Abstract

Photoacoustic drug delivery is a technique for localized drug delivery by laser-induced hydrodynamic pressure following cavitation bubble expansion and collapse. Photoacoustic drug delivery was investigated on gelatin-based thrombus models with planar and cylindrical geometries by use of one microsecond laser pulses. Solutions of a hydrophobic dye in mineral oil permitted monitoring of delivered colored oil into clear gelatin-based thrombus models. Cavitation bubble development and photoacoustic drug delivery were visualized with flash photography. This study demonstrated that cavitation is the governing mechanism for photoacoustic drug delivery, and the deepest penetration of colored oil in gels followed the bubble collapse. Spatial distribution measurements revealed that colored oil could be driven a few millimeters into the gels in both axial and radial directions, and the penetration was less than 500 μm when the gelatin structure was not fractured.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. K. Batchelor, Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1980).
  24. T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Vapor bubble expansion and implosion: the origin of ‘mille feuilles’,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions III, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. SPIE1878, 2–12 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation—illustrated on laser angioplasty,”Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 134–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Francis, A. Blinc, S. Lee, C. Cox, “Ultrasound accelerates transport of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator into clots,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 419–424 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, S. A. Prahl, “Visualization of photoacoustic drug delivery dynamics,” Lasers Surg. Med. S7, 4–5 (1995).

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lincoff, E. J. Topol, A. Frieser, S. G. Ellis, “Local drug delivery for prevention of restenosis,” Circulation 90, 2070–2084 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

1990

E. G. Nabel, G. Plautz, G. J. Nable, “Site-specific gene expression in vivo by direct gene transfer into the arterial wall,” Science 249, 1285–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lin, M. S. Parmacek, G. Morle, S. Bolling, J. M. Leiden, “Expression of recombination genes in myocardium in vivo after direct injection of DNA,” Circulation 82, 2217–2221 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Gregory, R. R. Anderson, “Liquid core light guide for laser angioplasty,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2289–2296 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

R. C. Zeimer, B. Khoobehi, R. L. Magin, “A potential method for local drug and dye delivery in the ocular vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1179–1183 (1988).
[PubMed]

1917

O. M. Rayleigh, “On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity,” Philos. Mag. 34, 94–98 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Anderberg, K.

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

Anderson, R. R.

K. W. Gregory, R. R. Anderson, “Liquid core light guide for laser angioplasty,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2289–2296 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. F.

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badimon, J. J.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Badimon, L.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Batchelor, G. K.

G. K. Batchelor, Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1980).

Behnle, U.

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation—illustrated on laser angioplasty,”Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blinc, A.

C. W. Francis, A. Blinc, S. Lee, C. Cox, “Ultrasound accelerates transport of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator into clots,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 419–424 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolling, S.

H. Lin, M. S. Parmacek, G. Morle, S. Bolling, J. M. Leiden, “Expression of recombination genes in myocardium in vivo after direct injection of DNA,” Circulation 82, 2217–2221 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borst, C.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Vapor bubble expansion and implosion: the origin of ‘mille feuilles’,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions III, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. SPIE1878, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brost, C.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casperson, L. W.

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, S. A. Prahl, “Visualization of photoacoustic drug delivery dynamics,” Lasers Surg. Med. S7, 4–5 (1995).

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, K. W. Gregory, S. A. Prahl, “Photoacoustic drug delivery: the effect of laser parameters on spatial distribution of delivered drug,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 394–402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chesebro, J. H.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. W. Francis, A. Blinc, S. Lee, C. Cox, “Ultrasound accelerates transport of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator into clots,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 419–424 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delacrétaz, G.

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 134–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dichek, D. A.

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doukas, A.

T. J. Flotte, S. Lee, H. Zhang, D. MacAuliffe, T. Douki, A. Doukas, “Laser-induced stress transients: Applications for molecular delivery,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 202–207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Douki, T.

T. J. Flotte, S. Lee, H. Zhang, D. MacAuliffe, T. Douki, A. Doukas, “Laser-induced stress transients: Applications for molecular delivery,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 202–207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, S. G.

A. M. Lincoff, E. J. Topol, A. Frieser, S. G. Ellis, “Local drug delivery for prevention of restenosis,” Circulation 90, 2070–2084 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, R.

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation—illustrated on laser angioplasty,”Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R.

A. A. Oraevsky, R. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser flash photography of cold cavitation-driven ablation in tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 300–307 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Falk, E.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fallon, J. T.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fernndez-Ortiz, A.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T. J.

T. J. Flotte, S. Lee, H. Zhang, D. MacAuliffe, T. Douki, A. Doukas, “Laser-induced stress transients: Applications for molecular delivery,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 202–207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Francis, C. W.

C. W. Francis, A. Blinc, S. Lee, C. Cox, “Ultrasound accelerates transport of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator into clots,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 419–424 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, S. M.

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frieser, A.

A. M. Lincoff, E. J. Topol, A. Frieser, S. G. Ellis, “Local drug delivery for prevention of restenosis,” Circulation 90, 2070–2084 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuster, V.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gravanis, M. B.

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

Gregory, K.

K. Gregory, “Laser thrombolysis,” in Interventional Cardiology, E. J. Topol, ed. (Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994), Vol. 2, Chap. 5, pp. 892–902.

Gregory, K. W.

K. W. Gregory, R. R. Anderson, “Liquid core light guide for laser angioplasty,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2289–2296 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, K. W. Gregory, S. A. Prahl, “Photoacoustic drug delivery: the effect of laser parameters on spatial distribution of delivered drug,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 394–402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

A. A. Oraevsky, R. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser flash photography of cold cavitation-driven ablation in tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 300–307 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. D.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jungnickel, K.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karas, S. P.

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

Khoobehi, B.

R. C. Zeimer, B. Khoobehi, R. L. Magin, “A potential method for local drug and dye delivery in the ocular vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1179–1183 (1988).
[PubMed]

King, S. B.

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

Lee, S.

C. W. Francis, A. Blinc, S. Lee, C. Cox, “Ultrasound accelerates transport of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator into clots,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 419–424 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Flotte, S. Lee, H. Zhang, D. MacAuliffe, T. Douki, A. Doukas, “Laser-induced stress transients: Applications for molecular delivery,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 202–207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leiden, J. M.

H. Lin, M. S. Parmacek, G. Morle, S. Bolling, J. M. Leiden, “Expression of recombination genes in myocardium in vivo after direct injection of DNA,” Circulation 82, 2217–2221 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leon, M. B.

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, M. S. Parmacek, G. Morle, S. Bolling, J. M. Leiden, “Expression of recombination genes in myocardium in vivo after direct injection of DNA,” Circulation 82, 2217–2221 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lincoff, A. M.

A. M. Lincoff, E. J. Topol, A. Frieser, S. G. Ellis, “Local drug delivery for prevention of restenosis,” Circulation 90, 2070–2084 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAuliffe, D.

T. J. Flotte, S. Lee, H. Zhang, D. MacAuliffe, T. Douki, A. Doukas, “Laser-induced stress transients: Applications for molecular delivery,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 202–207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Magin, R. L.

R. C. Zeimer, B. Khoobehi, R. L. Magin, “A potential method for local drug and dye delivery in the ocular vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1179–1183 (1988).
[PubMed]

Mailhac, A.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meertens, J. H.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Vapor bubble expansion and implosion: the origin of ‘mille feuilles’,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions III, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. SPIE1878, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B. J.

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morle, G.

H. Lin, M. S. Parmacek, G. Morle, S. Bolling, J. M. Leiden, “Expression of recombination genes in myocardium in vivo after direct injection of DNA,” Circulation 82, 2217–2221 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nabel, E. G.

E. G. Nabel, G. Plautz, G. J. Nable, “Site-specific gene expression in vivo by direct gene transfer into the arterial wall,” Science 249, 1285–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nable, G. J.

E. G. Nabel, G. Plautz, G. J. Nable, “Site-specific gene expression in vivo by direct gene transfer into the arterial wall,” Science 249, 1285–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neville, R. F.

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, R. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser flash photography of cold cavitation-driven ablation in tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 300–307 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Parmacek, M. S.

H. Lin, M. S. Parmacek, G. Morle, S. Bolling, J. M. Leiden, “Expression of recombination genes in myocardium in vivo after direct injection of DNA,” Circulation 82, 2217–2221 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plautz, G.

E. G. Nabel, G. Plautz, G. J. Nable, “Site-specific gene expression in vivo by direct gene transfer into the arterial wall,” Science 249, 1285–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, M. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Vapor bubble expansion and implosion: the origin of ‘mille feuilles’,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions III, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. SPIE1878, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, S. A. Prahl, “Visualization of photoacoustic drug delivery dynamics,” Lasers Surg. Med. S7, 4–5 (1995).

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, K. W. Gregory, S. A. Prahl, “Photoacoustic drug delivery: the effect of laser parameters on spatial distribution of delivered drug,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 394–402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh, O. M.

O. M. Rayleigh, “On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity,” Philos. Mag. 34, 94–98 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Rink, K.

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 134–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salathé, R. P.

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 134–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santoian, E. C.

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

Schneider, J. E.

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

Scott, N. A.

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

Shangguan, H.

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, S. A. Prahl, “Visualization of photoacoustic drug delivery dynamics,” Lasers Surg. Med. S7, 4–5 (1995).

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, K. W. Gregory, S. A. Prahl, “Photoacoustic drug delivery: the effect of laser parameters on spatial distribution of delivered drug,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 394–402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shearin, A.

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, S. A. Prahl, “Visualization of photoacoustic drug delivery dynamics,” Lasers Surg. Med. S7, 4–5 (1995).

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, K. W. Gregory, S. A. Prahl, “Photoacoustic drug delivery: the effect of laser parameters on spatial distribution of delivered drug,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 394–402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. B.

H. Wolinsky, M. B. Taubman, “Local delivery to the arterial wall: pharmacologic and molecular approaches,” in Coronary Balloon Angioplasty, R. E. Vlietstra, ed., (Blackwell Scientific, Lakeland, Fla., 1994), pp. 156–186.

Tittel, F. K.

A. A. Oraevsky, R. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser flash photography of cold cavitation-driven ablation in tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 300–307 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Topol, E. J.

A. M. Lincoff, E. J. Topol, A. Frieser, S. G. Ellis, “Local drug delivery for prevention of restenosis,” Circulation 90, 2070–2084 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Veen, M. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Erven, L.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Vapor bubble expansion and implosion: the origin of ‘mille feuilles’,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions III, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. SPIE1878, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Vapor bubble expansion and implosion: the origin of ‘mille feuilles’,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions III, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. SPIE1878, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation—illustrated on laser angioplasty,”Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolinsky, H.

H. Wolinsky, M. B. Taubman, “Local delivery to the arterial wall: pharmacologic and molecular approaches,” in Coronary Balloon Angioplasty, R. E. Vlietstra, ed., (Blackwell Scientific, Lakeland, Fla., 1994), pp. 156–186.

Zeimer, R. C.

R. C. Zeimer, B. Khoobehi, R. L. Magin, “A potential method for local drug and dye delivery in the ocular vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1179–1183 (1988).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H.

T. J. Flotte, S. Lee, H. Zhang, D. MacAuliffe, T. Douki, A. Doukas, “Laser-induced stress transients: Applications for molecular delivery,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 202–207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zwiebel, J. A.

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation—illustrated on laser angioplasty,”Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

H. Lin, M. S. Parmacek, G. Morle, S. Bolling, J. M. Leiden, “Expression of recombination genes in myocardium in vivo after direct injection of DNA,” Circulation 82, 2217–2221 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Santoian, M. B. Gravanis, K. Anderberg, N. A. Scott, S. P. Karas, J. E. Schneider, S. B. King, “Use of a porous infusion balloon in swine coronary arteries: low pressure minimizes arterial damage,” Circulation 84, II-591 (1991).

A. Fernńdez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, A. Mailhac, E. Falk, L. Badimon, J. T. Fallon, V. Fuster, J. H. Chesebro, J. J. Badimon, “A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery: iontophoretic balloon,” Circulation 89, 1518–1522 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dichek, R. F. Neville, J. A. Zwiebel, S. M. Freeman, M. B. Leon, W. F. Anderson, “Seeding of intravascular stents with genetically engineered endothelial cells,” Circulation 80, 1347–1353 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Lincoff, E. J. Topol, A. Frieser, S. G. Ellis, “Local drug delivery for prevention of restenosis,” Circulation 90, 2070–2084 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. W. Gregory, R. R. Anderson, “Liquid core light guide for laser angioplasty,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2289–2296 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, E. D. Jansen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Excimer laser ablation of soft tissue: a study of the content of rapidly expanding and collapsing bubbles,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1339–1345 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

R. C. Zeimer, B. Khoobehi, R. L. Magin, “A potential method for local drug and dye delivery in the ocular vasculature,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 1179–1183 (1988).
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Brost, A. J. Welch, “Partial vaporization model for pulsed mid-infrared laser ablation of water,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 564–571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, S. A. Prahl, “Visualization of photoacoustic drug delivery dynamics,” Lasers Surg. Med. S7, 4–5 (1995).

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanisms of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by holmium: YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 134–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philos. Mag.

O. M. Rayleigh, “On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity,” Philos. Mag. 34, 94–98 (1917).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. G. Nabel, G. Plautz, G. J. Nable, “Site-specific gene expression in vivo by direct gene transfer into the arterial wall,” Science 249, 1285–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

C. W. Francis, A. Blinc, S. Lee, C. Cox, “Ultrasound accelerates transport of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator into clots,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 419–424 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. K. Batchelor, Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1980).

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Vapor bubble expansion and implosion: the origin of ‘mille feuilles’,” in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular Interventions III, G. S. Abela, ed., Proc. SPIE1878, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Shangguan, L. W. Casperson, A. Shearin, K. W. Gregory, S. A. Prahl, “Photoacoustic drug delivery: the effect of laser parameters on spatial distribution of delivered drug,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 394–402 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Wolinsky, M. B. Taubman, “Local delivery to the arterial wall: pharmacologic and molecular approaches,” in Coronary Balloon Angioplasty, R. E. Vlietstra, ed., (Blackwell Scientific, Lakeland, Fla., 1994), pp. 156–186.

A. A. Oraevsky, R. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser flash photography of cold cavitation-driven ablation in tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 300–307 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Gregory, “Laser thrombolysis,” in Interventional Cardiology, E. J. Topol, ed. (Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994), Vol. 2, Chap. 5, pp. 892–902.

T. J. Flotte, S. Lee, H. Zhang, D. MacAuliffe, T. Douki, A. Doukas, “Laser-induced stress transients: Applications for molecular delivery,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 202–207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for spatial distribution measurement, flash photography, and acoustic pressure measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of three irradiation configurations and the methods used for measuring the spatial distribution of photoacoustically delivered dye in clear gels. The top and side views of samples irradiated by perpendicular, coaxial, and side irradiation are shown in (a), (b), and (c), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view of colored-oil distribution in a 2-mm channel through gelatin (175 bloom) with cylindrical geometry after 50 pulses of 30-mJ laser energy through a 300-μm core-diameter fiber in 300-cm−1 colored oil. The laser energy was delivered coaxially. Extensive shadows are present because this section was 2 mm thick.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top view of colored-oil distribution in a 2-mm channel through gelatin (175 bloom) with cylindrical geometry after 50 pulses of 40-mJ laser energy through a side-firing fiber in 300-cm−1 colored oil. The laser energy was delivered perpendicular to the channel wall, as indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Side views of photoacoustic drug delivery on gelatin (175 bloom) with a planar geometry. A single pulse of 30-mJ laser energy was delivered through a 300-μm diameter fiber. The absorption coefficient was 300 cm−1. The fiber was located 1 mm above the gel surface. The backgrounds of four photographs (300–500 μs) are lighter than the rest because of different illumination. The bubble size was reproducible to 5% before the second rebound of the cavitation bubble (500 μs). The appearance of cavitation bubbles varied widely after 500 μs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Side views of photoacoustic drug delivery on gelatin (175 bloom) in a cylindrical geometry. A single pulse of 30-mJ laser energy was delivered through a 300-μm diameter fiber into 300-cm−1 colored oil. The absorption coefficient was 300 cm−1. The laser energy was delivered coaxially. The arrow indicates the place where the deepest penetration was observed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Side views of photoacoustic drug delivery on gelatin (175 bloom) with cylindrical geometry. A single pulse of 40-mJ laser energy was delivered perpendicularly to the channel through a side-firing fiber into 300-cm−1 colored oil. The white dashed curve shows the edge of the side-firing fiber tip. The dark areas inside the fiber tip are due to the index mismatch at the air–oil interface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spatial Distribution Measurements of Colored Oil in Gels with Planar Geometry a

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