Abstract

A single object wave is amplitude divided by a beam splitter into two waves of equal intensity that are made to interfere at the back surface of an iron-doped lithium-niobate crystal so that the normal to the back surface is the angular bisector of the input waves. The interference results in the formation of a phase grating (Bragg grating) in the volume of the crystal. These waves are diffracted at the Bragg grating on both the front focal plane and the back focal plane of the crystal. The wave diffracted in the back focal plane from the Bragg grating and counterpropagating to the incident wave is observed to be the phase conjugate of the input object wave. The wave diffracted in the front focal plane of the Bragg grating is incorporated into the design of an interferometer to measure a specific in-plane displacement of the object wave. It is theoretically evaluated and experimentally demonstrated that interferometers such as those that incorporate conjugate-wave pairs are highly sensitive.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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