Abstract

A medium-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for ground-based observation of astronomical sources at near-millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths is described. The steps involved in measuring and calibrating astronomical spectra are elaborated. The spectrometer is well suited to planetary spectroscopy, and initial measurements of the intrinsic brightness temperature spectra of Uranus and Neptune at wavelengths of 1.0 to 1.5 mm are presented.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  8. E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.
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  14. D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Heiken, D. Vaniman, B. M. French, Lunar Sourcebook (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1991), p. 34.
  30. J. L. Linsky, “The Moon as a proposed radiometric standard for microwave and infrared observations of extended sources,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 25, 163–204 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Ruze, “Antenna tolerance theory—a review,” Proc. IEEE 54, 633–640 (1966).
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  32. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 463–464.
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  34. P. Dore, L. Nencini, G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in normal H2 from 77 to 298 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 245–253 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  35. I. de Pater, S. Massie, “Models of the millimeter-centimeter spectra of the giant planets,” Icarus 62, 143–171 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1995

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Weisstein, E. Serabyn, “Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1–0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer,” Icarus 109, 367–381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. J. Griffin, G. S. Orton, “The near-millimeter brightness temperature spectra of Uranus and Neptune,” Icarus 105, 537–547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. A. Gordon, J. W. M. Baars, W. J. Cocke, “Observations of radio lines from unresolved sources: telescope coupling, Doppler effects, and cosmological corrections,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 337–344 (1992).

1991

1990

W. D. Duncan, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, G. Sandell, “A millimetre/submillimetre common-user photometer for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 243, 126–132 (1990).

1985

I. de Pater, S. Massie, “Models of the millimeter-centimeter spectra of the giant planets,” Icarus 62, 143–171 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. L. Ulich, J. R. Dickel, I. de Pater, “Planetary observations at a wavelength of 1.32 mm,” Icarus 60, 590–598 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kutner, L. Mundy, R. J. Howard, “Interpretation of absolute line intensities on the NRAO 11 meter and other millimeter wave telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 283, 890–894 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

P. Dore, L. Nencini, G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in normal H2 from 77 to 298 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 245–253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

M. L. Kutner, B. L. Ulich, “Recommendations for calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral line data,” Astrophys. J. 250, 341–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976

B. L. Ulich, R. W. Haas, “Absolute calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral lines,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 30, 247–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Traub, M. T. Stier, “Theoretical atmospheric transmission in the mid- and far-infrared at four altitudes,” Appl. Opt. 15, 364–377 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-wavelength radio-astronomy techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51–72 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Linsky, “The Moon as a proposed radiometric standard for microwave and infrared observations of extended sources,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 25, 163–204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. Ruze, “Antenna tolerance theory—a review,” Proc. IEEE 54, 633–640 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

W. D. Duncan, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, G. Sandell, “A millimetre/submillimetre common-user photometer for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 243, 126–132 (1990).

Baars, J. W. M.

M. A. Gordon, J. W. M. Baars, W. J. Cocke, “Observations of radio lines from unresolved sources: telescope coupling, Doppler effects, and cosmological corrections,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 337–344 (1992).

Bennett, C. L.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, G.

P. Dore, L. Nencini, G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in normal H2 from 77 to 298 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 245–253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 463–464.

Brault, J. W.

J. W. Brault, “Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in High Resolution in Astronomy: 15th Advanced Course of the Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, A. Benz, M. Huber, M. Mayor, eds. (Geneva Observatory, Sauverny, Switzerland, 1985).

Burrus, C. A.

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-wavelength radio-astronomy techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51–72 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J. E.

J. E. Carlstrom, J. Zmuidzinas, “Millimeter and submillimeter techniques,” in Reviews of Radio Science 1993–1995, W. R. Stone, ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1996).

Chamberlain, J. E.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chantry, G. W.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Clark, T. A.

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

D. A. Naylor, T. A. Clark, G. R. Davis, “A polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomical spectroscopy at submillimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE 2198, 703–714 (1994).

Cocke, W. J.

M. A. Gordon, J. W. M. Baars, W. J. Cocke, “Observations of radio lines from unresolved sources: telescope coupling, Doppler effects, and cosmological corrections,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 337–344 (1992).

Davis, G. R.

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

D. A. Naylor, T. A. Clark, G. R. Davis, “A polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomical spectroscopy at submillimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE 2198, 703–714 (1994).

de Pater, I.

I. de Pater, S. Massie, “Models of the millimeter-centimeter spectra of the giant planets,” Icarus 62, 143–171 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ulich, J. R. Dickel, I. de Pater, “Planetary observations at a wavelength of 1.32 mm,” Icarus 60, 590–598 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dickel, J. R.

B. L. Ulich, J. R. Dickel, I. de Pater, “Planetary observations at a wavelength of 1.32 mm,” Icarus 60, 590–598 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dore, P.

P. Dore, L. Nencini, G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in normal H2 from 77 to 298 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 245–253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, W. D.

W. D. Duncan, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, G. Sandell, “A millimetre/submillimetre common-user photometer for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 243, 126–132 (1990).

Eplee, R. E.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Findlay, F. D.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fixsen, D. J.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

French, B. M.

G. Heiken, D. Vaniman, B. M. French, Lunar Sourcebook (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1991), p. 34.

Gales, J.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, D.

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

Gebbie, H. A.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gemünd, H. P.

E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.

Gibbs, J. E.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, M. A.

M. A. Gordon, J. W. M. Baars, W. J. Cocke, “Observations of radio lines from unresolved sources: telescope coupling, Doppler effects, and cosmological corrections,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 337–344 (1992).

Griffin, M. J.

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

M. J. Griffin, G. S. Orton, “The near-millimeter brightness temperature spectra of Uranus and Neptune,” Icarus 105, 537–547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Duncan, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, G. Sandell, “A millimetre/submillimetre common-user photometer for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 243, 126–132 (1990).

Grossman, E.

E. Grossman, AT atmospheric transmission software, Air-head Software, Boulder, Colorado (1989).

Haas, R. W.

B. L. Ulich, R. W. Haas, “Absolute calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral lines,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 30, 247–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.

Haslam, C. G. T.

E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.

Heiken, G.

G. Heiken, D. Vaniman, B. M. French, Lunar Sourcebook (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1991), p. 34.

Hewagama, T.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hinshaw, G.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. J.

M. L. Kutner, L. Mundy, R. J. Howard, “Interpretation of absolute line intensities on the NRAO 11 meter and other millimeter wave telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 283, 890–894 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Isaacman, R. B.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, J. D.

J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy, 2nd ed. (Cygnus-Quasar, Powell, Ohio, 1986).

Kreysa, E.

E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.

Kutner, M. L.

M. L. Kutner, L. Mundy, R. J. Howard, “Interpretation of absolute line intensities on the NRAO 11 meter and other millimeter wave telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 283, 890–894 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kutner, B. L. Ulich, “Recommendations for calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral line data,” Astrophys. J. 250, 341–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, R.

E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.

Linsky, J. L.

J. L. Linsky, “The Moon as a proposed radiometric standard for microwave and infrared observations of extended sources,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 25, 163–204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Marten, A.

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

Martin, D. H.

D. H. Martin, “Polarizing (Martin–Puplett) interferometric spectrometers for the near- and submillimeter spectra,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Academic Press, New York, 1982), Vol. 6, Chap. 2, pp. 65–148.

Massie, S.

I. de Pater, S. Massie, “Models of the millimeter-centimeter spectra of the giant planets,” Icarus 62, 143–171 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Masson, C. R.

Mather, J. C.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, S. H.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mundy, L.

M. L. Kutner, L. Mundy, R. J. Howard, “Interpretation of absolute line intensities on the NRAO 11 meter and other millimeter wave telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 283, 890–894 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Naylor, D. A.

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

D. A. Naylor, T. A. Clark, G. R. Davis, “A polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomical spectroscopy at submillimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE 2198, 703–714 (1994).

Nencini, L.

P. Dore, L. Nencini, G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in normal H2 from 77 to 298 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 245–253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Orton, G. S.

M. J. Griffin, G. S. Orton, “The near-millimeter brightness temperature spectra of Uranus and Neptune,” Icarus 105, 537–547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Penzias, A. A.

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-wavelength radio-astronomy techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51–72 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. G.

E. Serabyn, C. R. Masson, T. G. Phillips, “Surface figure measurements of radio telescopes with a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1227–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Phillips, “Millimeter and submillimeter wave receivers,” in Astronomy with Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Interferometry, M. Ishiguro, W. J. Welch, eds. (ASP, San Francisco, 1994), pp. 68–77.

Robson, E. I.

W. D. Duncan, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, G. Sandell, “A millimetre/submillimetre common-user photometer for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 243, 126–132 (1990).

Rosenkranz, P. W.

P. W. Rosenkranz, “Absorption of microwaves by atmospheric gases,” in Atmospheric Remote Sensing by Microwave Radiometry, M. A. Janssen, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap. 2.

Rudy, D. J.

D. J. Rudy, “Mars: high resolution VLA observations at wavelengths of 2 and 6 cm and derived properties,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

Ruze, J.

J. Ruze, “Antenna tolerance theory—a review,” Proc. IEEE 54, 633–640 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sandell, G.

W. D. Duncan, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, G. Sandell, “A millimetre/submillimetre common-user photometer for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 243, 126–132 (1990).

Schnopper, H. W.

H. W. Schnopper, R. I. Thompson, “Fourier spectrometers,” in Methods of Experimental Physics, M. L. Meeks, ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 12A, pp. 491–529.
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Weisstein, E. Serabyn, “Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1–0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer,” Icarus 109, 367–381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, C. R. Masson, T. G. Phillips, “Surface figure measurements of radio telescopes with a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1227–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Serabyn, “Astronomical, atmospheric, and wavefront studies with a submillimeter wavelength interferometer,” in Amazing Light: A Volume Dedicated to Charles Townes on His 80th Birthday, R. Y. Chiao, ed. (Springer, New York, 1995).

Shafer, R. A.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sievers, A. W.

E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.

Stier, M. T.

Stone, N. W. B.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. I.

H. W. Schnopper, R. I. Thompson, “Fourier spectrometers,” in Methods of Experimental Physics, M. L. Meeks, ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 12A, pp. 491–529.
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

Turpie, K.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ulich, B. L.

B. L. Ulich, J. R. Dickel, I. de Pater, “Planetary observations at a wavelength of 1.32 mm,” Icarus 60, 590–598 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kutner, B. L. Ulich, “Recommendations for calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral line data,” Astrophys. J. 250, 341–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ulich, R. W. Haas, “Absolute calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral lines,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 30, 247–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vaniman, D.

G. Heiken, D. Vaniman, B. M. French, Lunar Sourcebook (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1991), p. 34.

Weisstein, E. W.

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Weisstein, E. Serabyn, “Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1–0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer,” Icarus 109, 367–381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989), Chap. 4.

Winston, R.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989), Chap. 4.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 463–464.

Wright, A. J.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. L.

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zmuidzinas, J.

J. E. Carlstrom, J. Zmuidzinas, “Millimeter and submillimeter techniques,” in Reviews of Radio Science 1993–1995, W. R. Stone, ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1996).

Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.

A. A. Penzias, C. A. Burrus, “Millimeter-wavelength radio-astronomy techniques,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 11, 51–72 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

M. A. Gordon, J. W. M. Baars, W. J. Cocke, “Observations of radio lines from unresolved sources: telescope coupling, Doppler effects, and cosmological corrections,” Astron. Astrophys. 264, 337–344 (1992).

D. A. Naylor, G. R. Davis, M. J. Griffin, T. A. Clark, D. Gautier, A. Marten, “Broad-band spectroscopic detection of CO J = 3–2 tropospheric absorption in the atmosphere of Neptune,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, L51–L53 (1994).

Astrophys. J.

E. Serabyn, E. W. Weisstein, “Fourier transform spectroscopy of the Orion molecular cloud core,” Astrophys. J. 451, 238–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Bennett, D. J. Fixsen, G. Hinshaw, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, E. L. Wright, R. E. Eplee, J. Gales, T. Hewagama, R. B. Isaacman, R. A. Shafer, K. Turpie, “Morphology of the interstellar cooling lines detected by COBE,” Astrophys. J. 434, 587–598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kutner, B. L. Ulich, “Recommendations for calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral line data,” Astrophys. J. 250, 341–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kutner, L. Mundy, R. J. Howard, “Interpretation of absolute line intensities on the NRAO 11 meter and other millimeter wave telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 283, 890–894 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Supp.

J. L. Linsky, “The Moon as a proposed radiometric standard for microwave and infrared observations of extended sources,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 25, 163–204 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ulich, R. W. Haas, “Absolute calibration of millimeter-wavelength spectral lines,” Astrophys. J. Supp. 30, 247–258 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Icarus

E. W. Weisstein, E. Serabyn, “Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1–0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer,” Icarus 109, 367–381 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. de Pater, S. Massie, “Models of the millimeter-centimeter spectra of the giant planets,” Icarus 62, 143–171 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ulich, J. R. Dickel, I. de Pater, “Planetary observations at a wavelength of 1.32 mm,” Icarus 60, 590–598 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Griffin, G. S. Orton, “The near-millimeter brightness temperature spectra of Uranus and Neptune,” Icarus 105, 537–547 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

J. E. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, F. D. Findlay, H. A. Gebbie, J. E. Gibbs, N. W. B. Stone, A. J. Wright, “The spectral transmission at infra-red wavelengths of Michelson interferometers with dielectric film beam-dividers,” Infrared Phys. 6, 195–203 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

P. Dore, L. Nencini, G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in normal H2 from 77 to 298 K,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 245–253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

W. D. Duncan, E. I. Robson, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, G. Sandell, “A millimetre/submillimetre common-user photometer for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 243, 126–132 (1990).

Proc. IEEE

J. Ruze, “Antenna tolerance theory—a review,” Proc. IEEE 54, 633–640 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 463–464.

D. J. Rudy, “Mars: high resolution VLA observations at wavelengths of 2 and 6 cm and derived properties,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1987).

P. W. Rosenkranz, “Absorption of microwaves by atmospheric gases,” in Atmospheric Remote Sensing by Microwave Radiometry, M. A. Janssen, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994), Chap. 2.

E. Grossman, AT atmospheric transmission software, Air-head Software, Boulder, Colorado (1989).

G. Heiken, D. Vaniman, B. M. French, Lunar Sourcebook (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1991), p. 34.

E. Kreysa, E. E. Haller, H. P. Gemünd, C. G. T. Haslam, R. Lemke, A. W. Sievers, “First results from a small bolometer array on the IRAM 30-m telescope,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (UCLA, Los Angeles, 1993), pp. 692–697.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989), Chap. 4.

T. G. Phillips, “Millimeter and submillimeter wave receivers,” in Astronomy with Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Interferometry, M. Ishiguro, W. J. Welch, eds. (ASP, San Francisco, 1994), pp. 68–77.

J. E. Carlstrom, J. Zmuidzinas, “Millimeter and submillimeter techniques,” in Reviews of Radio Science 1993–1995, W. R. Stone, ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1996).

E. Serabyn, “Astronomical, atmospheric, and wavefront studies with a submillimeter wavelength interferometer,” in Amazing Light: A Volume Dedicated to Charles Townes on His 80th Birthday, R. Y. Chiao, ed. (Springer, New York, 1995).

D. A. Naylor, T. A. Clark, G. R. Davis, “A polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer for astronomical spectroscopy at submillimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE 2198, 703–714 (1994).

H. W. Schnopper, R. I. Thompson, “Fourier spectrometers,” in Methods of Experimental Physics, M. L. Meeks, ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 12A, pp. 491–529.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Brault, “Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in High Resolution in Astronomy: 15th Advanced Course of the Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, A. Benz, M. Huber, M. Mayor, eds. (Geneva Observatory, Sauverny, Switzerland, 1985).

D. H. Martin, “Polarizing (Martin–Puplett) interferometric spectrometers for the near- and submillimeter spectra,” in Infrared and Millimeter Waves (Academic Press, New York, 1982), Vol. 6, Chap. 2, pp. 65–148.

Emerson & Cuming, Inc., Woburn, Mass.

J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy, 2nd ed. (Cygnus-Quasar, Powell, Ohio, 1986).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Model atmospheric transmission2 at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory for 1-mm precipitable H2O. (b) Normalized Fourier-transform spectrometer filter transmissions. From left to right, the approximate passband centers are at 1300, 800, 600, 450, and 350 μm. (c) Mylar beam-splitter efficiencies.3 The thicknesses are labeled in thousandths of an inch. (d) FWHM beam sizes calculated for the convolution of the telescope’s Airy pattern with the top-hat response of an idealized Winston cone.4 From top to bottom, the nominal geometric Winston-cone fields of view are 30, 20 and 10 seconds of arc, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic layout of the FTS. M1, M2, I1, and I2 are flat front surface mirrors, P1 and P2 are off-axis paraboloids, and BS is a Mylar beam splitter. I1 translates to scan the path difference between I1 and I2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Observed interferogram for Mars (i.e., on–off) resulting from the summation of 15 scans of mirror I1 (all in the same direction). (b) Fourier transform of (a), with the solid (dotted) curve showing the real (imaginary) part of the transform. Microphonic pickup is evident from 700 to 1000 GHz. (c) Interferogram resulting from zeroing spectrum from 0 to 100 GHz and above 500 GHz, and then transforming back to interferogram space.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Plot of the measured ground-level atmospheric temperature versus FTS scan number on 19 September 1995. (b) Plot of the RMS difference of succeeding blank sky interferograms relative to the first. The two scan directions are plotted with empty circles and solid squares, respectively. Note the rise in RMS beginning near scan 500, which corresponds to the drop in ambient temperature seen in panel (a). Note also the obvious deviations of the few bad scans (e.g., ≈190, 720) from the rest.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Sky emission spectrum (off) observed through the 1300-μm filter. The solid curve shows the real part and the dotted curve shows the imaginary part of the two-sided Fourier transform [also in (b)–(d)]. (b) Observed Mars-off spectrum. (c) Observed hot-off spectrum. (d) The spectrum of Mars in antenna temperature, T A * , units (degrees Kelvin) the result of dividing panels (b) and (c), and scaling by means of Eq. (11). (e) Phase of the complex spectrum seen in panel (d). The dotted line in this case is a zero line, for reference. (f) A blowup of the good part of the panel (d) spectrum (histogram), and a beam-coupling model fit to the data (solid curve), with ηmoon = 0.83, ∊ = 15 μm, and FOV = 28 arc sec.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Observed brightness temperature ratio of Uranus and Mars (average of the 22 and 24 July 1995 observations). (b) The derived intrinsic brightness temperature spectrum of Uranus, assuming a Rudy33 brightness temperature model for Mars. Both panels are at a resolution of 7.2 GHz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Observed brightness temperature ratio of Neptune and Uranus on 19 September 1995. (b) The derived intrinsic brightness temperature spectrum of Neptune, with the Uranus spectrum of Fig. 6(b) used to calibrate. Both panels are at a resolution of 7.2 GHz.

Equations (17)

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Δ ν res = 1.207 c 4 L 1 ,
V off ( ν ) = G ν { [ 1 - exp ( - τ ν ) ] η sky ( ν ) B ν ( T sky ) + [ 1 - η sky ( ν ) ] B ν ( T hot ) - i η 2 , i B ν ( T 2 , i ) } ,
V on ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) = G ν η sky ( ν ) exp ( - τ ν ) I ν sou ( Ω ) P ν ( Ω ) d Ω ,
V hot ( ν ) = G ν { η sky ( ν ) B ν ( T hot ) + [ 1 - η sky ( ν ) ] B ν ( T hot ) - i η 2 , i B ν ( T 2 , i ) } .
V hot ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) = G ν η sky ( ν ) { B ν ( T hot ) - [ 1 - exp ( - τ ν ) ] B ν ( T sky ) } .
V hot ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) = G ν η sky ( ν ) exp ( - τ ν ) ] B ν ( T hot ) .
I ν sou ( Ω ) P ν ( Ω ) d Ω = B ν ( T hot ) [ V on ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) V hot ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) ] .
T B sou ( Ω ) I ν sou ( Ω ) λ 2 2 k ,
T A * ( ν ) T B sou ( Ω ) P ν ( Ω ) d Ω ,
T A * ( ν ) = λ 2 B ν ( T hot ) 2 k [ V on ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) V hot ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) ] .
T A * ( ν ) = h ν / k exp ( h ν / k T hot ) - 1 [ V on ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) V hot ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) ] .
T A * ( ν ) = T hot [ V on ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) V hot ( ν ) - V off ( ν ) ] .
T p ( ν ) = T A * ( ν ) η c ( ν ) ,
η c ( ν ) = planet P ν ( Ω ) d Ω .
T p 2 ( ν ) = T p 1 ( ν ) T A * ( 2 ) T A * ( 1 ) η c ( 1 ) η c ( 2 ) .
T p 2 ( ν ) = T p 1 ( ν ) T A * ( 2 ) T A * ( 1 ) Ω ( 1 ) Ω ( 2 ) .
T U = 97.4 - 0.109 ( ν GHz - 200 ) ,             ( Uranus ) , T N = 90.7 - 0.090 ( ν GHz - 200 ) ,             ( Neptune ) .

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