Abstract

Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 μm, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium–holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400-μm ZrF4 fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200-μs, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 μs) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 μm as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20–50-μm collateral tissue damage.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. T. Walsh, T. J. Flotte, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 314–326 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  4. H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
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  5. D. S. Choy, P. A. Altman, R. B. Case, S. L. Trokel, “Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of inter-vertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens,” Clin. Orthop. 267, 245–250 (1991).
    [PubMed]
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  35. E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. R. Kaufmann, R. Hibst, “Pulsed 2.94-microns erbium-YAG laser skin ablation—experimental results and first clinical application,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 389–393 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. V. Romano, R. Rodriguez, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Bone microsurgery with IR lasers: a comparative study of the thermal action at different wavelengths,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 87–97 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  45. A. L. McKenzie, “An extension of the three-zone model to predict depth of tissue damage beneath Er:YAG and Ho:YAG laser excisions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 107–114 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanism of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  49. A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, U. Parlitz, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (3)

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, U. Parlitz, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (7)

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanism of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Helfer, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “Fiber-end micro-lens system for endoscopic erbium-laser surgery applications,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 309–315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, “Acoustic transient generation by holmium laser induced cavitation bubbles,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5007–5013 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 621–629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. G. van Leeuwen, J. H. Meertens, E. Velema, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Intraluminal vapor bubble induced by excimer laser pulse causes microsecond arterial dilation and invagination leading to extensive wall damage in the rabbit,” Circulation 87, 1258–1263 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Dyer, M. E. Khosroshahi, S. J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fiber-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 84–93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

H. Loertscher, W. Q. Shi, W. S. Grundfest, “Tissue ablation through water with erbium:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 86–87 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process induced by microsecond laser pulses during lithotripsy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 258–260 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomaru, H. J. Geschwind, G. Boussignac, F. Lange, S. J. Tahk, “Comparison of ablation efficacy of excimer, pulsed-dye, and holmium-YAG lasers relevant to shock waves,” Am. Heart J. 123, 886–895 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Laser-tissue interactions: photochemical, photothermal and photomechanical,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531–558 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (4)

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 17, 239–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Non-contact tissue ablation by holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Choy, P. A. Altman, R. B. Case, S. L. Trokel, “Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of inter-vertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens,” Clin. Orthop. 267, 245–250 (1991).
[PubMed]

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (7)

D. Vorwerk, G. Zolotas, S. Hessel, G. Adam, R. W. Guenther, “Vascular tissue ablation by an erbium-YAG laser: a fiber-transmittable pulsed laser in the infrared range,” Invest. Radiol. 25, 235–239 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Shapshay, H. T. Aretz, S. E. Setzer, “Soft tissue effects of the holmium-YSGG laser in the canine trachea,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 102, 251–256 (1990).
[PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Bleaching of water by intense light of the λ = 3 μm absorption band,” Sov. Phys. JETP 70, 114–121 (1990).

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Trauner, N. Nishioka, D. Patel, “Pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser ablation of fibrocartilage and articular cartilage,” Am. J. Sports Med. 18, 316– 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kaufmann, R. Hibst, “Pulsed 2.94-microns erbium-YAG laser skin ablation—experimental results and first clinical application,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 389–393 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, “Dielectric-coated metallic hollow waveguide for 3-μm Er:YAG, 5-μm CO, and CO2 laser light transmission,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2213–2214 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 327–337 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. McKenzie, “An extension of the three-zone model to predict depth of tissue damage beneath Er:YAG and Ho:YAG laser excisions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 107–114 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Walsh, T. J. Flotte, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 314–326 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Zweig, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “A comparative study of laser–tissue interaction at 2.94 μm and 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 259–265 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Alperovich, S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430–432 (1969).

Adam, G.

D. Vorwerk, G. Zolotas, S. Hessel, G. Adam, R. W. Guenther, “Vascular tissue ablation by an erbium-YAG laser: a fiber-transmittable pulsed laser in the infrared range,” Invest. Radiol. 25, 235–239 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alperovich, L. I.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Alperovich, S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430–432 (1969).

Altermatt, H. J.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 621–629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” (European Federation of National Associations of Orthopedic Sports Traumatology), Sports Exercise Inj. (to be published).

V. Romano, R. Rodriguez, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Bone microsurgery with IR lasers: a comparative study of the thermal action at different wavelengths,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Altman, P. A.

D. S. Choy, P. A. Altman, R. B. Case, S. L. Trokel, “Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of inter-vertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens,” Clin. Orthop. 267, 245–250 (1991).
[PubMed]

Andrews, J. J.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

S. M. Shapshay, H. T. Aretz, S. E. Setzer, “Soft tissue effects of the holmium-YSGG laser in the canine trachea,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 102, 251–256 (1990).
[PubMed]

Asiyo, M.

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 17, 239–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Asshauer, T.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asshauer, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, “Acoustic transient generation by holmium laser induced cavitation bubbles,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5007–5013 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemart, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, T. Jansen, T. Oberthur, G. Delacrétaz, B. E. Gerber, “Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 379–385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behnle, U.

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, U. Parlitz, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanism of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 17, 239–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Doukas, R. Birngruber, T. F. Deutsch, “Determination of the shock wave pressures generated by laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1202, 61–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borst, C.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, J. H. Meertens, E. Velema, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Intraluminal vapor bubble induced by excimer laser pulse causes microsecond arterial dilation and invagination leading to extensive wall damage in the rabbit,” Circulation 87, 1258–1263 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Non-contact tissue ablation by holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boussignac, G.

T. Tomaru, H. J. Geschwind, G. Boussignac, F. Lange, S. J. Tahk, “Comparison of ablation efficacy of excimer, pulsed-dye, and holmium-YAG lasers relevant to shock waves,” Am. Heart J. 123, 886–895 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschi, H. U.

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchelt, M.

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanism of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, R. B.

D. S. Choy, P. A. Altman, R. B. Case, S. L. Trokel, “Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of inter-vertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens,” Clin. Orthop. 267, 245–250 (1991).
[PubMed]

Choy, D. S.

D. S. Choy, P. A. Altman, R. B. Case, S. L. Trokel, “Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of inter-vertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens,” Clin. Orthop. 267, 245–250 (1991).
[PubMed]

Croitoru, N.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delacrétaz, G.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asshauer, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, “Acoustic transient generation by holmium laser induced cavitation bubbles,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5007–5013 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process induced by microsecond laser pulses during lithotripsy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 258–260 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemart, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, T. Jansen, T. Oberthur, G. Delacrétaz, B. E. Gerber, “Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 379–385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

Deutsch, T. F.

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 327–337 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Walsh, T. J. Flotte, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 314–326 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Doukas, R. Birngruber, T. F. Deutsch, “Determination of the shock wave pressures generated by laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1202, 61–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Doukas, A. G.

A. G. Doukas, R. Birngruber, T. F. Deutsch, “Determination of the shock wave pressures generated by laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1202, 61–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Flotte, J. K. Frisoli, M. Goetschkes, A. G. Doukas, “Laser-induced shock wave effects on red blood cells,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1427, 36–44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, E.

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dror, J.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, M. E. Khosroshahi, S. J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fiber-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 84–93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, R.

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, U. Parlitz, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ertl, T.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Felix, D.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T. J.

J. T. Walsh, T. J. Flotte, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 314–326 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Flotte, J. K. Frisoli, M. Goetschkes, A. G. Doukas, “Laser-induced shock wave effects on red blood cells,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1427, 36–44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Forrer, M.

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Helfer, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “Fiber-end micro-lens system for endoscopic erbium-laser surgery applications,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 309–315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 621–629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “A comparative study of laser–tissue interaction at 2.94 μm and 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 259–265 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemart, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

V. Romano, R. Rodriguez, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Bone microsurgery with IR lasers: a comparative study of the thermal action at different wavelengths,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” (European Federation of National Associations of Orthopedic Sports Traumatology), Sports Exercise Inj. (to be published).

Frieser, A.

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 17, 239–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Frisoli, J. K.

T. J. Flotte, J. K. Frisoli, M. Goetschkes, A. G. Doukas, “Laser-induced shock wave effects on red blood cells,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1427, 36–44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gannot, I.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, B.

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, B. E.

T. Asshauer, T. Jansen, T. Oberthur, G. Delacrétaz, B. E. Gerber, “Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 379–385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geschwind, H. J.

T. Tomaru, H. J. Geschwind, G. Boussignac, F. Lange, S. J. Tahk, “Comparison of ablation efficacy of excimer, pulsed-dye, and holmium-YAG lasers relevant to shock waves,” Am. Heart J. 123, 886–895 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetschkes, M.

T. J. Flotte, J. K. Frisoli, M. Goetschkes, A. G. Doukas, “Laser-induced shock wave effects on red blood cells,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1427, 36–44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grossenbacher, R.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

H. Loertscher, W. Q. Shi, W. S. Grundfest, “Tissue ablation through water with erbium:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 86–87 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, R. W.

D. Vorwerk, G. Zolotas, S. Hessel, G. Adam, R. W. Guenther, “Vascular tissue ablation by an erbium-YAG laser: a fiber-transmittable pulsed laser in the infrared range,” Invest. Radiol. 25, 235–239 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrington, J. A.

J. A. Harrington, “Laser power delivery in infrared fiber optics,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine VII, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1649, 14–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Helfer, D.

D. Helfer, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “Fiber-end micro-lens system for endoscopic erbium-laser surgery applications,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 309–315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Helfer, “Endoscopic beam delivery systems for erbium laser radiation,” Master's thesis (Department of Lasers, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland, (1993).

Hessel, S.

D. Vorwerk, G. Zolotas, S. Hessel, G. Adam, R. W. Guenther, “Vascular tissue ablation by an erbium-YAG laser: a fiber-transmittable pulsed laser in the infrared range,” Invest. Radiol. 25, 235–239 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

R. Kaufmann, R. Hibst, “Pulsed 2.94-microns erbium-YAG laser skin ablation—experimental results and first clinical application,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 389–393 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hongo, A.

Inberg, A.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ith, M.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 621–629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” (European Federation of National Associations of Orthopedic Sports Traumatology), Sports Exercise Inj. (to be published).

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Laser-tissue interactions: photochemical, photothermal and photomechanical,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531–558 (1992).
[PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemart, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, T.

T. Asshauer, T. Jansen, T. Oberthur, G. Delacrétaz, B. E. Gerber, “Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 379–385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jungnickel, K.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanism of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katterschafka, T.

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufmann, R.

R. Kaufmann, R. Hibst, “Pulsed 2.94-microns erbium-YAG laser skin ablation—experimental results and first clinical application,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 389–393 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kermani, O.

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khosroshahi, M. E.

P. E. Dyer, M. E. Khosroshahi, S. J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fiber-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 84–93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kiss, H.

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konov, V. I.

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Könz, F.

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kutschera, H. P.

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, S.

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, F.

T. Tomaru, H. J. Geschwind, G. Boussignac, F. Lange, S. J. Tahk, “Comparison of ablation efficacy of excimer, pulsed-dye, and holmium-YAG lasers relevant to shock waves,” Am. Heart J. 123, 886–895 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauterborn, W.

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

LeCarpentier, G. L.

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Liaw, L. H.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loertscher, H.

H. Loertscher, W. Q. Shi, W. S. Grundfest, “Tissue ablation through water with erbium:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 86–87 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losert, U.

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Macleay, L.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, Y.

McKenzie, A. L.

A. L. McKenzie, “An extension of the three-zone model to predict depth of tissue damage beneath Er:YAG and Ho:YAG laser excisions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 107–114 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meertens, J. H.

T. G. van Leeuwen, J. H. Meertens, E. Velema, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Intraluminal vapor bubble induced by excimer laser pulse causes microsecond arterial dilation and invagination leading to extensive wall damage in the rabbit,” Circulation 87, 1258–1263 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meierhofer, B.

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, B. A.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Alperovich, S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430–432 (1969).

Mischler, C.

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyagi, M.

Motamedi, M.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Muller, O. M.

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, G. J.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N.

K. Trauner, N. Nishioka, D. Patel, “Pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser ablation of fibrocartilage and articular cartilage,” Am. J. Sports Med. 18, 316– 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberthur, T.

T. Asshauer, T. Jansen, T. Oberthur, G. Delacrétaz, B. E. Gerber, “Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 379–385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, A.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parlitz, U.

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, U. Parlitz, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patel, D.

K. Trauner, N. Nishioka, D. Patel, “Pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser ablation of fibrocartilage and articular cartilage,” Am. J. Sports Med. 18, 316– 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, S. I.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Alperovich, S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430–432 (1969).

Post, M. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, J. H. Meertens, E. Velema, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Intraluminal vapor bubble induced by excimer laser pulse causes microsecond arterial dilation and invagination leading to extensive wall damage in the rabbit,” Circulation 87, 1258–1263 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pratisto, H.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 621–629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” (European Federation of National Associations of Orthopedic Sports Traumatology), Sports Exercise Inj. (to be published).

Rastegar, S.

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Rink, K.

T. Asshauer, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, “Acoustic transient generation by holmium laser induced cavitation bubbles,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5007–5013 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process induced by microsecond laser pulses during lithotripsy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 258–260 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

Rodriguez, R.

V. Romano, R. Rodriguez, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Bone microsurgery with IR lasers: a comparative study of the thermal action at different wavelengths,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Romano, V.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Helfer, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “Fiber-end micro-lens system for endoscopic erbium-laser surgery applications,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 309–315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “A comparative study of laser–tissue interaction at 2.94 μm and 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 259–265 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Romano, R. Rodriguez, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Bone microsurgery with IR lasers: a comparative study of the thermal action at different wavelengths,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

Salathé, R. P.

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process induced by microsecond laser pulses during lithotripsy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 258–260 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schaffner, T.

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schründer, S.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, P.

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 17, 239–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, S. E.

S. M. Shapshay, H. T. Aretz, S. E. Setzer, “Soft tissue effects of the holmium-YSGG laser in the canine trachea,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 102, 251–256 (1990).
[PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

S. M. Shapshay, H. T. Aretz, S. E. Setzer, “Soft tissue effects of the holmium-YSGG laser in the canine trachea,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 102, 251–256 (1990).
[PubMed]

Shi, W. Q.

H. Loertscher, W. Q. Shi, W. S. Grundfest, “Tissue ablation through water with erbium:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 86–87 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silenok, A.

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spörri, S.

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staubli, H. U.

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stäubli, H. U.

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” (European Federation of National Associations of Orthopedic Sports Traumatology), Sports Exercise Inj. (to be published).

Tahk, S. J.

T. Tomaru, H. J. Geschwind, G. Boussignac, F. Lange, S. J. Tahk, “Comparison of ablation efficacy of excimer, pulsed-dye, and holmium-YAG lasers relevant to shock waves,” Am. Heart J. 123, 886–895 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomaru, T.

T. Tomaru, H. J. Geschwind, G. Boussignac, F. Lange, S. J. Tahk, “Comparison of ablation efficacy of excimer, pulsed-dye, and holmium-YAG lasers relevant to shock waves,” Am. Heart J. 123, 886–895 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trauner, K.

K. Trauner, N. Nishioka, D. Patel, “Pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser ablation of fibrocartilage and articular cartilage,” Am. J. Sports Med. 18, 316– 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trokel, S. L.

D. S. Choy, P. A. Altman, R. B. Case, S. L. Trokel, “Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of inter-vertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens,” Clin. Orthop. 267, 245–250 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tschepe, J.

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuft, S. J.

P. E. Dyer, M. E. Khosroshahi, S. J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fiber-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 84–93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, M. J.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Non-contact tissue ablation by holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Erven, L.

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, J. H. Meertens, E. Velema, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Intraluminal vapor bubble induced by excimer laser pulse causes microsecond arterial dilation and invagination leading to extensive wall damage in the rabbit,” Circulation 87, 1258–1263 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Non-contact tissue ablation by holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velema, E.

T. G. van Leeuwen, J. H. Meertens, E. Velema, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Intraluminal vapor bubble induced by excimer laser pulse causes microsecond arterial dilation and invagination leading to extensive wall damage in the rabbit,” Circulation 87, 1258–1263 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Non-contact tissue ablation by holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Bleaching of water by intense light of the λ = 3 μm absorption band,” Sov. Phys. JETP 70, 114–121 (1990).

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, U. Parlitz, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanism of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 17, 239–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vorwerk, D.

D. Vorwerk, G. Zolotas, S. Hessel, G. Adam, R. W. Guenther, “Vascular tissue ablation by an erbium-YAG laser: a fiber-transmittable pulsed laser in the infrared range,” Invest. Radiol. 25, 235–239 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

J. T. Walsh, T. J. Flotte, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 314–326 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 327–337 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Helfer, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “Fiber-end micro-lens system for endoscopic erbium-laser surgery applications,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 309–315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 621–629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “A comparative study of laser–tissue interaction at 2.94 μm and 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 259–265 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Romano, R. Rodriguez, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Bone microsurgery with IR lasers: a comparative study of the thermal action at different wavelengths,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” (European Federation of National Associations of Orthopedic Sports Traumatology), Sports Exercise Inj. (to be published).

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

Welch, A. J.

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemart, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. H.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yow, L.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavar, R. B.

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotarev, V. M.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Alperovich, S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430–432 (1969).

Zolotas, G.

D. Vorwerk, G. Zolotas, S. Hessel, G. Adam, R. W. Guenther, “Vascular tissue ablation by an erbium-YAG laser: a fiber-transmittable pulsed laser in the infrared range,” Invest. Radiol. 25, 235–239 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zweig, A. D.

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “A comparative study of laser–tissue interaction at 2.94 μm and 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 259–265 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Am. Heart J. (1)

T. Tomaru, H. J. Geschwind, G. Boussignac, F. Lange, S. J. Tahk, “Comparison of ablation efficacy of excimer, pulsed-dye, and holmium-YAG lasers relevant to shock waves,” Am. Heart J. 123, 886–895 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Sports Med. (1)

K. Trauner, N. Nishioka, D. Patel, “Pulsed holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser ablation of fibrocartilage and articular cartilage,” Am. J. Sports Med. 18, 316– 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

A. D. Zweig, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “A comparative study of laser–tissue interaction at 2.94 μm and 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 259–265 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium laser radiation,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 621–629 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Helfer, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, “Fiber-end micro-lens system for endoscopic erbium-laser surgery applications,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 309–315 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, M. E. Khosroshahi, S. J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fiber-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 84–93 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, R. Engelhardt, U. Behnle, U. Parlitz, “Minimization of cavitation effects in pulsed laser ablation illustrated on laser angioplasty,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 173–182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, “Fragmentation process induced by microsecond laser pulses during lithotripsy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 258–260 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Circulation (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, J. H. Meertens, E. Velema, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Intraluminal vapor bubble induced by excimer laser pulse causes microsecond arterial dilation and invagination leading to extensive wall damage in the rabbit,” Circulation 87, 1258–1263 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (1)

R. Kaufmann, R. Hibst, “Pulsed 2.94-microns erbium-YAG laser skin ablation—experimental results and first clinical application,” Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 389–393 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Orthop. (1)

D. S. Choy, P. A. Altman, R. B. Case, S. L. Trokel, “Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of inter-vertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens,” Clin. Orthop. 267, 245–250 (1991).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

H. Loertscher, W. Q. Shi, W. S. Grundfest, “Tissue ablation through water with erbium:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39, 86–87 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gannot, S. Schründer, J. Dror, A. Inberg, T. Ertl, J. Tschepe, G. J. Müller, N. Croitoru, “Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42, 967–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

D. Vorwerk, G. Zolotas, S. Hessel, G. Adam, R. W. Guenther, “Vascular tissue ablation by an erbium-YAG laser: a fiber-transmittable pulsed laser in the infrared range,” Invest. Radiol. 25, 235–239 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, “Acoustic transient generation by laser-produced cavitation bubbles near solid boundaries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 719–731 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

T. G. van Leeuwen, L. van Erven, J. H. Meertens, M. Motamedi, M. J. Post, C. Borst, “Origin of arterial wall dissections induced by pulsed excimer and mid-infrared laser ablation in the pig,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 19, 1610–1618 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Asshauer, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, “Acoustic transient generation by holmium laser induced cavitation bubbles,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5007–5013 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (11)

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. J. van der Veen, R. M. Verdaasdonk, C. Borst, “Non-contact tissue ablation by holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 26–34 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Walsh, T. J. Flotte, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: effect of pulse duration and tissue type on thermal damage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 314–326 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Frenz, M. Ith, V. Romano, D. Felix, R. Grossenbacher, H. J. Altermatt, H. P. Weber, “Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, S. Lang, R. Beer, U. Losert, “Erb:YAG and Hol:YAG laser osteotomy: the effects of laser ablation on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 373–382 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Spörri, M. Frenz, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Bratschi, V. Romano, M. Forrer, E. Dreher, H. P. Weber, “Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 269–278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Walsh, T. F. Deutsch, “Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: measurement of ablation rates,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 327–337 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, L. Yow, L. H. Liaw, L. Macleay, R. B. Zavar, A. Orenstein, W. H. Wright, J. J. Andrews, M. W. Berns, “Ablation of bone and methacrylate by a prototype mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser,” Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 494–500 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Zweig, B. Meierhofer, O. M. Muller, C. Mischler, V. Romano, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Lateral thermal damage along pulsed laser incisions,” Lasers Surg. Med. 10, 262–274 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Jansen, T. Asshauer, M. Frenz, M. Motamedi, G. Delacrétaz, A. J. Welch, “Effect of pulse duration on bubble formation and laser-induced pressure waves during holmium laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 18, 278–293 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, K. Jungnickel, R. Birngruber, “Mechanism of intraocular photodisruption with picosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 32–43 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Alperovich, S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. 27, 430–432 (1969).

Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

S. M. Shapshay, H. T. Aretz, S. E. Setzer, “Soft tissue effects of the holmium-YSGG laser in the canine trachea,” Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 102, 251–256 (1990).
[PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

A. J. Welch, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, G. L. LeCarpentier, E. D. Jansen, “Laser thermal ablation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 815–823 (1991).
[PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. L. McKenzie, “An extension of the three-zone model to predict depth of tissue damage beneath Er:YAG and Ho:YAG laser excisions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 107–114 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Bleaching of water by intense light of the λ = 3 μm absorption band,” Sov. Phys. JETP 70, 114–121 (1990).

Surg. Clin. North Am. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Laser-tissue interactions: photochemical, photothermal and photomechanical,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531–558 (1992).
[PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. Asiyo, R. Birngruber, “The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 17, 239–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

M. Forrer, M. Ith, M. Frenz, V. Romano, H. P. Weber, A. Silenok, V. I. Konov, “Mechanism of channel propagation in water by pulsed erbium laser radiation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue, M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 72–77 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Doukas, R. Birngruber, T. F. Deutsch, “Determination of the shock wave pressures generated by laser-induced breakdown in water,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1202, 61–70 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, E. D. Jansen, A. J. Welch, M. Frenz, “Acoustic transients in pulsed holmium laser ablation: effects of pulse duration,” Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemart, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 117–129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, M. Ith, K. Rink, G. Delacrétaz, V. Romano, R. P. Salathé, H. P. Weber, “Transient photoacous- tic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 402–412 (1994).

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” (European Federation of National Associations of Orthopedic Sports Traumatology), Sports Exercise Inj. (to be published).

T. Asshauer, T. Jansen, T. Oberthur, G. Delacrétaz, B. E. Gerber, “Holmium laser ablation of cartilage: effects of cavitation bubbles,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 379–385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. J. Altermatt, H. U. Staubli, T. Asshauer, G. Delacrétaz, R. P. Salathé, B. Gerber, M. Frenz, “Influence of pulse duration on erbium and holmium laser ablation under water,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue II, H. J. Albrecht, G. P. Delacretaz, T. H. Meier, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, M. J. van Gemert, eds., Proc. SPIE2323, 130–138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Harrington, “Laser power delivery in infrared fiber optics,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine VII, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1649, 14–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Könz, M. Frenz, H. Pratisto, H. P. Weber, H. Lubatschowski, O. Kermani, W. Ertmer, H. J. Altermatt, T. Schaffner, “Thermal and mechanical damage of corneal tissue after free running and Q-switched mid-infrared laser ablation,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 78–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Flotte, J. K. Frisoli, M. Goetschkes, A. G. Doukas, “Laser-induced shock wave effects on red blood cells,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction II, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE1427, 36–44 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. Romano, R. Rodriguez, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Bone microsurgery with IR lasers: a comparative study of the thermal action at different wavelengths,” in Laser Interaction with Hard and Soft Tissue,M. J. van Gemert, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svasaand, H. J. Albrecht, eds., Proc. SPIE2077, 87–97 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Helfer, “Endoscopic beam delivery systems for erbium laser radiation,” Master's thesis (Department of Lasers, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland, (1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the multiwavelength laser system and the transmission experiment. Two pairs of InAs photodiodes (PD) were used to measure the incident and transmitted laser pulses. Both prisms and the cuvette were made of Infrasil quartz, which is transparent for 2- and 3-μm radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-resolved photographs of a laser-induced vapor bubble in water captured 200 μs after the onset of an erbium laser pulse: (a) single erbium pulse, (b) simultaneously delivered erbium and holmium pulses, and (c) holmium and erbium pulses with a delay of Δt = 100 μs between the holmium prepulse and the erbium pulse. Erbium laser: E = 100 mJ, τ = 400 μs. Holmium laser: E = 100 mJ, τ = 200 μs. Fiber-tip diameter, 400 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of the channel depth as a function of time. The channel is produced at the end of a fiber tip submerged in water by a holmium laser pulse with E = 100 mJ and τ = 200 μs (filled triangles); an erbium laser pulse with E = 100 mJ and τ = 400 μs (filled diamonds); or a combination of both, whereby the erbium laser pulse is delivered with a time delay of 100 μs with respect to the holmium laser pulse (open squares). The curves should guide the eye and do not indicate a fit to the data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity profiles and corresponding pressure gradient after transmission of a single erbium pulse. Trace a: initial temporal intensity profile of an Er:YSGG laser pulse (E = 100 mJ, τ = 400 μs). Trace b: temporal intensity profile after laser-pulse penetration through a vapor channel of 1 mm in length; 24% of the initial energy was transmitted. Trace c: the corresponding pressure signal detected with a needle hydrophone at a distance of 2 mm. The pressure transient located at point 1, trace c indicates the explosive opening of the vapor bubble; points 2–5, trace c, correspond to a partial collapse of the bubble.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of the initial and transmitted temporal intensity profiles and the corresponding pressure signal of a holmium (200 μs, 100 mJ) and an erbium (400 μs, 100 mJ) laser pulse from the multiwavelength laser system. The time delay between the holmium and erbium laser pulses is 100 μs. The distance between the distal fiber tip and the bottom of the cuvette is 1 mm. Trace a: the initial holmium pulse; trace b: the initial erbium pulse; trace c: the transmitted holmium signal; trace d: the transmitted erbium signal, of which 71% of the energy of the initial erbium laser-pulse energy was transmitted; trace e: the corresponding pressure signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Channel depth measured in poly(acrylamide) gel with an 80% water concentration. The photographs were taken 300 μs after the beginning of the erbium laser pulse. The fiber–gel distance was 1 mm. The photographs show (a) erbium laser-pulse radiation, (b) holmium and erbium laser-pulse radiation delivered simultaneously (delay time of Δt = 0 μs), and (c) holmium and erbium laser-pulse radiation with a time delay of Δt = 100 μs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histology of human meniscus after treatment with the multiwavelength laser system. The cutting depth measured in the 30° direction is given in the left-hand side bottom corner. Laser parameters were Er:YSGG laser pulse: E = 100 mJ, τ = 400 μs; Ho:YAG laser pulse: E = 100 mJ, τ = 200 μs. Incisions were made by the fiber's being moved fiber sideward over the tissue at a speed of 0.8 mm/s, permitting a 50% overlap of the spot diameter from pulse to pulse. Shown are, A, erbium laser pulses; B, simultaneous erbium and holmium laser pulses (delay time of Δt = 0 μs); C, erbium laser pulses delayed by a time of Δt = 100 μs with respect to the beginning of the holmium laser pulses. The extent of the thermally damaged tissue is marked with arrows.

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