Abstract

A deeper understanding of long-term ozone trends and periods of significant ozone depletion as well as of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect requires the concerted actions of experimenters and modelers. With respect to observations, atmospheric constituents need to be measured simultaneously and on a global basis. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers are especially suited for this measurement task. A promising and challenging branch of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is its application to limb-emission sounding by the use of cryogenic instrumentation. This method allows the measurements to be made independently of the time of the day. The MIPAS (Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding) balloon-borne (MIPAS-B) and space-based (MIPAS-S) experiments apply this technique. While the MIPAS-B instrument has already been used for several years for stratospheric process studies, the MIPAS-S instrument is in development for the European Space Agency’s ENVISAT mission. Instrumental aspects of these MIPAS experiments are highlighted, the most important results in ozone research achieved with MIPAS-B are reviewed, and a brief overview of the scientific capabilities of the MIPAS space experiment is given.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, R. Norton, “Spectroscopic detection and vertical distribution of HCl in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 13–16 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission,” JPL Pub. 87-32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).
  4. H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace constituents using Fourier transform spectrometry,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 306–314 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases,” Interdis. Sci. Rev. 10(3), 185–191 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.
  9. T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.
  10. T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.
  13. C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Wetzel, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, “Vertical profiles of N2O5 along with CH4, N2O and H2O in the late Arctic winter retrieved from MIPAS-B limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23173–23181 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull.76 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 47–52.
  16. F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).
  17. P. Burkert, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, “A compact high resolution Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-21, 345 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).
  19. M. Seefeldner, C. Keim, “The pointing and the star reference system of the MIPAS-B2 gondola, Part 1: the pointing system,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on Rocket and Balloon Programmes, ESA SP-370 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995), pp. 505–510.
  20. G. Maucher, “The pointing and the star reference system of the MIPAS-B2 gondola, Part 2: the star reference system,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on Rocket and Balloon Programmes, ESA SP-370 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995), pp. 511–514.
  21. F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, M. Seefeldner, “The new balloon-borne MIPAS-B 2 limb emission sounder,” in Proceedings of the IGARSS (IGARSS, 1995), pp. 435–439.
  22. H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).
  23. S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.
  24. T. von Clarmann, “RAT, a computational tool for retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” KfK Report 5423 (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).
  25. R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Toumi, R. L. Jones, J. A. Pyle, “Stratospheric ozone depletion by ClONO2 photolysis,” Nature (London) 365, 37–39 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Zorn, “Vertical profiles of O3, CH4, N2O, and N2O5 from MIPAS-B-90 limb emission spectra,” Diploma thesis (Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).
  32. V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Endemann, G. Lange, B. Fladt, “Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding MIPAS, a high resolution limb sounder for the European Polar Platform,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere, D. K. Lynch, ed., Proc. SPIE 1934, 13–15 (1993).
  38. M. Carlotti, Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica dell’ Universita di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, Italy; T. von Clarmann, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Forschungszentrum, Universität Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany (personal communication, 1995).
    [PubMed]
  39. G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of IR limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1995

G. Wetzel, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, “Vertical profiles of N2O5 along with CH4, N2O and H2O in the late Arctic winter retrieved from MIPAS-B limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23173–23181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of IR limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases,” Interdis. Sci. Rev. 10(3), 185–191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Toumi, R. L. Jones, J. A. Pyle, “Stratospheric ozone depletion by ClONO2 photolysis,” Nature (London) 365, 37–39 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace constituents using Fourier transform spectrometry,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 306–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

P. Burkert, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, “A compact high resolution Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-21, 345 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

1979

D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, R. Norton, “Spectroscopic detection and vertical distribution of HCl in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 13–16 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, G. P.

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Bauer, R.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, M.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Blom, C. E.

C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.

Blumenstock, T.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Borchers, R.

U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brasunas, J. C.

M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Burkert, P.

P. Burkert, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, “A compact high resolution Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-21, 345 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

Camy-Peyret, C.

A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

M. Carlotti, Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica dell’ Universita di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, Italy; T. von Clarmann, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Forschungszentrum, Universität Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany (personal communication, 1995).
[PubMed]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Crutzen, P. J.

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Echle, G.

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of IR limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

M. Endemann, G. Lange, B. Fladt, “Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding MIPAS, a high resolution limb sounder for the European Polar Platform,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere, D. K. Lynch, ed., Proc. SPIE 1934, 13–15 (1993).

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull.76 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 47–52.

Engel, A.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, R. Norton, “Spectroscopic detection and vertical distribution of HCl in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 13–16 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission,” JPL Pub. 87-32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Fergg, F.

P. Burkert, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, “A compact high resolution Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-21, 345 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

Fischer, H.

G. Wetzel, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, “Vertical profiles of N2O5 along with CH4, N2O and H2O in the late Arctic winter retrieved from MIPAS-B limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23173–23181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases,” Interdis. Sci. Rev. 10(3), 185–191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace constituents using Fourier transform spectrometry,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 306–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Burkert, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, “A compact high resolution Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-21, 345 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull.76 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 47–52.

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

Fladt, B.

M. Endemann, G. Lange, B. Fladt, “Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding MIPAS, a high resolution limb sounder for the European Polar Platform,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere, D. K. Lynch, ed., Proc. SPIE 1934, 13–15 (1993).

Flaud, J.-M.

A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Friedle, A.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Friedl-Vallon, F.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, M. Seefeldner, “The new balloon-borne MIPAS-B 2 limb emission sounder,” in Proceedings of the IGARSS (IGARSS, 1995), pp. 435–439.

Fritzsche, C.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

Gamache, R. R.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, L.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glatthor, W.

C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gulde, T.

C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.

Herath, L. W.

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Höpfner, M.

C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jaouen, V.

A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

R. Toumi, R. L. Jones, J. A. Pyle, “Stratospheric ozone depletion by ClONO2 photolysis,” Nature (London) 365, 37–39 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Keim, C.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

M. Seefeldner, C. Keim, “The pointing and the star reference system of the MIPAS-B2 gondola, Part 1: the pointing system,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on Rocket and Balloon Programmes, ESA SP-370 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995), pp. 505–510.

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Kunde, V. G.

M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lange, G.

M. Endemann, G. Lange, B. Fladt, “Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding MIPAS, a high resolution limb sounder for the European Polar Platform,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere, D. K. Lynch, ed., Proc. SPIE 1934, 13–15 (1993).

Lary, D.

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Linden, A.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maguire, W. C.

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Malathy Devi, V.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Maucher, G.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

G. Maucher, “The pointing and the star reference system of the MIPAS-B2 gondola, Part 2: the star reference system,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on Rocket and Balloon Programmes, ESA SP-370 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995), pp. 511–514.

F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, M. Seefeldner, “The new balloon-borne MIPAS-B 2 limb emission sounder,” in Proceedings of the IGARSS (IGARSS, 1995), pp. 435–439.

Müller, R.

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, D. G.

D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, F.

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, F. H.

D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, F. J.

D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Namkung, J. S.

C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, R. Norton, “Spectroscopic detection and vertical distribution of HCl in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 13–16 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O’Callaghan, F. G.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission,” JPL Pub. 87-32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Oelhaf, H.

G. Wetzel, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, “Vertical profiles of N2O5 along with CH4, N2O and H2O in the late Arctic winter retrieved from MIPAS-B limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23173–23181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of IR limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, M. Seefeldner, “The new balloon-borne MIPAS-B 2 limb emission sounder,” in Proceedings of the IGARSS (IGARSS, 1995), pp. 435–439.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

Perrin, A.

A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peter, Th.

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Piesch, C.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

Piesch, Ch.

T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.

Pyle, J. A.

R. Toumi, R. L. Jones, J. A. Pyle, “Stratospheric ozone depletion by ClONO2 photolysis,” Nature (London) 365, 37–39 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, D.

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

Raper, O. F.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, R. Norton, “Spectroscopic detection and vertical distribution of HCl in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 13–16 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission,” JPL Pub. 87-32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Rinsland, C. P.

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rothmann, L.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sartorius, C.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

Scheuerpflug, W.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, U.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seefeldner, M.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

M. Seefeldner, C. Keim, “The pointing and the star reference system of the MIPAS-B2 gondola, Part 1: the pointing system,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on Rocket and Balloon Programmes, ESA SP-370 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995), pp. 505–510.

F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, M. Seefeldner, “The new balloon-borne MIPAS-B 2 limb emission sounder,” in Proceedings of the IGARSS (IGARSS, 1995), pp. 435–439.

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

Shaffer, W. A.

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toumi, R.

R. Toumi, R. L. Jones, J. A. Pyle, “Stratospheric ozone depletion by ClONO2 photolysis,” Nature (London) 365, 37–39 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trieschmann, O.

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

Valentin, A.

A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Völker, W.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

von Clarmann, T.

G. Wetzel, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, “Vertical profiles of N2O5 along with CH4, N2O and H2O in the late Arctic winter retrieved from MIPAS-B limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23173–23181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

T. von Clarmann, “RAT, a computational tool for retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” KfK Report 5423 (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

Wegner, A.

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of IR limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, G.

G. Wetzel, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, “Vertical profiles of N2O5 along with CH4, N2O and H2O in the late Arctic winter retrieved from MIPAS-B limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23173–23181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

Wildgruber, G.

T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.

Williams, W. J.

D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wölfel, M.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

Zander, R.

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, S.

S. Zorn, “Vertical profiles of O3, CH4, N2O, and N2O5 from MIPAS-B-90 limb emission spectra,” Diploma thesis (Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).

Beitr. Phys. Atmos.

H. Fischer, F. Fergg, H. Oelhaf, D. Rabus, W. Völker, P. Burkert, “Simultaneous detection of trace constituents in the middle atmosphere with a small He-cooled high resolution Michelson interferometer,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 58, 260–275 (1983).

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.

H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace constituents using Fourier transform spectrometry,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 306–314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, W. Glatthor, T. Gulde, M. Höpfner, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment. 4. Column amounts of HNO3 and O3 derived from FTIR emission sounding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1351–1354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res Lett.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, A. Linden, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Stratospheric ClONO2, HNO3, and O3 profiles inside the arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra during EASOE 1992,” Geophys. Res Lett. 21, 1263–1266 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. G. Murcray, A. Goldman, F. H. Murcray, F. J. Murcray, W. J. Williams, “Stratospheric distribution of ClONO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 857–859 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

G. P. Adrian, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, L. Gerhardt, T. Gulde, H. Oelhaf, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, “Column amounts of trace gases derived from ground-based measurements with MIPAS during CHEOPS III,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 783–786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Adrian, M. Baumann, T. Blumenstock, H. Fischer, A. Friedle, L. Gerhardt, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, W. Scheuerpflug, P. Thomas, O. Trieschmann, A. Wegner, “First results of ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric trace gases in north Sweden and Greenland during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1343–1346 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, R. Norton, “Spectroscopic detection and vertical distribution of HCl in the troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 13–16 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, C. B. Farmer, L. R. Brown, R. H. Norton, “Observation of several ClONO2 bands in stratospheric solar absorption spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 757 (1986).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, R. Bauer, A. Engel, R. Borchers, J. Lee, “The variation of available chlorine ClOy in the Arctic polar vortex during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1215–1218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Müller, Th. Peter, P. J. Crutzen, H. Oelhaf, G. P. Adrian, T. von Clarmann, A. Wegner, U. Schmidt, D. Lary, “Chlorine chemistry and ozone depletion in the Arctic stratosphere in the winter of 1991/92,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1427–1430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, M. M. Abbas, L. W. Herath, W. A. Shaffer, “Measurement of nighttime stratospheric N2O5 from infrared emission spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 1177–1180 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing

P. Burkert, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, “A compact high resolution Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing GE-21, 345 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Interdis. Sci. Rev.

H. Fischer, “Remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases,” Interdis. Sci. Rev. 10(3), 185–191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Retrieval of stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B limb emission spectra: method, results, and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D11), 20,495–20,506 (1993); addenda to this, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D4), 8353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem.

C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, F. Murcray, “Stratospheric N2O5, CH4, and N2O profiles from IR solar occultation spectra,” J. Atmos. Chem. 16, 31–40 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. von Clarmann, A. Linden, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, R. Bauer, A. Engel, U. Schmidt, “Determination of the stratospheric organic chlorine budget in the spring arctic vortex from MIPAS-B limb emission spectra and air sampling experiments,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13979–13997 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. P. Rinsland, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, J. S. Namkung, “Stratospheric N2O5 profiles at sunrise and sunset from further analysis of the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 solar spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18341–18349 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, J. R. Herman, S. T. Massie, “Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 10,885–10,897 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Wetzel, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, H. Fischer, “Vertical profiles of N2O5 along with CH4, N2O and H2O in the late Arctic winter retrieved from MIPAS-B limb emission measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23173–23181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

A. Perrin, V. Jaouen, A. Valentin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “The ν5 and 2νg bands of nitric acid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 157, 112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. Rothmann, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, H. Oelhaf, A. Wegner, “On the potential of IR limb emission spectroscopy for the measurement of the stratospheric composition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 253 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

R. Toumi, R. L. Jones, J. A. Pyle, “Stratospheric ozone depletion by ClONO2 photolysis,” Nature (London) 365, 37–39 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Seefeldner, C. Keim, “The pointing and the star reference system of the MIPAS-B2 gondola, Part 1: the pointing system,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on Rocket and Balloon Programmes, ESA SP-370 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995), pp. 505–510.

G. Maucher, “The pointing and the star reference system of the MIPAS-B2 gondola, Part 2: the star reference system,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ESA Symposium on Rocket and Balloon Programmes, ESA SP-370 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1995), pp. 511–514.

F. Friedl-Vallon, G. Maucher, H. Oelhaf, M. Seefeldner, “The new balloon-borne MIPAS-B 2 limb emission sounder,” in Proceedings of the IGARSS (IGARSS, 1995), pp. 435–439.

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Keim, G. Maucher, C. Sartorius, M. Seefeldner, O. Trieschmann, G. Wetzel, M. Wölfel, “Remote sensing of the Arctic stratosphere with the new balloon-borne MIPAS-B2 instrument,” Air Pollution Research Rep. XY (The European Commission, Brussels, 1996).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, “Atmospheric radiance and transmittance: fascod2,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1986), p. 141.

T. von Clarmann, “RAT, a computational tool for retrieval of atmospheric trace gas profiles from infrared spectra,” KfK Report 5423 (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).

M. Endemann, G. Lange, B. Fladt, “Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding MIPAS, a high resolution limb sounder for the European Polar Platform,” in Passive Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere, D. K. Lynch, ed., Proc. SPIE 1934, 13–15 (1993).

M. Carlotti, Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica dell’ Universita di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, Italy; T. von Clarmann, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung Forschungszentrum, Universität Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany (personal communication, 1995).
[PubMed]

S. Zorn, “Vertical profiles of O3, CH4, N2O, and N2O5 from MIPAS-B-90 limb emission spectra,” Diploma thesis (Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1994).

M. Endemann, H. Fischer, “Envisat’s high-resolution limb sounder: MIPAS,” ESA Bull.76 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 47–52.

F. Friedl-Vallon, H. Fischer, T. von Clarmann, C. Fritzsche, H. Oelhaf, C. Piesch, M. Seefeldner, D. Rabus, W. Völker, “Limb emission spectroscopy with the balloon-borne Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Optical Methods in Atmospheric Chemistry, H. I. Schiff, U. Platt, eds., Proc. SPIE 1715, 441–450 (1992).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “The MIPAS balloon borne trace constituent experiment,” in Proceedings of the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium 1992, NASA Conf. Pub. 3266 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 842–845.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, F. G. O’Callaghan, “Final report on the first flight of the ATMOS instrument during the Spacelab 3 mission,” JPL Pub. 87-32 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

H. Oelhaf, T. von Clarmann, F. Fergg, H. Fischer, F. Friedl-Vallon, C. Fritzsche, C. Piesch, D. Rabus, M. Seefeldner, W. Völker, “Remote sensing of trace gases with a balloon borne version of the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS),” in Proceedings of the Tenth ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Progammes and Related Research, ESA-SP-317 (European Space Agency, Paris, 1991), pp. 207–213.

T. Gulde, Ch. Piesch, C. E. Blom, H. Fischer, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The airborne MIPAS infrared emission experiment,” in Proceedings of the International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1994), Vol. II, pp. 301–311.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the DPI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Functional overview of MIPAS-B optics including the DPI and the detector Dewar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mechanical set-up and dimensions of the first MIPAS balloon gondola.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Test measurements of the MIPAS-B instrument from the ground in Kiruna, Sweden, on 2 March 1992; the upper graph represents the whole spectrum measured in channel 1; the lower graph shows a very small part of this spectrum but considerably magnified.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dual-port, dual-slide interferometer of the MIPAS satellite instrument.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Sequence of measured limb-emission spectra from 33-km balloon altitude in aged polar vortex air-covering tangent altitudes from 11.3 to 31.7 km; the rapid disappearance of the chlorofluorocarbons with increasing tangent height indicates a strong descent of air masses inside the polar vortex; HNO3 as the primary N reservoir species in the lower stratosphere is the most prominent feature in this spectral range. (b) Zoomed narrow portion of Fig. 6(a) that shows the spectral region of the CIONO2 ν4 Q-branch.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieved CIONO2 profiles from MIPAS balloon flights inside the polar vortex compared with sunrise and nighttime profiles obtained at mid-latitudes by ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy25) and SIRIS (stratosphere infrared interferometer spectrometer26), respectively, and a polar vortex profile of CIO y .27 ppbv, parts per billion by volume.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Partitioning of total Cl for 1992 mid-March polar vortex air based on MIPAS-B and in situ air-sampling measurements; the first six dotted curves from the left determine boundaries between areas that represent the amount of the seven most abundant organic Cl compounds; the area between the two solid curves at the right corresponds to the available inorganic Cl; its largest fraction is represented by CIONO2 in this case.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured and simulated spectra in the region of the N2O5 signature that corresponds to a tangent altitude of 28.8 km; with the exception of artificial spikes at 1222, 1236, 1249, and 1262 cm−1, the deviations of the simulated from the measured spectrum appears to be rather random; the contribution of N2O5 to the spectrum can be recognized as a pseudo-continuum between 1230 and 1260 cm−1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

N2O5 profile retrieved from MIPAS-B measurements inside the polar vortex in March 1992 compared with previous midlatitude N2O5 measurements obtained at night (SIRIS, Kunde et al. 32) and at sunrise (ATMOS, Rinsland et al. 33 and Camy-Peyret et al. 34).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectrum as measured by MIPAS-B on 14–15 March 1992 (solid curve) and corresponding simulated spectrum containing several discrete Q-branch-type features and a R-branch-type pseudo-continuum of CF2Cl2 as well as the HNO39 R branch and several CO2 lines; reasons for the large residuals are explained in the text.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

MIPAS experiment aboard the European ENVISAT satellite to be launched in 1999.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Optical layout of the MIPAS space instrument.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Limb observation geometry of the MIPAS space experiment.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Altitude ranges of detectability of trace constituents with the MIPAS space instrument, assuming a precision of the mixing ratio of better than 20%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Specifications of Cooled MIPAS Limb Sounders

Metrics