Abstract

The methodology of spectroscopic remote sensing with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectra obtained from low Earth orbit by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment is discussed. During the course of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) shuttle missions (1992–1994) a flexible, yet reproducible, retrieval strategy was developed that culminated in the near-real-time processing of telemetry data into vertical profiles of atmospheric composition during the ATLAS-3 mission. The development, evolution, robustness, and validation of the measurements are presented and assessed with a summary comparison of trace-gas observations within the Antarctic polar vortex in November 1994.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Detection of stratospheric N2O5 by infrared remote sounding,” Nature (London) 319, 570–571 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. P. Rinsland, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, “Infrared spectroscopic detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5577–5585 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. “The Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft: Report of the 1992 Models and Measurements Workshop, (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993), Vols. I–III.
  7. M. C. Abrams, R. A. Schindler, G. C. Toon, “Practical example of detector nonlinearity correction of Fouriertransform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. B. Farmer, “The ATMOS Solar Atlas,” Infrared Solar Physics 154, 511–521 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, “Observations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2747–2751, (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Grose, J. Gille, eds, “Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite validation workshop report III: temperature and constituents,” NASACP-3317 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  13. R. Nagatani, Climate Analysis Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. (personal communication, 1994).
  14. M. E. Gelman, “Stratospheric Monitoring with TOVS Data,” Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 90, 75–78 (1991).
  15. M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2810–2820 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. P. Rinsland, R. H. Norton, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, “An evaluation of stratospheric ozone observed by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment during April 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

1996

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, “Observations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2747–2751, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2810–2820 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. C. Abrams, R. A. Schindler, G. C. Toon, “Practical example of detector nonlinearity correction of Fouriertransform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Farmer, “The ATMOS Solar Atlas,” Infrared Solar Physics 154, 511–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Gelman, “Stratospheric Monitoring with TOVS Data,” Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 90, 75–78 (1991).

C. P. Rinsland, R. H. Norton, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, “Infrared spectroscopic detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5577–5585 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Detection of stratospheric N2O5 by infrared remote sounding,” Nature (London) 319, 570–571 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, “Observations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2747–2751, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2810–2820 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, R. A. Schindler, G. C. Toon, “Practical example of detector nonlinearity correction of Fouriertransform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, “An evaluation of stratospheric ozone observed by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment during April 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Brown, L. R.

C. P. Rinsland, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, “Infrared spectroscopic detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5577–5585 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

C. B. Farmer, “The ATMOS Solar Atlas,” Infrared Solar Physics 154, 511–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, “Infrared spectroscopic detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5577–5585 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Detection of stratospheric N2O5 by infrared remote sounding,” Nature (London) 319, 570–571 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Froidevaux, L.

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B.

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B. C.

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gelman, M. E.

M. E. Gelman, “Stratospheric Monitoring with TOVS Data,” Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 90, 75–78 (1991).

Goldman, A.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, “Observations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2747–2751, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, “Observations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2747–2751, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2810–2820 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, “An evaluation of stratospheric ozone observed by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment during April 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Hedin, A. E.

A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2810–2820 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nagatani, R.

R. Nagatani, Climate Analysis Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. (personal communication, 1994).

Newchurch, M. J.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, “An evaluation of stratospheric ozone observed by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment during April 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Norton, R. H.

C. P. Rinsland, R. H. Norton, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Detection of stratospheric N2O5 by infrared remote sounding,” Nature (London) 319, 570–571 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. F.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, “Observations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2747–2751, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2810–2820 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, R. H. Norton, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, “Infrared spectroscopic detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5577–5585 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, “An evaluation of stratospheric ozone observed by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment during April 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Russell, J. M.

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, R. A.

M. C. Abrams, R. A. Schindler, G. C. Toon, “Practical example of detector nonlinearity correction of Fouriertransform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, J.

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. H.

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sze, N. D.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

M. C. Abrams, R. A. Schindler, G. C. Toon, “Practical example of detector nonlinearity correction of Fouriertransform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Detection of stratospheric N2O5 by infrared remote sounding,” Nature (London) 319, 570–571 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weisenstein, D. W.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Pressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultation measurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2810–2820 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, “An evaluation of stratospheric ozone observed by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment during April 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Appl. Opt.

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, A. Goldman, C. P. Rinsland, “Observations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2747–2751, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Abrams, R. A. Schindler, G. C. Toon, “Practical example of detector nonlinearity correction of Fouriertransform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. H. Park, R. Zander, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, J. M. Russell, R. H. Norton, O. F. Raper, “Spectroscopic detection of CH3Cl in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 765–768 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, M. K. W. Ko, D. W. Weisenstein, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, A. Goldman, N. D. Sze, G. K. Yue, “H2SO4 photolysis—a source of sulfur-dioxide in the upper stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1109–1112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Solar Physics

C. B. Farmer, “The ATMOS Solar Atlas,” Infrared Solar Physics 154, 511–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. E. Hedin, “Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 1159–1172 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from the rotational analysis of CO2 lines of the ATMOS/ATLAS-1 observations,” J. Geophys. Res. D 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. M. Russell, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, L. Froidevaux, G. C. Toon, B. Gao, J. Shaw, M. R. Gunson, “Measurements of odd nitrogen compounds in the stratosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1718–1736 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, “Infrared spectroscopic detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5577–5585 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B. C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4O3, CO, H2O, and O in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Detection of stratospheric N2O5 by infrared remote sounding,” Nature (London) 319, 570–571 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol.

M. E. Gelman, “Stratospheric Monitoring with TOVS Data,” Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 90, 75–78 (1991).

Other

M. C. Abrams, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, “An evaluation of stratospheric ozone observed by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment during April 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

“The Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft: Report of the 1992 Models and Measurements Workshop, (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1993), Vols. I–III.

W. Grose, J. Gille, eds, “Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite validation workshop report III: temperature and constituents,” NASACP-3317 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

R. Nagatani, Climate Analysis Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C. (personal communication, 1994).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ATLAS-3 payload configuration on orbit. ATMOS is the box at the left rear with the JPL logo; other Earth remote sensing instruments include the Millimeterwave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS, the antenna-shaped instrument on the right), and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instrument at the front of the payload.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sunrise from low Earth orbit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Infrared solar transmission at tangent altitudes between 5 and 35 km and between frequencies of 800 and 1000 cm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Broadband single-gas retrievals of ozone at two tangent pressures (approximate altitudes of 49 and 22 km) indicating the quality of the least-squares fit possible with significantly different optical depths (rms deviations of 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively). The vertical scale is normalized transmittance, the horizontal scale is frequency. The lower panel displays the residual spectrum (vertical scale in percent). Nonrandom residuals, which have the appearance of arising from line-shape errors, could result from smearing of the spectrum during the time required for recording an interferogram (2.2 s).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multigas retrievals of CCl3F and CCl2F2 [requiring preretrieval of ozone and CO2 (the regularly spaced narrow lines)], with rms deviations of 0.8% and 0.4%, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multigas retrievals of CCl4 and SF6 requiring multiple preretrievals with rms deviations of 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively. Note that the obvious failure to fit the CO2 q branch adequately with line mixing at 791.5 cm−1 in the retrieval of CCl4 does not significantly perturb the result.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pressure dependence of error sources for an ozone retrieval.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fractional error in pressure sounding for four spectral filters used by ATMOS: filter 12 (625–1450 cm−1), filter 3 (1550–3700 cm−1), filter 9 (625–2450 cm−1), and filter 4 (3750–5100 cm−1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fractional errors for constituent profiles as a function of altitude.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Band-to-band consistency of ozone profiles derived with filter 3 (1550–3750 cm−1) and the mean of filters 1, 3, and 9. Mean error of −3% (rms = 5.3%). ppm, parts in 106.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Convergence of iterated onion peeling.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Insensitivity of retrieved profile to a priori profile.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Algorithm validation with global fitting algorithm.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Polar stereographic projection map of scaled potential vorticity on the 840-K potential temperature surface; qualitatively, the blue-purple region indicates the approximate location of the polar vortex. (Figure courtesy of G. L. Manney at JPL)

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Upper left) Potential temperature versus longitude cross section at 65 S of CH4. The contours of scaled potential vorticity (spv) provide an easy identification of the location of the vortex in terms of dynamical variables, with the region of large gradients in spv (−1.2 to −1.6 s−1) denoting the edge of the vortex. (Upper right) Cross section of water vapor illustrating remarkable consistency with the methane cross section within the vortex (as expected where both gases are relatively long lived), but radically different beneath the vortex (dark purple region) where the temperatures are sufficiently low to remove water vapor permanently. (Lower left) Cross section of ozone with temperature contours; note the strong correlation between the regions of low ozone and low temperature in the lower stratosphere (in addition, the low temperatures are a necessary condition for the removal of water vapor). Above and within the polar vortex subsidence decreases the total ozone and introduces compressional heating. (Lower right) Cross section of CO, illustrating elevated levels of CO within the lower vortex that are considerably larger than may be expected from transport.

Equations (8)

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T c ( σ i , z ) = exp ( - j k κ i j k n k x j k v j k g k ) ,
i T c ( σ i , z ) x r i = 0 ,
1 = [ i ( T c / x ) 2 / ( n 2 + r i 2 ) ] - 1 / 2 ,
2 = [ i r i 2 i N i ( T c / x ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
v mean = m v m / m 2 m ( 1 / m 2 ) ,
se 2 = 1 m ( 1 / m 2 ) ,
N e = m ( 1 / m ) 2 m ( 1 / 2 ) ,
std 2 = m ( v m 2 / m 2 ) - v mean 2 ( N e - 1 ) m ( 1 / m 2 ) ,

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