Abstract

The small-signal absorption coefficients of 193- and 213-nm nanosecond laser pulses in bovine corneal tissue have been studied. The absolute reflectance of a planar quartz–cornea interface was measured at various angles of incidence for low-intensity laser irradiation (i.e., pulse fluences 3 orders of magnitude below the ablation threshold). The reflectance-versus-angle data were analyzed by the use of Fresnel theory to estimate the effective complex index of refraction of the tissue. This analysis indicated corneal absorption coefficients of 39,900 ± 9800 cm−1 at 193 nm and 21,400 ± 4900 cm−1 at 213 nm.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
    [PubMed]
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  11. F. E. Fantes, G. O. Waring, “Effect of excimer laser radiant exposure on uniformity of ablated corneal surface,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 533–542 (1989).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  30. D. M. Maurice, “The cornea and sclera,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, pp. 289–368.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Relat. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Venugopalan, N. S. Nishioka, B. B. Mikic, “The thermodynamic response of soft biologic tissues to pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation,” Biophys. J. 69, 1259–1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, D. W. Hahn, “Enhanced ArF laser absorption in a collagen target under ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 107–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jütte, “Ablation of the cornea by using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet solid-state laser (213-nm) photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Kitai, V. I. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of uv laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

P. P. Van Saarlos, I. J. Constable, “Bovine corneal stroma ablation rate with 193-nm excimer laser radiation: quantitative measurement,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 424–429 (1990).

A. Fuxbruner, I. Hemo, A. Lewis, H. Zauberman, D. Blau, D. Polotsky, “Controlled lens formation with unapertured excimer lasers: use with organic polymers and corneal tissue,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5380–5386 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

I. E. Kochevar, “Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of excimer laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 440–445 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Fantes, G. O. Waring, “Effect of excimer laser radiant exposure on uniformity of ablated corneal surface,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 533–542 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Relat. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seiler, T. Bende, J. Wollensack, “Astigmatismus-korrektur mit dem excimer laser,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 191, 179–183 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985 (2)

R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1743 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Geis, “Self-developing uv photoresist using excimer laser exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

L. Robinson Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical measurements of liquid water in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243–251 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adler, C. M.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Arakawa, E. T.

L. Robinson Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical measurements of liquid water in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243–251 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aron-Rosa, D. S.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Bende, T.

T. Seiler, T. Bende, J. Wollensack, “Astigmatismus-korrektur mit dem excimer laser,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 191, 179–183 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedek, G. B.

Berns, M. W.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Birkhoff, R. D.

L. Robinson Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical measurements of liquid water in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243–251 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blau, D.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1975), pp. 40–41.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1975), p. 614.

Boulnoy, J. L.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Carré, F.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Constable, I. J.

P. P. Van Saarlos, I. J. Constable, “Bovine corneal stroma ablation rate with 193-nm excimer laser radiation: quantitative measurement,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 424–429 (1990).

Dehm, E. J.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Delacour, J.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Geis, “Self-developing uv photoresist using excimer laser exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dlugos, C.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, D. W. Hahn, “Enhanced ArF laser absorption in a collagen target under ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 107–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantes, F. E.

F. E. Fantes, G. O. Waring, “Effect of excimer laser radiant exposure on uniformity of ablated corneal surface,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 533–542 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuxbruner, A.

Geis, M. W.

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Geis, “Self-developing uv photoresist using excimer laser exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Hahn, D. W.

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, D. W. Hahn, “Enhanced ArF laser absorption in a collagen target under ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 107–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Hart, W. M.

W. M. Hart, Adler's Physiology of the Eye, 9th ed. (Mosby, St. Louis, 1992), p. 34.

Hemo, I.

Hill, R. A.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hillenkamp, F.

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Hofmann, B.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jütte, “Ablation of the cornea by using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 190.

Jütte, M.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jütte, “Ablation of the cornea by using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Keates, R. H.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kharizov, A. A.

M. S. Kitai, V. I. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of uv laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitai, M. S.

M. S. Kitai, V. I. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of uv laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kleinschmidt, J.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jütte, “Ablation of the cornea by using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kochevar, I. E.

I. E. Kochevar, “Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of excimer laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 440–445 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, R. R.

R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1743 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacour, M.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Lehninger, A. L.

A. L. Lehninger, Biochemistry, 2nd ed. (Worth, New York, 1975), p. 135.

Lerman, S.

S. Lerman, Radiant Energy and the Eye (Macmillan, New York, 1980), pp. 43–59.

Lewis, A.

Maurice, D. M.

D. M. Maurice, “The cornea and sclera,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, pp. 289–368.

Mikic, B. B.

V. Venugopalan, N. S. Nishioka, B. B. Mikic, “The thermodynamic response of soft biologic tissues to pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation,” Biophys. J. 69, 1259–1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, G. C.

G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Relat. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N. S.

V. Venugopalan, N. S. Nishioka, B. B. Mikic, “The thermodynamic response of soft biologic tissues to pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation,” Biophys. J. 69, 1259–1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuffer, R.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivo, J. C.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Parel, J. M.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet solid-state laser (213-nm) photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

Pettit, G. H.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, D. W. Hahn, “Enhanced ArF laser absorption in a collagen target under ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 107–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polotsky, D.

Popkov, V. I.

M. S. Kitai, V. I. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of uv laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Ren, Q.

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet solid-state laser (213-nm) photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

Robinson Painter, L.

L. Robinson Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical measurements of liquid water in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243–251 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, T.

T. Seiler, T. Bende, J. Wollensack, “Astigmatismus-korrektur mit dem excimer laser,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 191, 179–183 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semchishen, V. A.

M. S. Kitai, V. I. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of uv laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shori, R. K.

P. T. Staveteig, R. K. Shori, J. T. Walsh, “Potential role of dynamic water absorption during 193-nm ArF excimer laser ablation of tissue phantoms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 417–418.

Simon, G.

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet solid-state laser (213-nm) photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

Staveteig, P. T.

P. T. Staveteig, R. K. Shori, J. T. Walsh, “Potential role of dynamic water absorption during 193-nm ArF excimer laser ablation of tissue phantoms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 417–418.

Steinert, R. F.

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Tismit, J. C.

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Trokel, S. L.

R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1743 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unkroth, A.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jütte, “Ablation of the cornea by using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Saarlos, P. P.

P. P. Van Saarlos, I. J. Constable, “Bovine corneal stroma ablation rate with 193-nm excimer laser radiation: quantitative measurement,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 424–429 (1990).

Venugopalan, V.

V. Venugopalan, N. S. Nishioka, B. B. Mikic, “The thermodynamic response of soft biologic tissues to pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation,” Biophys. J. 69, 1259–1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

P. T. Staveteig, R. K. Shori, J. T. Walsh, “Potential role of dynamic water absorption during 193-nm ArF excimer laser ablation of tissue phantoms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 417–418.

Waring, G. O.

F. E. Fantes, G. O. Waring, “Effect of excimer laser radiant exposure on uniformity of ablated corneal surface,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 533–542 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiblinger, R. P.

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 190.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1975), p. 614.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1975), pp. 40–41.

Wollensack, J.

T. Seiler, T. Bende, J. Wollensack, “Astigmatismus-korrektur mit dem excimer laser,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 191, 179–183 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K.

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zauberman, H.

Ziegler, W.

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jütte, “Ablation of the cornea by using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. R. Krueger, S. L. Trokel, “Quantitation of corneal ablation by ultraviolet laser light,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 103, 1741–1743 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

V. Venugopalan, N. S. Nishioka, B. B. Mikic, “The thermodynamic response of soft biologic tissues to pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation,” Biophys. J. 69, 1259–1271 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collagen Relat. Res. (1)

G. C. Na, “UV spectroscopic characterization of type I collagen,” Collagen Relat. Res. 8, 315–330 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Unkroth, J. Kleinschmidt, W. Ziegler, B. Hofmann, M. Jütte, “Ablation of the cornea by using a low-energy excimer laser,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 231, 303–307 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. S. Kitai, V. I. Popkov, V. A. Semchishen, A. A. Kharizov, “The physics of uv laser cornea ablation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 302–307 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. F. Deutsch, M. W. Geis, “Self-developing uv photoresist using excimer laser exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 7201–7204 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Robinson Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, “Optical measurements of liquid water in the vacuum ultraviolet,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243–251 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J.Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

D. S. Aron-Rosa, J. L. Boulnoy, F. Carré, J. Delacour, M. Gross, M. Lacour, J. C. Olivo, J. C. Tismit, “Excimer laser surgery of the cornea: quantitative and qualitative aspects of photoablation according to the energy density,” J.Cataract Refract. Surg. 12, 27–33 (1986).
[PubMed]

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. (1)

T. Seiler, T. Bende, J. Wollensack, “Astigmatismus-korrektur mit dem excimer laser,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 191, 179–183 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (6)

F. E. Fantes, G. O. Waring, “Effect of excimer laser radiant exposure on uniformity of ablated corneal surface,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 533–542 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, K. Wong, R. F. Steinert, “Quantitative and ultrastructural studies of excimer laser ablation of the cornea at 193 and 248 nanometers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 155–159 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. E. Kochevar, “Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of excimer laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 440–445 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Ediger, G. H. Pettit, D. W. Hahn, “Enhanced ArF laser absorption in a collagen target under ablative conditions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 107–111 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, C. Dlugos, R. Nuffer, R. Birngruber, “Optical properties of human sclera and their consequences for transscleral laser applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 331–340 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

Q. Ren, G. Simon, J. M. Parel, “Ultraviolet solid-state laser (213-nm) photorefractive keratectomy,” Ophthalmology 100, 1828–1834 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, R. F. Steinert, T. F. Deutsch, F. Hillenkamp, E. J. Dehm, C. M. Adler, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea and lens,” Ophthalmology 92, 741–748 (1985).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34, 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ren, R. H. Keates, R. A. Hill, M. W. Berns, “Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status,” Opt. Eng. 34, 642–660 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Refract. Corneal Surg. (1)

P. P. Van Saarlos, I. J. Constable, “Bovine corneal stroma ablation rate with 193-nm excimer laser radiation: quantitative measurement,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 6, 424–429 (1990).

Other (8)

S. Lerman, Radiant Energy and the Eye (Macmillan, New York, 1980), pp. 43–59.

A. L. Lehninger, Biochemistry, 2nd ed. (Worth, New York, 1975), p. 135.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1975), pp. 40–41.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1975), p. 614.

W. M. Hart, Adler's Physiology of the Eye, 9th ed. (Mosby, St. Louis, 1992), p. 34.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 190.

D. M. Maurice, “The cornea and sclera,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed. (Academic, New York, 1962), Vol. 1, pp. 289–368.

P. T. Staveteig, R. K. Shori, J. T. Walsh, “Potential role of dynamic water absorption during 193-nm ArF excimer laser ablation of tissue phantoms,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 417–418.

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