Abstract

A spectral analysis of human blood serum was undertaken by fiber-optic evanescent-wave spectroscopy (FEWS) by the use of a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A special cell for the FEWS measurements was designed and built that incorporates an IR-transmitting silver halide fiber and a means for introducing the blood-serum sample. Further improvements in analysis were obtained by the adoption of multivariate calibration techniques that are already used in clinical chemistry. The partial least-squares algorithm was used to calculate the concentrations of cholesterol, total protein, urea, and uric acid in human blood serum. The estimated prediction errors obtained (in percent from the average value) were 6% for total protein, 15% for cholesterol, 30% for urea, and 30% for uric acid. These results were compared with another independent prediction method that used a neural-network model. This model yielded estimated prediction errors of 8.8% for total protein, 25% for cholesterol, and 21% for uric acid.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Henry, Clinical Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Harper & Row, New York, 1974).
  2. N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Harrick Scientific, Ossining, N.Y., 1979).
  3. D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, “Evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy of liquids using silver halide optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. 64, 3732–3734 (1988).
  5. K. Taga, B. Mizaikoff, R. Kellner, “Fiber optic evanescent field sensors for gaseous species using MIR transparent fibers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 348, 556–559 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, B. Lin, “Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458–464 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2009–2015 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, H. M. Heise, “Multivariate calibration for assays in clinical chemistry using attenuated total reflection infrared spectra of human blood plasma,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2016–2023 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Stohr, P. Bhandare, R. A. Peura, Y. Mendelson, “Quantitative FTIR spectroscopy of cholesterol and other blood constituents and their interference with the in-vitro measurement of blood glucose,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 105–106.
  10. H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, T. Koschinsky, F. A. Gries, “Multicomponent assay for blood substrates in human plasma by mid-infrared spectroscopy and its evaluation for clinical analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 85–95 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, E. Stohr, R. A. Peura, “Glucose determination in simulated blood serum solutions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: investigation of spectral interferences,” Vib. Spectrosc. 6, 363–378 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Martens, T. Naes, Multivariate calibration (Wily, New York, 1991), Chaps. 1–3.
  13. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).
  14. R. Marabach, H. M. Heise, “On the efficiency of algorithms for multivariate linear calibration used in analytical spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 11, 270–275 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Hertz, A. Krogh, R. G. Palmer, Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1991), Chaps. 1, 5, and 6.
  16. M. Katz, A. Katzir, I. Schnitzer, A. Bornstein, “Quantitative evaluation of chalcogenide glass fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5888–5894 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

K. Taga, B. Mizaikoff, R. Kellner, “Fiber optic evanescent field sensors for gaseous species using MIR transparent fibers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 348, 556–559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, E. Stohr, R. A. Peura, “Glucose determination in simulated blood serum solutions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: investigation of spectral interferences,” Vib. Spectrosc. 6, 363–378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Katz, A. Katzir, I. Schnitzer, A. Bornstein, “Quantitative evaluation of chalcogenide glass fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5888–5894 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, T. Koschinsky, F. A. Gries, “Multicomponent assay for blood substrates in human plasma by mid-infrared spectroscopy and its evaluation for clinical analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 85–95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Marabach, H. M. Heise, “On the efficiency of algorithms for multivariate linear calibration used in analytical spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 11, 270–275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, B. Lin, “Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458–464 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2009–2015 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, H. M. Heise, “Multivariate calibration for assays in clinical chemistry using attenuated total reflection infrared spectra of human blood plasma,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2016–2023 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, “Evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy of liquids using silver halide optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. 64, 3732–3734 (1988).

Bhandare, P.

P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, E. Stohr, R. A. Peura, “Glucose determination in simulated blood serum solutions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: investigation of spectral interferences,” Vib. Spectrosc. 6, 363–378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Stohr, P. Bhandare, R. A. Peura, Y. Mendelson, “Quantitative FTIR spectroscopy of cholesterol and other blood constituents and their interference with the in-vitro measurement of blood glucose,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 105–106.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Bornstein, A.

Bunimovich, D.

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clermont, A. C.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, B. Lin, “Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458–464 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gries, F. A.

Harrick, N. J.

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Harrick Scientific, Ossining, N.Y., 1979).

Heise, H. M.

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, T. Koschinsky, F. A. Gries, “Multicomponent assay for blood substrates in human plasma by mid-infrared spectroscopy and its evaluation for clinical analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 85–95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Marabach, H. M. Heise, “On the efficiency of algorithms for multivariate linear calibration used in analytical spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 11, 270–275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2009–2015 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, H. M. Heise, “Multivariate calibration for assays in clinical chemistry using attenuated total reflection infrared spectra of human blood plasma,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2016–2023 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, R. J.

R. J. Henry, Clinical Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

Hertz, J.

J. Hertz, A. Krogh, R. G. Palmer, Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1991), Chaps. 1, 5, and 6.

Janatsch, G.

G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, H. M. Heise, “Multivariate calibration for assays in clinical chemistry using attenuated total reflection infrared spectra of human blood plasma,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2016–2023 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2009–2015 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, M.

Katzir, A.

M. Katz, A. Katzir, I. Schnitzer, A. Bornstein, “Quantitative evaluation of chalcogenide glass fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5888–5894 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, “Evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy of liquids using silver halide optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. 64, 3732–3734 (1988).

Kellner, R.

K. Taga, B. Mizaikoff, R. Kellner, “Fiber optic evanescent field sensors for gaseous species using MIR transparent fibers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 348, 556–559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koschinsky, T.

Kosower, E. M.

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, “Evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy of liquids using silver halide optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. 64, 3732–3734 (1988).

Kraska, R.

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krogh, A.

J. Hertz, A. Krogh, R. G. Palmer, Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1991), Chaps. 1, 5, and 6.

Kruse-Jarres, J. D.

G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, H. M. Heise, “Multivariate calibration for assays in clinical chemistry using attenuated total reflection infrared spectra of human blood plasma,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2016–2023 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2009–2015 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, B.

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, B. Lin, “Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458–464 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marabach, R.

R. Marabach, H. M. Heise, “On the efficiency of algorithms for multivariate linear calibration used in analytical spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 11, 270–275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marbach, R.

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, T. Koschinsky, F. A. Gries, “Multicomponent assay for blood substrates in human plasma by mid-infrared spectroscopy and its evaluation for clinical analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 85–95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2009–2015 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, H. M. Heise, “Multivariate calibration for assays in clinical chemistry using attenuated total reflection infrared spectra of human blood plasma,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2016–2023 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martens, H.

H. Martens, T. Naes, Multivariate calibration (Wily, New York, 1991), Chaps. 1–3.

Mendelson, Y.

P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, E. Stohr, R. A. Peura, “Glucose determination in simulated blood serum solutions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: investigation of spectral interferences,” Vib. Spectrosc. 6, 363–378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, B. Lin, “Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458–464 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stohr, P. Bhandare, R. A. Peura, Y. Mendelson, “Quantitative FTIR spectroscopy of cholesterol and other blood constituents and their interference with the in-vitro measurement of blood glucose,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 105–106.

Mesica, A.

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mizaikoff, B.

K. Taga, B. Mizaikoff, R. Kellner, “Fiber optic evanescent field sensors for gaseous species using MIR transparent fibers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 348, 556–559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Naes, T.

H. Martens, T. Naes, Multivariate calibration (Wily, New York, 1991), Chaps. 1–3.

Paiss, I.

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R. G.

J. Hertz, A. Krogh, R. G. Palmer, Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1991), Chaps. 1, 5, and 6.

Peura, R. A.

P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, E. Stohr, R. A. Peura, “Glucose determination in simulated blood serum solutions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: investigation of spectral interferences,” Vib. Spectrosc. 6, 363–378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, B. Lin, “Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458–464 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stohr, P. Bhandare, R. A. Peura, Y. Mendelson, “Quantitative FTIR spectroscopy of cholesterol and other blood constituents and their interference with the in-vitro measurement of blood glucose,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 105–106.

Schiesl, U.

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

M. Katz, A. Katzir, I. Schnitzer, A. Bornstein, “Quantitative evaluation of chalcogenide glass fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5888–5894 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, “Evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy of liquids using silver halide optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. 64, 3732–3734 (1988).

Simhony, S.

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, “Evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy of liquids using silver halide optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. 64, 3732–3734 (1988).

Stohr, E.

P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, E. Stohr, R. A. Peura, “Glucose determination in simulated blood serum solutions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: investigation of spectral interferences,” Vib. Spectrosc. 6, 363–378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Stohr, P. Bhandare, R. A. Peura, Y. Mendelson, “Quantitative FTIR spectroscopy of cholesterol and other blood constituents and their interference with the in-vitro measurement of blood glucose,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 105–106.

Tacke, M.

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taga, K.

K. Taga, B. Mizaikoff, R. Kellner, “Fiber optic evanescent field sensors for gaseous species using MIR transparent fibers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 348, 556–559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Anal. Chem. (2)

H. M. Heise, R. Marbach, G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, “Multivariate determination of glucose in whole blood by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2009–2015 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Janatsch, J. D. Kruse-Jarres, R. Marbach, H. M. Heise, “Multivariate calibration for assays in clinical chemistry using attenuated total reflection infrared spectra of human blood plasma,” Anal. Chem. 61, 2016–2023 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, “Evanescent wave infrared spectroscopy of liquids using silver halide optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. 64, 3732–3734 (1988).

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Taga, B. Mizaikoff, R. Kellner, “Fiber optic evanescent field sensors for gaseous species using MIR transparent fibers,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 348, 556–559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

Y. Mendelson, A. C. Clermont, R. A. Peura, B. Lin, “Blood glucose measurement by multiple attenuated total reflection and infrared absorption spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37, 458–464 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

D. Bunimovich, R. Kellner, R. Kraska, A. Mesica, I. Paiss, U. Schiesl, M. Tacke, K. Taga, A. Katzir, “A system for monitoring and control of processes based on IR fibers and tunable diode lasers,” J. Mol. Struct. 292, 125–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trends Anal. Chem. (1)

R. Marabach, H. M. Heise, “On the efficiency of algorithms for multivariate linear calibration used in analytical spectroscopy,” Trends Anal. Chem. 11, 270–275 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

P. Bhandare, Y. Mendelson, E. Stohr, R. A. Peura, “Glucose determination in simulated blood serum solutions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: investigation of spectral interferences,” Vib. Spectrosc. 6, 363–378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Martens, T. Naes, Multivariate calibration (Wily, New York, 1991), Chaps. 1–3.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

E. Stohr, P. Bhandare, R. A. Peura, Y. Mendelson, “Quantitative FTIR spectroscopy of cholesterol and other blood constituents and their interference with the in-vitro measurement of blood glucose,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 105–106.

R. J. Henry, Clinical Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Harrick Scientific, Ossining, N.Y., 1979).

J. Hertz, A. Krogh, R. G. Palmer, Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1991), Chaps. 1, 5, and 6.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental FEWS setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PRESS1/2 statistics for total protein.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Prediction values versus actual values for (a) total protein, (b) cholesterol, (c) urea, and (d) uric acid.

Metrics