Abstract

A method is described for the design of a thin-film all-dielectric polarizing beam splitter in which the transmittances for p- and s-polarized light are greater than 0.96 and less than 0.03, respectively, throughout the spectral region extending from 0.40 to 0.70 μm, and for an angular field of 12° measured in air.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Bennett, “Polarizers,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, pp. 3.1–3.70.
  2. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. I, pp. 42.1–42-130.
  3. L. Songer, “The design and fabrication of a thin film polarizer,” Opt. Spectra 12, 49–50 (Oct.1978).
  4. S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (6July1946).
  5. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).
  6. J. Mouchart, J. Begel, E. Duda, “Modified MacNeille cube polarizer for a wide angular field,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2847–2853 (1989).
  7. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin film design,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  8. S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette, 1992).
  9. B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. II. Experimental results—sputtering system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2351–2360 (1993).
  10. L. I. Epstein, “The design of optical filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 806–810 (1952).
  11. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Versatile computer program for absorbing optical thin-film systems,” Appl. Opt. 20, 74–81 (1981).

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

L. Songer, “The design and fabrication of a thin film polarizer,” Opt. Spectra 12, 49–50 (Oct.1978).

1952 (1)

Begel, J.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, “Polarizers,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, pp. 3.1–3.70.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. II. Experimental results—sputtering system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2351–2360 (1993).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Versatile computer program for absorbing optical thin-film systems,” Appl. Opt. 20, 74–81 (1981).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. I, pp. 42.1–42-130.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin film design,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Duda, E.

Epstein, L. I.

Furman, S. A.

S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette, 1992).

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).

MacNeille, S. M.

S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (6July1946).

Mouchart, J.

Songer, L.

L. Songer, “The design and fabrication of a thin film polarizer,” Opt. Spectra 12, 49–50 (Oct.1978).

Sullivan, B. T.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Deposition error compensation for optical multilayer coatings. II. Experimental results—sputtering system,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2351–2360 (1993).

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin film design,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Tikhonravov, A. V.

S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette, 1992).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Spectra (1)

L. Songer, “The design and fabrication of a thin film polarizer,” Opt. Spectra 12, 49–50 (Oct.1978).

Other (6)

S. M. MacNeille, “Beam splitter,” U.S. patent2,403,731 (6July1946).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).

J. M. Bennett, “Polarizers,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, pp. 3.1–3.70.

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. I, pp. 42.1–42-130.

B. T. Sullivan, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Implementation of a numerical needle method for thin film design,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

S. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette, 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mouchart’s version of the MacNeille polarizing beam splitter.6 A, Transmittances T p and T s for pand s-polarized light incident upon the coatings at 45°. B, T p and T s plotted for λ = 0.55 μm as a function of angle of incidence in glass. C, The refractive-index profile of the 22-layer coating embedded between prisms with refractive index n S = 1.70. D, The variation of the spectral properties with angle. The ±4° variation in angle of incidence shown here corresponds to a ±6.8° variation in air. Even a 2° departure from a 45° angle of incidence introduces a 0.30–0.40 dip in T p in the spectral region of interest.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mouchart’s wide-angle polarizing beam splitter.6 A, T p and T s for light incident upon the coatings at 50°. The region of high T p values is approximately half of that of the MacNeille polarizing beam splitter. B, For λ = 0.55 μm the device acts as an excellent polarizer over a 16° range of angles of incidence measured in glass. C, The refractive-index profile of the 23-layer coating placed between prisms of refractive index n S = 1.70. D, The variation of the spectral properties with angle. The ±4° variation in angle of incidence corresponds to a ±6.8° variation in air. This diagram shows that, for such a variation in the angle of incidence, the spectral region over which the device is an efficient polarizing beam splitter extends from approximately 0.53 to 0.65 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Broadband, wide-angle polarizing beam splitter. A, T p and T s for light incident upon the coatings at 54°. B, T p and T s plotted as a function of the angle of incidence in glass. C, The refractive-index profile of the 42-layer coating placed between prisms of refractive index n S = 1.52. Note that layers with four different refractive indices are used. D, The variation of the spectral properties with angle. The ±4° variation in angle of incidence corresponds to a ±6° variation in air. For angles of incidence between 50° and 58°, T p is high and T s is low over the entire 0.4–0.8-μm spectral region. However, the degree of polarization is not as high as that of the MacNeille and Mouchart devices in their optimum performance regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Another broadband, wide-angle polarizing beam splitter, obtained through a more rational choice of the four refractive indices, having an even better performance in the 0.4–0.7 μm spectral region. A, T p and T s for light incident upon the coatings at 54°. B, T p and T s plotted as a function of the angle of incidence in glass. C, The refractive-index profile of the 72-layer coating placed between prisms of refractive index n S = 1.52. D, The variation of the spectral properties with angle. The ±4° variation in angle of incidence corresponds to a ±6° variation in air. For angles of incidence between 50° and 58°, T p is greater than 0.96 and T S is less than 0.03 over the entire 0.4–0.7-μm spectral region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two devices of the type shown in Fig. 3 placed in series can act as a high-performance, broadband, wide-angle polarizer. For this combination, T s is less than 3 × 10−3 and T p is greater than 0.8 throughout the spectral region shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of deposition simulation calculations for A, p-polarized and B, s-polarized light for the system of Fig. 4. The solid curves represent the average of transmittance curves for 50°, 54°, and 58° angles of incidence of the system without thickness errors. On the basis of calculations for 30 randomly perturbed systems with a 3% standard deviation of the thickness errors, one would expect 67% of the average transmittance curves for experimentally produced systems to fall within the shaded areas shown.

Equations (4)

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P = | T p T s T p + T s | or P = | R p R s R p + R s | ,
n s sin θ = n L n H ( n L 2 + n H 2 ) 1 / 2 .
n s ( n M 1 n M 2 n H n M 2 n M 1 n L ) N ( n M 1 n M 2 n H n M 2 n M 1 n L ) n S ,
n L < n S < n M 1 < n M 2 < n H .

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