “Substrate temperature effects on the properties of silicon nitride films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 201, 111–116 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, E. P. Donvan, C. A. Carosella, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition. II. Absolute calibration of ion and evaporant fluxes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8 (2), 831–839 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. A. Al-Jumaily, T. A. Mooney, W. A. Spurgeon, H. M. Dauplaise, “Ion assisted deposition of oxynitrides of aluminium and silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2280–2285 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. K. Kim, Ph.D. dissertation, “Synthesis and characterisation of TiN films using a dual ion beam technique” (University of Salford, Salford, UK, 1991).
  14. W-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 5, p. 123.
  15. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y-S. Yen, J. S. Wong, “Infrared reflectance properties of surface thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 7208–7216 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J-K. Kim, H. Kheyrandish, J. S. Colligon, “Influence of charge exchange on ion/neutral arrival rates in an ion-assisted deposition system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2733– 2738 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. M. Hu, “Properties of amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 693–698 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Kitabake, K. Wasa, “Hydrogen-free SiN films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 927–929 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Yoshinobu, S-I. Tanaka, M. Nishijima, “Elementary chemical-reaction processes on silicon surfaces,” Jpn.J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1171–1181 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Edamoto, S. Tanaka, M. Onchi, M. Nishijima, “Electron energy-loss spectra of Si(111) reacted with nitrogen atoms,” Surf. Sci. 167, 285–296 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. P. Donovan, D. R. Brighton, G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, “Ion beam assisted deposition of substoichiometric silicon nitride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 19/20, 983–986 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, “Synthesis of silicon nitride and silicon oxide films by ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3808–3809 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J-K. Kim, H. Kheyrandish, J. S. Colligon, “Influence of charge exchange on ion/neutral arrival rates in an ion-assisted deposition system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2733– 2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Yoshinobu, S-I. Tanaka, M. Nishijima, “Elementary chemical-reaction processes on silicon surfaces,” Jpn.J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1171–1181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. Fourrier, A. Bosseboeuf, D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, “Annealing effect on mechanical stress in reactive ion-beam sputter-deposited silicon nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (7), 1469–1474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Donovan, C. A. Carosella, K. S. Grabowski, W. D. Coleman, “Substrate temperature effects on the properties of silicon nitride films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 201, 111–116 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, E. P. Donvan, C. A. Carosella, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition. II. Absolute calibration of ion and evaporant fluxes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8 (2), 831–839 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Katagiri, H. Ukita, “Ion beam sputtered (SiO2)x (Si3 N4)1–x antireflection coatings on laser facets produced using O2–N2 discharges,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5074–5079 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. A. Al-Jumaily, T. A. Mooney, W. A. Spurgeon, H. M. Dauplaise, “Ion assisted deposition of oxynitrides of aluminium and silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2280–2285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

Y-S. Yen, J. S. Wong, “Infrared reflectance properties of surface thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 7208–7216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Donovan, D. R. Brighton, G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, “Ion beam assisted deposition of substoichiometric silicon nitride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 19/20, 983–986 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

M. Kitabake, K. Wasa, “Hydrogen-free SiN films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 927–929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, W. G. Sainty, “Synthesis of silicon nitride and silicon oxide films by ion-assisted deposition,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3808–3809 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Edamoto, S. Tanaka, M. Onchi, M. Nishijima, “Electron energy-loss spectra of Si(111) reacted with nitrogen atoms,” Surf. Sci. 167, 285–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, C. Schwebel, A. Bossesbouef, “Low temperature deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 638–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Grill, “Ion beam reactively sputtered silicon nitride coatings,” Vacuum 33, 329–332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

S. M. Hu, “Properties of amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 693–698 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Al-Jumaily, G. A.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, T. A. Mooney, W. A. Spurgeon, H. M. Dauplaise, “Ion assisted deposition of oxynitrides of aluminium and silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2280–2285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beebe, E. D.

A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bosseboeuf, A.

A. Fourrier, A. Bosseboeuf, D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, “Annealing effect on mechanical stress in reactive ion-beam sputter-deposited silicon nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (7), 1469–1474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bossesbouef, A.

D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, C. Schwebel, A. Bossesbouef, “Low temperature deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 638–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bouchier, D.

A. Fourrier, A. Bosseboeuf, D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, “Annealing effect on mechanical stress in reactive ion-beam sputter-deposited silicon nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (7), 1469–1474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, C. Schwebel, A. Bossesbouef, “Low temperature deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 638–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brighton, D. R.

E. P. Donovan, D. R. Brighton, G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, “Ion beam assisted deposition of substoichiometric silicon nitride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 19/20, 983–986 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carosella, C. A.

E. P. Donovan, C. A. Carosella, K. S. Grabowski, W. D. Coleman, “Substrate temperature effects on the properties of silicon nitride films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 201, 111–116 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, E. P. Donvan, C. A. Carosella, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition. II. Absolute calibration of ion and evaporant fluxes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8 (2), 831–839 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborti, N. B.

S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W-K.

W-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 5, p. 123.

Coleman, W. D.

E. P. Donovan, C. A. Carosella, K. S. Grabowski, W. D. Coleman, “Substrate temperature effects on the properties of silicon nitride films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 201, 111–116 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Colligon, J. S.

J-K. Kim, H. Kheyrandish, J. S. Colligon, “Influence of charge exchange on ion/neutral arrival rates in an ion-assisted deposition system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2733– 2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Das, S.

S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dauplaise, H. M.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, T. A. Mooney, W. A. Spurgeon, H. M. Dauplaise, “Ion assisted deposition of oxynitrides of aluminium and silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2280–2285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, E. P.

E. P. Donovan, C. A. Carosella, K. S. Grabowski, W. D. Coleman, “Substrate temperature effects on the properties of silicon nitride films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 201, 111–116 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Donovan, D. R. Brighton, G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, “Ion beam assisted deposition of substoichiometric silicon nitride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 19/20, 983–986 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Donvan, E. P.

G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, E. P. Donvan, C. A. Carosella, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition. II. Absolute calibration of ion and evaporant fluxes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8 (2), 831–839 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Edamoto, K.

K. Edamoto, S. Tanaka, M. Onchi, M. Nishijima, “Electron energy-loss spectra of Si(111) reacted with nitrogen atoms,” Surf. Sci. 167, 285–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fourrier, A.

A. Fourrier, A. Bosseboeuf, D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, “Annealing effect on mechanical stress in reactive ion-beam sputter-deposited silicon nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (7), 1469–1474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gautherin, G.

A. Fourrier, A. Bosseboeuf, D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, “Annealing effect on mechanical stress in reactive ion-beam sputter-deposited silicon nitride films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (7), 1469–1474 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, C. Schwebel, A. Bossesbouef, “Low temperature deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 638–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, K. S.

E. P. Donovan, C. A. Carosella, K. S. Grabowski, W. D. Coleman, “Substrate temperature effects on the properties of silicon nitride films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 201, 111–116 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grill, A.

A. Grill, “Ion beam reactively sputtered silicon nitride coatings,” Vacuum 33, 329–332 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirvonen, J. K.

J. K. Hirvonen, Ion Beam Assisted Thin Film Deposition, Materials Science Reports 6 (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 215–227.

Hu, S. M.

S. M. Hu, “Properties of amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 693–698 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hubler, G. K.

G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, E. P. Donvan, C. A. Carosella, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition. II. Absolute calibration of ion and evaporant fluxes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8 (2), 831–839 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Donovan, D. R. Brighton, G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, “Ion beam assisted deposition of substoichiometric silicon nitride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 19/20, 983–986 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kapoor, V. J.

M. Shokrani, V. J. Kapoor, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon and silicon dioxide films for indium phosphide MISFET technology,” in Plasma Properties, Deposition and Etching, J. J. Pouch, S. A. Alterovitz, eds., Vols. 140–142 of Materials Science Forum (Trans Tech Publications, Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 285–300.

Katagiri, Y.

Kheyrandish, H.

J-K. Kim, H. Kheyrandish, J. S. Colligon, “Influence of charge exchange on ion/neutral arrival rates in an ion-assisted deposition system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2733– 2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, Ph.D. dissertation, “Synthesis and characterisation of TiN films using a dual ion beam technique” (University of Salford, Salford, UK, 1991).

Kim, J-K.

J-K. Kim, H. Kheyrandish, J. S. Colligon, “Influence of charge exchange on ion/neutral arrival rates in an ion-assisted deposition system,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 2733– 2738 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kitabake, M.

M. Kitabake, K. Wasa, “Hydrogen-free SiN films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 927–929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kwock, E. W.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lahiri, S. K.

S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maiti, C. K.

S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

Mayer, J. W.

W-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 5, p. 123.

Miller, T. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, T. A.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, T. A. Mooney, W. A. Spurgeon, H. M. Dauplaise, “Ion assisted deposition of oxynitrides of aluminium and silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2280–2285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Nicolet, M-A.

W-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 5, p. 123.

Nishijima, M.

J. Yoshinobu, S-I. Tanaka, M. Nishijima, “Elementary chemical-reaction processes on silicon surfaces,” Jpn.J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1171–1181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Edamoto, S. Tanaka, M. Onchi, M. Nishijima, “Electron energy-loss spectra of Si(111) reacted with nitrogen atoms,” Surf. Sci. 167, 285–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Onchi, M.

K. Edamoto, S. Tanaka, M. Onchi, M. Nishijima, “Electron energy-loss spectra of Si(111) reacted with nitrogen atoms,” Surf. Sci. 167, 285–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ray, S. K.

S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Scherer, A.

A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schiavone, L. M.

A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwebel, C.

D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, C. Schwebel, A. Bossesbouef, “Low temperature deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 638–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shokrani, M.

M. Shokrani, V. J. Kapoor, “Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon and silicon dioxide films for indium phosphide MISFET technology,” in Plasma Properties, Deposition and Etching, J. J. Pouch, S. A. Alterovitz, eds., Vols. 140–142 of Materials Science Forum (Trans Tech Publications, Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland, 1993), pp. 285–300.

Spurgeon, W. A.

G. A. Al-Jumaily, T. A. Mooney, W. A. Spurgeon, H. M. Dauplaise, “Ion assisted deposition of oxynitrides of aluminium and silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2280–2285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

K. Edamoto, S. Tanaka, M. Onchi, M. Nishijima, “Electron energy-loss spectra of Si(111) reacted with nitrogen atoms,” Surf. Sci. 167, 285–296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S-I.

J. Yoshinobu, S-I. Tanaka, M. Nishijima, “Elementary chemical-reaction processes on silicon surfaces,” Jpn.J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1171–1181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ukita, H.

Van der Gaag, B. P.

A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Vechten, D.

G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, E. P. Donvan, C. A. Carosella, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition. II. Absolute calibration of ion and evaporant fluxes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8 (2), 831–839 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Donovan, D. R. Brighton, G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, “Ion beam assisted deposition of substoichiometric silicon nitride,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 19/20, 983–986 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wasa, K.

M. Kitabake, K. Wasa, “Hydrogen-free SiN films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 927–929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J. S.

Y-S. Yen, J. S. Wong, “Infrared reflectance properties of surface thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 7208–7216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yen, Y-S.

Y-S. Yen, J. S. Wong, “Infrared reflectance properties of surface thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 7208–7216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinobu, J.

J. Yoshinobu, S-I. Tanaka, M. Nishijima, “Elementary chemical-reaction processes on silicon surfaces,” Jpn.J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1171–1181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, E. W. Kwock, “Microcavity effects in organic semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2486–2488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kitabake, K. Wasa, “Hydrogen-free SiN films deposited by ion beam sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 927–929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

D. Bouchier, G. Gautherin, C. Schwebel, A. Bossesbouef, “Low temperature deposition of silicon nitride by reactive ion-beam sputtering,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 638–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hu, “Properties of amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 113, 693–698 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y-S. Yen, J. S. Wong, “Infrared reflectance properties of surface thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 7208–7216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (4)

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A. Scherer, M. Walther, L. M. Schiavone, B. P. Van der Gaag, E. D. Beebe, “High reflectivity dielectric mirror deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3305–3311 (1992).
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G. K. Hubler, D. Van Vechten, E. P. Donvan, C. A. Carosella, “Fundamentals of ion-beam-assisted deposition. II. Absolute calibration of ion and evaporant fluxes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8 (2), 831–839 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Al-Jumaily, T. A. Mooney, W. A. Spurgeon, H. M. Dauplaise, “Ion assisted deposition of oxynitrides of aluminium and silicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 2280–2285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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S. K. Ray, S. Das, C. K. Maiti, S. K. Lahiri, N. B. Chakraborti, “Effect of reactive-ion bombardment on the properties of silicon nitride and oxynitride films deposited by ion-beam sputtering,” J.Appl. Phys. 75, 8145–8152 (1994).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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J. K. Hirvonen, Ion Beam Assisted Thin Film Deposition, Materials Science Reports 6 (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 215–227.

J. K. Kim, Ph.D. dissertation, “Synthesis and characterisation of TiN films using a dual ion beam technique” (University of Salford, Salford, UK, 1991).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

N/Si atomic ratio of Ar+ ion-beam-sputtered film as a function of nitrogen backfill partial pressure and Ar+ ion flux at a total pressure of 3.0 × 10−2 Pa. The nitrogen partial pressure was varied at a constant current density of 0.84 mA/cm2 and energy of 1000 eV. The Ar+ ion flux was varied at energies of 1000 and 1500 eV at a fixed nitrogen partial pressure of 1.5 × 10−2 Pa.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

N/Si atomic ratio of N2 + assisted film as a function of N+ ion-to-Si atom arrival ratio with the following N2 + energies, unassisted deposition rates, and targets: (a) 500 eV, 0.21 nm/s, Si target; (b) 300 eV, 0.06 nm/s, Si target; (c) 300 eV, 0.09 nm/s, Si3N4 target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RBS spectra of films deposited from a Si3N4 target on Si substrates with a N2 + assisted energy of 300 eV, unassisted deposition rate of 0.09 nm/s, and the following N+ ion-to-Si atom arrival ratios and film thicknesses: (a) 0 (unassisted), 130 nm; (b) 0.7, 120 nm; (c) 0.6, 366 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dispersion of refractive index for films with the following N2 + assisted energies, N+ ion-to-Si atom arrival ratios, unassisted deposition rates, and targets: (a) 500 eV, 0.33, 0.21 nm/s, Si target; (b) 300 eV, 1.1, 0.09 nm/s, Si3N4 target; (c) 500 eV, 1.1, 0.21 nm/s, Si target.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive index (633 nm) of N2 + assisted film as a function of N+ ion-to-Si atom arrival ratio with the following N2 + energies, unassisted deposition rates, and targets: (a) 500 eV, 0.21 nm/s, Si target; (b) 300 eV, 0.09 nm/s, Si3N4 target; (c) 300 eV, 0.06 nm/s, Si target.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength for Si–N films with the following assisted N2 + energies, N+ ion-to-Si atom arrival ratios, growth rates, and targets: (a) 300 eV, 1.1, 0.035 nm/s, Si3N4 target; (b) 500 eV, 1.1, 0.11 nm/s, Si target; (c) 300 eV, 0.7, 0.04 nm/s, Si3N4 target.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Extinction coefficient 1800 nm) as a function of the N+ ion-to-Si atom arrival ratio for stoichiometric films deposited with an N2 + assisted energy of 300 eV from a Si3N4 target.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Si–N asymmetric peak area as a function of the N/Si atomic ratio for Si–N films deposited with an N2 + assisted energy of 300 eV from a Si target.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

IR absorbance spectrum of a Si–N film deposited on an Al/glass substrate with a thickness of 560 nm and N/Si atomic ratio of 0.8.

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