Abstract

Fiber Raman background spectra of different types of fused-silica fibers are studied and compared. The results show the following: (a) all the background spectra are very similar and comparable with Raman spectra of fused silica, regardless of the difference in the cladding and buffer materials; (b) the overall background intensity increases with the fiber numerical aperture but has no obvious relation with the core diameter. Both experimental evidence and theoretical explanation have been provided for these views. A simple and unfiltered fiber probe for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection with low fiber Raman background interference is constructed, and the optimum configuration of the probe is suggested and discussed based on the results of the background study.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. McCreery, M. Fleischman, P. Hendra, “Fiber optic probe for remote Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 146–148 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Hendra, G. Ellis, D. J. Cutler, “Use of optical fibres in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 413–418 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Archibald, L. T. Lin, D. E. Honigs, “Raman spectroscopy over optical fibers with the use of a near-IR FT spectrometer,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 1558–1563 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Soper, T. Kuwana, “Matrix-isolated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the role of the supporting matrix,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 1180–1187 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Bello, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 63–69 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. L. Myrick, S. M. Angel, R. Desiderio, “Comparison of some fiber optic configurations for measurement of luminescence and Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1333–1344 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. L. Schoen, T. F. Cooney, S. K. Sharma, D. M. Cary, “Long fiber-optic remote Raman probe for detection and identification of weak scatters,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7707–7715 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. M. Carrabba, R. D. Rauh, “Apparatus for measuring Raman spectra over optical fibers,” U.S. patent5,112,127 (12May1992).
  9. T. F. Cooney, C. L. Schoen, S. K. Sharma, D. M. Carey, “Rare-earth-doped glass fiber for background rejection in remote fiber-optic Raman probes: theory and analysis of holmium-bearing glass,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1683–1692 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Plaza, N. Q. Dao, M. Jouan, H. Fevier, H. Saisse, “Simulation et optimisation des capteur a fibers optiques adjacentes,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3448–3454 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. D. McLanchian, G. L. Jewett, J. C. Evans, “Fiber-optic probe for sensitive Raman analysis,” U.S. patent4,573,761 (4May1986).
  12. M. A. Leugers, R. D. McLachlan, “Remote analysis by fiber optic Raman spectroscopy,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Applications of Fibers, R. A. Lieberman, M. T. Wlodarczyk, eds., Proc. SPIE 990, 88–95 (1988).
  13. C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreey, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. P. J. Williams, “Remote sampling using a fiber-optic probe in Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 21, 147–151 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Y. Ma, Z. Lin, “A low stray light Raman microprobe using optical fibers and GRIN lenses,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1302–1304 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. K. Trott, T. E. Furtak, “Angular resolved Raman scattering using fiber optic probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1493–1496 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. N. Lewis, V. F. Kalasinsky, I. W. Levin, “Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using fiber-optic assemblies,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2658–2661 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. G. Zimba, J. F. Rabolt, “FT-Raman spectroscopy with fiber-optic probes and a diode-bar-pumped Na:YAG Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 162–165 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, F. T. Gamble, “Normal and resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry with fiber optic light collection,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2486–2492 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Bello, V. A. Narayanan, D. L. Stoke, T. Vo-Dinh, “Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2437–2441 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. L. Myrick, S. M. Angel, “Elimination of background in fiber-optic Raman measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 565–570 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. I. Mullen, K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified optic probes,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2196–2199 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. M. Helmenstine, Y. S. Li, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of an etheno adduct of adenine,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 359–365 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Gomy, M. Jouan, N. Q. Dao, “Quantitative analytical method in monitoring alcoholic fermentation by laser Raman spectrometer coupling with fiber optic system,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 215, 211–221 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Young, M. D. Morris, “Disposable protective sheath for the fiber-optic Raman probe,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 512–513 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. K. Sharma, C. L. Schoen, T. F. Cooney, “Fiber-optic remote Raman probe design for use in a high temperature oven,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 377–379 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Marteau, N. Zanier-Szydlowski, A. Aoufi, G. Hotier, F. Cansell, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for process control,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 101–109 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Y. Ma, Y. S. Li, “Optical fiber Raman probe with low background interference by spatial optimization,” Appl. Spec-trosc. 48, 1529–1531 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. S. Li, Y. Wang, “Chemically prepared silver/alumina substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 142–146 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. E. Walrafen, Y. C. Chu, M. S. Hokmabadi, “Interaction-induced Raman scattering from fused silica,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5658–5661 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Stimson, Photometry and Radiometry for Engineers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1974), p. 264.

1995

P. Marteau, N. Zanier-Szydlowski, A. Aoufi, G. Hotier, F. Cansell, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for process control,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 101–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Y. Ma, Y. S. Li, “Optical fiber Raman probe with low background interference by spatial optimization,” Appl. Spec-trosc. 48, 1529–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1991

1990

M. L. Myrick, S. M. Angel, “Elimination of background in fiber-optic Raman measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 565–570 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bello, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 63–69 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Myrick, S. M. Angel, R. Desiderio, “Comparison of some fiber optic configurations for measurement of luminescence and Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1333–1344 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bello, V. A. Narayanan, D. L. Stoke, T. Vo-Dinh, “Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2437–2441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Walrafen, Y. C. Chu, M. S. Hokmabadi, “Interaction-induced Raman scattering from fused silica,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5658–5661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. P. J. Williams, “Remote sampling using a fiber-optic probe in Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 21, 147–151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

D. D. Archibald, L. T. Lin, D. E. Honigs, “Raman spectroscopy over optical fibers with the use of a near-IR FT spectrometer,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 1558–1563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Lewis, V. F. Kalasinsky, I. W. Levin, “Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using fiber-optic assemblies,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2658–2661 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, F. T. Gamble, “Normal and resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry with fiber optic light collection,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2486–2492 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hendra, G. Ellis, D. J. Cutler, “Use of optical fibres in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 413–418 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Gomy, M. Jouan, N. Q. Dao, “Quantitative analytical method in monitoring alcoholic fermentation by laser Raman spectrometer coupling with fiber optic system,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 215, 211–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1984

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreey, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. L. McCreery, M. Fleischman, P. Hendra, “Fiber optic probe for remote Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 146–148 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. K. Trott, T. E. Furtak, “Angular resolved Raman scattering using fiber optic probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1493–1496 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Aoufi, A.

P. Marteau, N. Zanier-Szydlowski, A. Aoufi, G. Hotier, F. Cansell, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for process control,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 101–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Archibald, D. D.

Bello, J. M.

J. M. Bello, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 63–69 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bello, V. A. Narayanan, D. L. Stoke, T. Vo-Dinh, “Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2437–2441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brush, S.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cansell, F.

P. Marteau, N. Zanier-Szydlowski, A. Aoufi, G. Hotier, F. Cansell, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for process control,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 101–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carey, D. M.

Carrabba, M. M.

M. M. Carrabba, R. D. Rauh, “Apparatus for measuring Raman spectra over optical fibers,” U.S. patent5,112,127 (12May1992).

Carron, K. T.

K. I. Mullen, K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified optic probes,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2196–2199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cary, D. M.

Cheng, C. K.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. C.

G. E. Walrafen, Y. C. Chu, M. S. Hokmabadi, “Interaction-induced Raman scattering from fused silica,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5658–5661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, T. F.

Cutler, D. J.

P. J. Hendra, G. Ellis, D. J. Cutler, “Use of optical fibres in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 413–418 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dao, N. Q.

C. Gomy, M. Jouan, N. Q. Dao, “Quantitative analytical method in monitoring alcoholic fermentation by laser Raman spectrometer coupling with fiber optic system,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 215, 211–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Plaza, N. Q. Dao, M. Jouan, H. Fevier, H. Saisse, “Simulation et optimisation des capteur a fibers optiques adjacentes,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3448–3454 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desiderio, R.

Ellis, G.

P. J. Hendra, G. Ellis, D. J. Cutler, “Use of optical fibres in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 413–418 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. C.

R. D. McLanchian, G. L. Jewett, J. C. Evans, “Fiber-optic probe for sensitive Raman analysis,” U.S. patent4,573,761 (4May1986).

Fevier, H.

Fleischman, M.

R. L. McCreery, M. Fleischman, P. Hendra, “Fiber optic probe for remote Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 146–148 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fong, Y.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furtak, T. E.

G. K. Trott, T. E. Furtak, “Angular resolved Raman scattering using fiber optic probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1493–1496 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gamble, F. T.

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, F. T. Gamble, “Normal and resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry with fiber optic light collection,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2486–2492 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gomy, C.

C. Gomy, M. Jouan, N. Q. Dao, “Quantitative analytical method in monitoring alcoholic fermentation by laser Raman spectrometer coupling with fiber optic system,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 215, 211–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Helmenstine, A. M.

A. M. Helmenstine, Y. S. Li, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of an etheno adduct of adenine,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 359–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hendra, P.

R. L. McCreery, M. Fleischman, P. Hendra, “Fiber optic probe for remote Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 146–148 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hendra, P. J.

P. J. Hendra, G. Ellis, D. J. Cutler, “Use of optical fibres in Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 413–418 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hokmabadi, M. S.

G. E. Walrafen, Y. C. Chu, M. S. Hokmabadi, “Interaction-induced Raman scattering from fused silica,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5658–5661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Honigs, D. E.

Hotier, G.

P. Marteau, N. Zanier-Szydlowski, A. Aoufi, G. Hotier, F. Cansell, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for process control,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 101–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jewett, G. L.

R. D. McLanchian, G. L. Jewett, J. C. Evans, “Fiber-optic probe for sensitive Raman analysis,” U.S. patent4,573,761 (4May1986).

Jouan, M.

C. Gomy, M. Jouan, N. Q. Dao, “Quantitative analytical method in monitoring alcoholic fermentation by laser Raman spectrometer coupling with fiber optic system,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 215, 211–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Plaza, N. Q. Dao, M. Jouan, H. Fevier, H. Saisse, “Simulation et optimisation des capteur a fibers optiques adjacentes,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3448–3454 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalasinsky, V. F.

E. N. Lewis, V. F. Kalasinsky, I. W. Levin, “Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using fiber-optic assemblies,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2658–2661 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwana, T.

Leugers, M. A.

M. A. Leugers, R. D. McLachlan, “Remote analysis by fiber optic Raman spectroscopy,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Applications of Fibers, R. A. Lieberman, M. T. Wlodarczyk, eds., Proc. SPIE 990, 88–95 (1988).

Levin, I. W.

E. N. Lewis, V. F. Kalasinsky, I. W. Levin, “Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using fiber-optic assemblies,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2658–2661 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, E. N.

E. N. Lewis, V. F. Kalasinsky, I. W. Levin, “Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using fiber-optic assemblies,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2658–2661 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. S.

J. Y. Ma, Y. S. Li, “Optical fiber Raman probe with low background interference by spatial optimization,” Appl. Spec-trosc. 48, 1529–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Helmenstine, Y. S. Li, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of an etheno adduct of adenine,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 359–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Li, Y. Wang, “Chemically prepared silver/alumina substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 142–146 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. T.

Lin, Z.

Ma, J. Y.

J. Y. Ma, Y. S. Li, “Optical fiber Raman probe with low background interference by spatial optimization,” Appl. Spec-trosc. 48, 1529–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Ma, Z. Lin, “A low stray light Raman microprobe using optical fibers and GRIN lenses,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1302–1304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mann, C. K.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marteau, P.

P. Marteau, N. Zanier-Szydlowski, A. Aoufi, G. Hotier, F. Cansell, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for process control,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 101–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCreery, R. L.

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, F. T. Gamble, “Normal and resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry with fiber optic light collection,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2486–2492 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McCreery, M. Fleischman, P. Hendra, “Fiber optic probe for remote Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 146–148 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McCreey, R. L.

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreey, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McLachlan, R. D.

M. A. Leugers, R. D. McLachlan, “Remote analysis by fiber optic Raman spectroscopy,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Applications of Fibers, R. A. Lieberman, M. T. Wlodarczyk, eds., Proc. SPIE 990, 88–95 (1988).

McLanchian, R. D.

R. D. McLanchian, G. L. Jewett, J. C. Evans, “Fiber-optic probe for sensitive Raman analysis,” U.S. patent4,573,761 (4May1986).

Morris, M. D.

Mullen, K. I.

K. I. Mullen, K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified optic probes,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2196–2199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Myrick, M. L.

Narayanan, V. A.

J. M. Bello, V. A. Narayanan, D. L. Stoke, T. Vo-Dinh, “Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2437–2441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Plaza, P.

Rabolt, J. F.

Rauh, R. D.

M. M. Carrabba, R. D. Rauh, “Apparatus for measuring Raman spectra over optical fibers,” U.S. patent5,112,127 (12May1992).

Saisse, H.

Schoen, C. L.

Schwab, S. D.

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, F. T. Gamble, “Normal and resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry with fiber optic light collection,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2486–2492 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreey, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. K.

Shen, C.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soper, S. A.

Stimson, A.

A. Stimson, Photometry and Radiometry for Engineers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1974), p. 264.

Stoke, D. L.

J. M. Bello, V. A. Narayanan, D. L. Stoke, T. Vo-Dinh, “Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2437–2441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trott, G. K.

G. K. Trott, T. E. Furtak, “Angular resolved Raman scattering using fiber optic probes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1493–1496 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, T. J.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

A. M. Helmenstine, Y. S. Li, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of an etheno adduct of adenine,” Vib. Spectrosc. 4, 359–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bello, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 63–69 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bello, V. A. Narayanan, D. L. Stoke, T. Vo-Dinh, “Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2437–2441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walrafen, G. E.

G. E. Walrafen, Y. C. Chu, M. S. Hokmabadi, “Interaction-induced Raman scattering from fused silica,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5658–5661 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Williams, K. P. J.

K. P. J. Williams, “Remote sampling using a fiber-optic probe in Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 21, 147–151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F. -X.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Young, B.

Zanier-Szydlowski, N.

P. Marteau, N. Zanier-Szydlowski, A. Aoufi, G. Hotier, F. Cansell, “Remote Raman spectroscopy for process control,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 101–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

C. K. Cheng, C. Shen, Y. Fong, J. Zhu, F. -X. Yan, S. Brush, C. K. Mann, T. J. Vickers, “Raman spectroscopy with a fiber-optic probe,” Vib. Spectrosc. 3, 35–45 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zimba, C. G.

Anal. Chem.

R. L. McCreery, M. Fleischman, P. Hendra, “Fiber optic probe for remote Raman spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 55, 146–148 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreey, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Lewis, V. F. Kalasinsky, I. W. Levin, “Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using fiber-optic assemblies,” Anal. Chem. 60, 2658–2661 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Mullen, K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified optic probes,” Anal. Chem. 63, 2196–2199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, F. T. Gamble, “Normal and resonance Raman spectroelectrochemistry with fiber optic light collection,” Anal. Chem. 58, 2486–2492 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bello, V. A. Narayanan, D. L. Stoke, T. Vo-Dinh, “Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis,” Anal. Chem. 62, 2437–2441 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta.

C. Gomy, M. Jouan, N. Q. Dao, “Quantitative analytical method in monitoring alcoholic fermentation by laser Raman spectrometer coupling with fiber optic system,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 215, 211–221 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spec-trosc.

J. Y. Ma, Y. S. Li, “Optical fiber Raman probe with low background interference by spatial optimization,” Appl. Spec-trosc. 48, 1529–1531 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

M. L. Myrick, S. M. Angel, “Elimination of background in fiber-optic Raman measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 565–570 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bello, T. Vo-Dinh, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 63–69 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Li, Y. Wang, “Chemically prepared silver/alumina substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 142–146 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Ma, Z. Lin, “A low stray light Raman microprobe using optical fibers and GRIN lenses,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1302–1304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Young, M. D. Morris, “Disposable protective sheath for the fiber-optic Raman probe,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 512–513 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Zimba, J. F. Rabolt, “FT-Raman spectroscopy with fiber-optic probes and a diode-bar-pumped Na:YAG Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 162–165 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Cooney, C. L. Schoen, S. K. Sharma, D. M. Carey, “Rare-earth-doped glass fiber for background rejection in remote fiber-optic Raman probes: theory and analysis of holmium-bearing glass,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1683–1692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, General layout of the dual optical fiber Raman probe; B, C, D, different fiber arrangements of the probe heads. B, excitation fiber, the collection fiber, and the sample are on the same side of the plate; C, excitation fiber and the collection fiber are on the opposite sides of the plate, and the sample is coated on the collection fiber side of the plate; D, excitation fiber and the collection fiber are on the opposite sides of the plate, and the sample is coated on the excitation fiber side of the plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman background spectra of fused silica with the same NA (0.39), laser power of 3.9 mW, and fiber length of 1.7 m: A, core diameter = 200 μm; B, core diameter = 400 μm; C, core diameter = 600 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman background spectra of fused-silica fibers with the same core diameter (200 μm), laser power of 3.9 mW, and fiber length of 1.7 m: A, NA = 0.48; B, NA = 0.39; C, NA = 0.16.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the Raman intensity (in kilocycles per second) of the 492-cm−1 silica band with collection angles: A, transmission mode with the incident laser normal to the plate; B, reflection mode with the incident laser at 120°. All laser power is 30 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SERS spectra of PNP (1.0 × 10−3 M) obtained with different probe head arrangements: A, reflection mode; B, transmission mode with the sample on the collection side; C, transmission mode with the sample on the excitation side of the plate. Laser power is 30 mW.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Fiber Parameters

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