Abstract

A field-widened Michelson interferometer designed to measure upper atmospheric winds at three altitudes near the mesopause by using airglow emissions from O1S, OH, and O2 is described. A very large path difference (11 cm) is used to suppress the fringes from the hot F-region emission of O1S and to facilitate accurate measurements. Field widening and thermal compensation are achieved over the large spectral range (557.7–866.0 nm) by the use of three types of glass in the interferometer’s arms. The instrument was installed at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.3 N, 94.5 W), in November 1992 and has been operated remotely from Toronto for four winter seasons. Some examples of data are shown to illustrate ERWIN’s performance.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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1993 (2)

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (2)

T. L. Killeen, R. G. Roble, “Thermospheric dynamics: contributions from the first 5 years of the Dynamics Explorer program,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 329–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (6)

1984 (2)

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

D. Baker, A. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Development of infrared interferometry for upper atmospheric emission studies,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1734–1746 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime thermospheric winds at high latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–1913 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1966 (1)

1958 (1)

P. Connes, “L’Etalon de Fabry–Perot sphérique,” J. Phys. Rad. 19, 262–269 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alunni, J. M.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, D.

D. Baker, A. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Development of infrared interferometry for upper atmospheric emission studies,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1734–1746 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Baker, “Field-widened interferometers for Fourier spectroscopy,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 5.

Biondi, M. A.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bourg, L.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Brun, J.-F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burnside, R. G.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burrage, M. D.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Charleton, P. J.

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Charlot, P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cogger, J. S. Murphree, C. A. Tepley, J. W. Meriwether, “Measurements of the E region neutral wind field,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 373–379 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Connes, P.

P. Connes, “L’Etalon de Fabry–Perot sphérique,” J. Phys. Rad. 19, 262–269 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Craven, J. D.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Deehr, C. S.

R. W. Smith, K. Henriksen, C. S. Deehr, D. Rees, F. G. McCormac, G. G. Sivjee, “Thermospheric winds in the cospia dependence of the latitude of the cusp,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 305–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Desaulniers, D.-L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, M. E.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Emery, B. A.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fauliot, V.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Frank, L. A.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Franke, S. J.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gattinger, R.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Gattinger, R. L.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gault, W. A.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnson, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1583 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Gell, D. A.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Girod, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greenway, A. H.

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Harvie, D.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haslett, J. W.

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, “Circle-to-line interferometer optical system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1482–1489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime thermospheric winds at high latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–1913 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Henriksen, K.

R. W. Smith, K. Henriksen, C. S. Deehr, D. Rees, F. G. McCormac, G. G. Sivjee, “Thermospheric winds in the cospia dependence of the latitude of the cusp,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 305–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Thermospheric dynamics investigations with very high resolution spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3376–3385 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometry (Cambridge, U. Press, Cambridge, 1986), pp. 122–149.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Herrero, F. A.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hersé, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Measurement of wind in the upper atmosphere: first results of the MICADO instrument,” in Progress in Atmospheric Physics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988), pp. 61–73.
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Hersom, C.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hersom, C. H.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Hilliard, R. L.

Ho, F. C.

Hum, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. F.

Kendall, D. J. W.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnson, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1583 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, R. G. Roble, “Thermospheric dynamics: contributions from the first 5 years of the Dynamics Explorer program,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 329–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kosteniuk, P. R.

Lathuillere, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Llewellyn, E. J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. P.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manson, A.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

McCormac, F. G.

R. W. Smith, K. Henriksen, C. S. Deehr, D. Rees, F. G. McCormac, G. G. Sivjee, “Thermospheric winds in the cospia dependence of the latitude of the cusp,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 305–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McLandress, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

McWhirter, I.

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W.

L. L. Cogger, J. S. Murphree, C. A. Tepley, J. W. Meriwether, “Measurements of the E region neutral wind field,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 373–379 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime thermospheric winds at high latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–1913 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. W.

Murphree, J. S.

L. L. Cogger, J. S. Murphree, C. A. Tepley, J. W. Meriwether, “Measurements of the E region neutral wind field,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 373–379 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Niciejewski, R.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Ohrt, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasternak, F.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pasturczyk, Z.

Peillet, O.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, H. E.

Rees, D.

R. W. Smith, K. Henriksen, C. S. Deehr, D. Rees, F. G. McCormac, G. G. Sivjee, “Thermospheric winds in the cospia dependence of the latitude of the cusp,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 305–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ring, J.

Roble, R. G.

T. L. Killeen, R. G. Roble, “Thermospheric dynamics: contributions from the first 5 years of the Dynamics Explorer program,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 329–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Thermospheric dynamics investigations with very high resolution spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3376–3385 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime thermospheric winds at high latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–1913 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, Y. J.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Schofield, J. W.

Shepherd, G. G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michel-son interferometer of fixed path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnson, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1583 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Hilliard, G. G. Shepherd, “Wide-angle Michelson interferometer for measuring Doppler line widths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 362–369 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Sipler, D. P.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sivjee, G. G.

R. W. Smith, K. Henriksen, C. S. Deehr, D. Rees, F. G. McCormac, G. G. Sivjee, “Thermospheric winds in the cospia dependence of the latitude of the cusp,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 305–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

R. W. Smith, K. Henriksen, C. S. Deehr, D. Rees, F. G. McCormac, G. G. Sivjee, “Thermospheric winds in the cospia dependence of the latitude of the cusp,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 305–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Spencer, N. W.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stair, A. T.

Steed, A.

Steen, Å.

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tai, C.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Tepley, C. A.

L. L. Cogger, J. S. Murphree, C. A. Tepley, J. W. Meriwether, “Measurements of the E region neutral wind field,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 373–379 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michel-son interferometer of fixed path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Measurement of wind in the upper atmosphere: first results of the MICADO instrument,” in Progress in Atmospheric Physics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988), pp. 61–73.
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Title, A. M.

Vincent, R. A.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Waldorf, A.

Walker, J. C. G.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ward, W. E.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Weins, R. H.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wharton, L. E.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wiens, R. H.

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Wimperis, J.

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wimperis, J. R.

Zhang, S. P.

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (10)

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Thermospheric dynamics investigations with very high resolution spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3376–3385 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Thermally stable field compensated Michelson interferometer for measurement of temperature and wind of the planetary atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1210–1220 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Title, H. E. Ramsey, “Improvements in birefringent filters. 6. analog birefringent elements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2046–2058 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, D. W. Miller, Z. Pasturczyk, S. F. Johnson, P. R. Kosteniuk, J. W. Haslett, D. J. W. Kendall, J. R. Wimperis, “WAMDII: wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer for Spacelab,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1571–1583 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, “Fully compensated Michel-son interferometer of fixed path difference,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1599–1603 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ring, J. W. Schofield, “Field compensated Michelson spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 11, 507–516 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Baker, A. Steed, A. T. Stair, “Development of infrared interferometry for upper atmospheric emission studies,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1734–1746 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, “Circle-to-line interferometer optical system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1482–1489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. Waldorf, “Beam splitter for a wide-angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1585–1588 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Ward, Z. Pasturczyk, W. A. Gault, G. G. Shepherd, “Multiple reflections in a wide-angle Michelson interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1589–1598 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

R. H. Wiens, G. G. Shepherd, W. A. Gault, “Optical measurements of winds in the lower thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5973–5980 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W. A. Gault, B. H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J. M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, P. Charlot, L. L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W. F. J. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R. H. Hum, D. J. W. Kendall, E. J. Llewellyn, R. P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W. E. Ward, R. H. Weins, J. Wimperis, “WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10725–10750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, “Optical observations of thermospheric dynamics at Arecibo,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532–5540 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, “Nighttime thermospheric winds at high latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905–1913 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, B. A. Emery, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, “Observations of the dynamics of the polar thermosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5597–5612 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, M. E. Dobbs, D. A. Gell, H. J. Grassl, W. R. Skinner, “The high resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Reserach Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713–10723 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

P. Connes, “L’Etalon de Fabry–Perot sphérique,” J. Phys. Rad. 19, 262–269 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (4)

D. Rees, A. H. Greenway, R. Gordon, I. McWhirter, P. J. Charleton, Å. Steen, “The Doppler imaging system: initial observations of the auroral thermosphere,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 273–285 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Smith, K. Henriksen, C. S. Deehr, D. Rees, F. G. McCormac, G. G. Sivjee, “Thermospheric winds in the cospia dependence of the latitude of the cusp,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 305–313 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-region neutral winds and temperatures at equatorial latitudes: measured and predicted behaviour during geomagnetically quiet conditions,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 53–66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Cogger, J. S. Murphree, C. A. Tepley, J. W. Meriwether, “Measurements of the E region neutral wind field,” Planet. Space Sci. 33, 373–379 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. (1)

T. L. Killeen, R. G. Roble, “Thermospheric dynamics: contributions from the first 5 years of the Dynamics Explorer program,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 329–367 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometry (Cambridge, U. Press, Cambridge, 1986), pp. 122–149.

G. Thuillier, M. Hersé, “Measurement of wind in the upper atmosphere: first results of the MICADO instrument,” in Progress in Atmospheric Physics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988), pp. 61–73.
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gault, G. Thuillier, G. G. Shepherd, S. P. Zhang, R. H. Wiens, W. E. Ward, C. Tai, B. H. Solheim, Y. J. Rochon, C. McLandress, C. Lathuillere, V. Fauliot, M. Hersé, C. H. Hersom, R. Gattinger, L. Bourg, M. D. Burrage, S. J. Franke, G. Hernandez, A. Manson, R. Niciejewski, R. A. Vincent, “Validation of O(1S) wind measurements by WINDII: the wind imaging interferometer on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res.101 (to be published).

D. Baker, “Field-widened interferometers for Fourier spectroscopy,” in Spectrometric Techniques, G. Vanasse, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General layout of ERWIN (schematic). PMT, photomultiplier detector; RDIB, remote device interface board; LINUX, operating system for Free Software Foundation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scale drawing of Michelson interferometer. Dimensions are in centimeters. M1, M2, mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Predicted wind error from photon noise as a function of path difference for an average signal of 25,000 counts. The calculation assumes a single emission line or a pair of lines in phase with each other, an emission temperature of 200 K, and an instrument visibility of 0.9. (b) The same for temperature error.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Visibility of O1S as a function of path difference for temperatures typical of the two emission regions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance of the O2 filter for normal incidence. The relative intensities for the lines of the O2 atm (0,1) band are shown for 200 K. The two lines inside the passband are P Q(7) and P P(7).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Change of path difference in fringes as a function of incident angle for the extreme wavelengths of 558 and 866 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observations of the three emissions at Resolute Bay, 2–3 January 1994.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Observations of OH only, 5–6 February 1994.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the zenith OH phase and the phase of the corresponding calibration lamp. the large drift is due mainly to a variation in atmospheric pressure during the observation period. The phase difference is nearly constant, with a standard deviation of 4 m s−1.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Predicted Phase Separation of Line Pairs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Michelson Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calibration Lamps

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 0 { 1 + U V cos [ 2 π λ ( Δ + x ) ] } + I B ,
Φ = 2 π Δ λ .
ϕ - ϕ 0 = 2 π v c D λ ,
D = Δ - λ ( Δ λ ) .
I 0 = ( I 1 + I 3 ) / 2 = ( I 2 + I 4 ) / 2 ,
U V = [ ( I 1 - I 3 ) 2 + ( I 4 - I 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 / 2 I 0 ,
ϕ = tan - 1 [ ( I 4 - I 2 ) / ( I 1 - I 3 ) ] ,
2 ( n 1 t 1 + n 2 t 2 + n 3 t 3 + n 4 t 4 ) = Δ 0 ,
t 1 n 1 + t 2 n 2 + t 3 n 3 + t 4 = 0 ,
2 ( γ 1 t 1 + γ 2 t 2 + γ 3 t 3 + α 4 t 4 ) = 0 ,

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