Abstract

The holmium-doped calcium fluoride (Ho:CaF2) crystal was shown to be an effective solid-state saturable-absorber Q-switch for a flash-lamp-pumped Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser at 2.017 μm. With a 1-cm-thick Ho(0.5%),Er(5%):CaF2 saturable absorber and a 6.3% output coupler, a single Q-switched laser pulse of 51 mJ in energy and 60 ns in duration was obtained at a flash-lamp input energy of 85 J. With a 14.6% output coupler, a typical Q-switched laser pulse of 84 mJ and 82 ns was observed.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, M. Birnbaum, “Q-switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE 2115, 31–37 (1994).
  3. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  5. Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen, G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 179–186.
  7. Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy+2:CaF2 saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy+2:CaF2 saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy+2:CaF2 saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, M. Birnbaum, “Q-switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE 2115, 31–37 (1994).

Camargo, M. B.

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, M. Birnbaum, “Q-switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE 2115, 31–37 (1994).

Chang, D. B.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen, G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 179–186.

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy+2:CaF2 saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M. F.

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen, G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 179–186.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. K.

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy+2:CaF2 saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R. A.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen, G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 179–186.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, S. A.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen, G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 179–186.

Robinson, M.

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen, G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 179–186.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stultz, R. D.

Y. K. Kuo, W. Chen, R. D. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, “Dy+2:CaF2 saturable absorber Q-switch for the ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6348–6351 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, M. Birnbaum, “Q-switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE 2115, 31–37 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. K. Kuo, M. Birnbaum, W. Chen, “Ho:YLiF4 saturable absorber Q-switch for the 2-μm Tm,Cr:Y3Al5O12 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3060–3062 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, M. F. Huang, M. Birnbaum, “Tunable Cr4+:YSO Q-switched Cr:LiCAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 657–663 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. A. McFarlane, M. Robinson, S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, “Visible and infrared laser operation by upconversion pumping of erbium-doped fluorides,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, H. P. Jenssen, G. Dube, eds., Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 179–186.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

R. D. Stultz, M. B. Camargo, M. Birnbaum, “Q-switch saturable absorber materials for solid state lasers,” in Visible and UV Lasers, R. Scheps, ed., Proc. SPIE 2115, 31–37 (1994).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room-temperature unpolarized absorption spectrum of the 1-cm-thick Ho(0.5%),Er(5%):CaF2 saturable absorber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ho(0.5%),Er(5%):CaF2 absorption spectrum near 2 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature fluorscence profile of the Ho(0.5%),Er(5%):CaF2 crystal (5 I 75 I 8 transition). The dots are the experimental data, and the solid line is the best fit using a single exponential function. The emission lifetime is 24 ms as a result of the curve fitting.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental arrangement for the Tm,Cr:YAG passive Q switching with Ho,Er:CaF2 saturable absorber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profile of the Q-switched Tm,Cr:YAG laser pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of numerical simulation.

Equations (4)

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d n d t = ( K g N g - K a N a - γ c ) n ,
d N g d t = R p - γ g N g - 2 K g N g n ,
d N a d t = γ a ( N a 0 - N a ) - K a N a n .
Loss = K a N a + γ c K g .

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