Abstract

Broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) have been compared in a high-temperature oven, in which the accuracy and single-shot precision of gas temperature and relative O2- and N2-concentration measurements in hot air were probed over a temperature range that is typical for many combustion processes. To ensure a realistic comparison, we used nearly the same experimental setup for both CARS techniques. Besides temperature information, dual-broadband pure rotational CARS offers the possibility of achieving simultaneous single-shot concentration measurements. The comparison shows that this technique also has significant advantages in temperature evaluation over a large temperature range in comparison with vibrational CARS.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Berard, P. Lallemand, J. P. Cebe, M. Giraud, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of rotational Raman linewidth of oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 672–687 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Aldén, Department of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden (personal communication, February1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. D. Brüggemann, B. Wies, X. X. Zhang, T. Heinze, K. F. Knoche, “CARS spectroscopy for temperature and concentration measurements in a spark ignition engine,” in Combusting Flow Diagnostics, D. F. G. Durao, M. V. Heitor, J. H. Whitelaw, P. O. Witze, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992), pp. 495–511.
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (4)

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentration in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermomety,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

1986 (2)

1985 (5)

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

M. Berard, P. Lallemand, J. P. Cebe, M. Giraud, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of rotational Raman linewidth of oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 672–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Alden, M.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermomety,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alden, S. Wallin, “CARS experiments in a full-scale (10 × 10 m) industrial coal furnace,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2424–3437 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

M. Aldén, Department of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden (personal communication, February1995).

Anderson, T. J.

Attal-Tretout, B.

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. T.

J. W. Flemming, A. B. Harvey, W. T. Barnes, “Pure rotational CARS thermometry,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, pp. 589–594.

Beattie, I. R.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermomety,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Berard, M.

M. Berard, P. Lallemand, J. P. Cebe, M. Giraud, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of rotational Raman linewidth of oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 672–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Black, J. D.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bonamy, J.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bouchardy, P.

Brüggemann, D.

D. Brüggemann, B. Wies, X. X. Zhang, T. Heinze, K. F. Knoche, “CARS spectroscopy for temperature and concentration measurements in a spark ignition engine,” in Combusting Flow Diagnostics, D. F. G. Durao, M. V. Heitor, J. H. Whitelaw, P. O. Witze, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992), pp. 495–511.
[CrossRef]

Cebe, J. P.

M. Berard, P. Lallemand, J. P. Cebe, M. Giraud, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of rotational Raman linewidth of oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 672–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Collin, G.

Cottereau, M. J.

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentration in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, G. M.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhaust,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckbreth, A. C.

Edner, H.

Farrow, R. L.

Flemming, J. W.

J. W. Flemming, A. B. Harvey, W. T. Barnes, “Pure rotational CARS thermometry,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, pp. 589–594.

Gierulski, A.

Gilson, T. R.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Giraud, M.

M. Berard, P. Lallemand, J. P. Cebe, M. Giraud, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of rotational Raman linewidth of oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 672–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Grisch, F.

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentration in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, A. B.

J. W. Flemming, A. B. Harvey, W. T. Barnes, “Pure rotational CARS thermometry,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, pp. 589–594.

Heinze, T.

D. Brüggemann, B. Wies, X. X. Zhang, T. Heinze, K. F. Knoche, “CARS spectroscopy for temperature and concentration measurements in a spark ignition engine,” in Combusting Flow Diagnostics, D. F. G. Durao, M. V. Heitor, J. H. Whitelaw, P. O. Witze, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992), pp. 495–511.
[CrossRef]

Hurst, W. S.

G. J. Rosaco, W. S. Hurst, “Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jenny, S. N.

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, B.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Kampmann, S.

Klick, T.

Knoche, K. F.

D. Brüggemann, B. Wies, X. X. Zhang, T. Heinze, K. F. Knoche, “CARS spectroscopy for temperature and concentration measurements in a spark ignition engine,” in Combusting Flow Diagnostics, D. F. G. Durao, M. V. Heitor, J. H. Whitelaw, P. O. Witze, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992), pp. 495–511.
[CrossRef]

Koszykowski, M. L.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermomety,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lallemand, P.

M. Berard, P. Lallemand, J. P. Cebe, M. Giraud, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of rotational Raman linewidth of oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 672–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lapp, M. L.

Lasser, Th.

Lassesson, B.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, M.

Leipertz, A.

S. Kampmann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous CARS and 2D laser Rayleigh thermometry in a contained technical swirl combuster,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2780–2786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Lasser, E. Magens, A. Leipertz, “Gas thermometry by Fourier analysis of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 10, 535–537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zeng, J. B. Snow, D. V. Murphy, A. Leipertz, R. K. Chang, R. L. Farrow, “Experimental comparison of broadband rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and broadband vibrational CARS in a flame,” Opt. Lett. 9, 341–343 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Leipertz, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, E. Magens, “Gas temperature measurements by pure rotational CARS,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 661–666.

A. Leipertz, E. Magens, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, “Flame diagnostics by pure rotational CARS,” in Aerothermodynamics in Combustors, R. S. Lee, J. H. Whitelaw, T. S. Wung, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 107–117.

E. Magens, A. Leipertz, “Evaluation of accumulated pure rotational CARS spectra taken in mixing regions of flames,” in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy, E. M. Castelluci, R. Righini, P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 141–146.

Löfström, C.

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermomety,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

Lundholm, G.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Magens, E.

Th. Lasser, E. Magens, A. Leipertz, “Gas thermometry by Fourier analysis of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 10, 535–537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leipertz, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, E. Magens, “Gas temperature measurements by pure rotational CARS,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 661–666.

E. Magens, “Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperaturund Konzentrations-messung in Flammen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 1992).

A. Leipertz, E. Magens, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, “Flame diagnostics by pure rotational CARS,” in Aerothermodynamics in Combustors, R. S. Lee, J. H. Whitelaw, T. S. Wung, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 107–117.

E. Magens, A. Leipertz, “Evaluation of accumulated pure rotational CARS spectra taken in mixing regions of flames,” in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy, E. M. Castelluci, R. Righini, P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 141–146.

Magre, P.

M. Pealat, P. Magre, P. Bouchardy, G. Collin, “Simultaneous temperature and sensitive two-species concentration measurements by single-shot CARS,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1263–1273 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marforio, K.

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Marie, J. J.

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentration in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marko, K. A.

Marowsky, G.

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. V.

Nilsson, D.

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, M.

Palmer, R. E.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, T.

Pealat, M.

Penny, C. M.

Peters, R. L. St.

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rimai, L.

Rosaco, G. J.

G. J. Rosaco, W. S. Hurst, “Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sawchuk, R. A.

Seeger, T.

S. Kampmann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous CARS and 2D laser Rayleigh thermometry in a contained technical swirl combuster,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2780–2786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leipertz, E. Magens, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, “Flame diagnostics by pure rotational CARS,” in Aerothermodynamics in Combustors, R. S. Lee, J. H. Whitelaw, T. S. Wung, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 107–117.

T. Seeger, “Anwendungsvergleich von Vibrations- und Rotations-CARS in de technischen Verbrennung,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 1994).

A. Leipertz, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, E. Magens, “Gas temperature measurements by pure rotational CARS,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 661–666.

Slenczka, A.

Smallwood, G. J.

Snelling, D. R.

Snow, J. B.

Spiegel, H.

A. Leipertz, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, E. Magens, “Gas temperature measurements by pure rotational CARS,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 661–666.

A. Leipertz, E. Magens, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, “Flame diagnostics by pure rotational CARS,” in Aerothermodynamics in Combustors, R. S. Lee, J. H. Whitelaw, T. S. Wung, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 107–117.

Stricker, W.

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stufflebeam, J. H.

Taran, J. P.

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellex, P. A.

Wallin, S.

M. Alden, S. Wallin, “CARS experiments in a full-scale (10 × 10 m) industrial coal furnace,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2424–3437 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wies, B.

D. Brüggemann, B. Wies, X. X. Zhang, T. Heinze, K. F. Knoche, “CARS spectroscopy for temperature and concentration measurements in a spark ignition engine,” in Combusting Flow Diagnostics, D. F. G. Durao, M. V. Heitor, J. H. Whitelaw, P. O. Witze, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992), pp. 495–511.
[CrossRef]

Woyde, M.

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T. A.

Zeng, J.

Zhang, X. X.

D. Brüggemann, B. Wies, X. X. Zhang, T. Heinze, K. F. Knoche, “CARS spectroscopy for temperature and concentration measurements in a spark ignition engine,” in Combusting Flow Diagnostics, D. F. G. Durao, M. V. Heitor, J. H. Whitelaw, P. O. Witze, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992), pp. 495–511.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

M. Alden, S. Wallin, “CARS experiments in a full-scale (10 × 10 m) industrial coal furnace,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2424–3437 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Klick, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Broadband single-pulse CARS spectra in a fired internal combustion engine,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1178–1181 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhaust,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, “Dual broadband CARS for simultaneous, multiple species measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2731–2736 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kampmann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous CARS and 2D laser Rayleigh thermometry in a contained technical swirl combuster,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2780–2786 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pealat, P. Magre, P. Bouchardy, G. Collin, “Simultaneous temperature and sensitive two-species concentration measurements by single-shot CARS,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1263–1273 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, “Rotational CARS generation through a multiple four-color interaction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4493–4500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Edner, S. Kröll, D. Nilsson, “Rotational CARS: a comparison of different techniques with emphasis on accuracy in temperature determination,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3206–3219 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (6)

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentration in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, M. Alden, P.-E. Bengtsson, C. Löfström, “An evaluation of precision and systematic errors in vibrational CARS thermomety,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 445–453 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, “Multi-color CARS for hydrogen fueled scramjet applications,” Appl. Phys. B 45, 215–223 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Kröll, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, D. Nilsson, “Is rotational CARS an alternative to vibrational CARS for thermometry?” Appl. Phys. B 51, 25–30 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Attal-Tretout, P. Bouchardy, P. Magre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in combustion: prospects and problems,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 17–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Woyde, W. Stricker, “The application of CARS for temperature measurements in high pressure combustion systems,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 519–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. L. Koszykowski, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Comparison of rotationally inelastic collision models for Q-branch Raman spectra of N2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 513–516 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, “Rotational CARS thermometry in sooting flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 81, 129–140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

L. Martinsson, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2466–2477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Berard, P. Lallemand, J. P. Cebe, M. Giraud, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the temperature dependence of rotational Raman linewidth of oxygen,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 672–687 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

T. R. Gilson, I. R. Beattie, J. D. Black, D. A. Greenhalgh, S. N. Jenny, “Redetermination of some of the spectroscopic constants of the electronic ground state of di nitrogen 14N2, 14N, 15N, and 15N2 using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. J. Rosaco, W. S. Hurst, “Measurement of resonant and nonresonant third order nonlinear susceptibilities by coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 281–299 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. W. Flemming, A. B. Harvey, W. T. Barnes, “Pure rotational CARS thermometry,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, pp. 589–594.

T. Seeger, “Anwendungsvergleich von Vibrations- und Rotations-CARS in de technischen Verbrennung,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 1994).

M. Aldén, Department of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden (personal communication, February1995).

A. Leipertz, E. Magens, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, “Flame diagnostics by pure rotational CARS,” in Aerothermodynamics in Combustors, R. S. Lee, J. H. Whitelaw, T. S. Wung, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), pp. 107–117.

A. Leipertz, T. Seeger, H. Spiegel, E. Magens, “Gas temperature measurements by pure rotational CARS,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, J. F. Schooley, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), Vol. 6, pp. 661–666.

E. Magens, A. Leipertz, “Evaluation of accumulated pure rotational CARS spectra taken in mixing regions of flames,” in Coherent Raman Spectroscopy, E. M. Castelluci, R. Righini, P. Foggi, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 141–146.

E. Magens, “Nutzung von Rotations-CARS zur Temperaturund Konzentrations-messung in Flammen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 1992).

P.-E. Bengtsson, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, B. Johansson, B. Lassesson, K. Marforio, G. Lundholm, “Dual broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1735–1742.
[CrossRef]

D. Brüggemann, B. Wies, X. X. Zhang, T. Heinze, K. F. Knoche, “CARS spectroscopy for temperature and concentration measurements in a spark ignition engine,” in Combusting Flow Diagnostics, D. F. G. Durao, M. V. Heitor, J. H. Whitelaw, P. O. Witze, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1992), pp. 495–511.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Upper part: experimental setup for broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational CARS. BS’s, beam splitters; L’s, lenses; M’s, mirrors; D, diode array; HTO, high-temperature oven. Lower part: Schematic of the high-temperature oven used and the beam alignment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temperature probability distribution functions calculated from 200 single-shot N2 vibrational CARS spectra. T Th, thermocouple temperature; T exp, CARS temperature; σ, standard deviation. (b) Mean vibrational CARS temperatures plotted versus thermocouple readings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured single-pulse (solid curve) and best-fit theoretical (dashed curve) pure rotational CARS spectra of air at two different temperatures. The deviation between measurement and best fit is also indicated in the lower part of the figure. The concentration c gives the evaluated O2 concentration relative to the N2 concentration of air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature and O2 concentration probability distribution functions evaluated from 800 single-shot pure rotational CARS spectra taken in air at thermocouple temperatures of 300 and 700 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean values of the temperature and the relative O2 concentration taken from pure rotational CARS measurements in air plotted versus thermocouple readings in the oven.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature dependence of the temperature standard deviation (single-shot precision) of the measurements with rotational CARS (▲) and vibrational CARS (■).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Inaccuracy and Single-Shot Precision (Standard Deviation) of Temperature and Concentration Measurements with Broadband Vibrational and Dual-Broadband Pure Rotational CARS in Air

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