Abstract

Absolute magnitudes of the effective nonlinearity, d eff, were measured for seven KTP and six BBO crystals. The d eff’s were derived from the parametric gain of an 800-nm signal wave in the sample crystals when they were pumped by the frequency-doubled, spatially filtered light from an injection-seeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The KTP crystals, all type II phase matched with propagation in the XZ plane, had d eff values ranging from 1.97 to 3.50 pm/V. Measurements of gain as a function of phase velocity mismatch indicate that two of the KTP crystals clearly contain multiple ferroelectric domains. For five type I phase-matched BBO crystals, d eff ranged from 1.76 to 1.83 pm/V, and a single type II phase-matched BBO crystal had a d eff of 1.56 pm/V. The uncertainty in our measurements of d eff values is ±5% for KTP and ±10% for BBO.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Bierlein, H. Vanherzeele, “Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 622–633 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 μm in KTP pumped at 1.064 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Asaumi, “Second-harmonic power of KTiOPO4 with double refraction,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 265–270 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. tegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17, 28–30 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bielein, “Magnitude of the nonlinear-optical coefficients of KTiOPO4,” Opt. Lett. 17, 982–984 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Boulanger, J. P. Féve, G. Marnier, B. Ménaert, X. Cabirol, P. Villeval, C. Bonnin, “Relative sign and absolute magnitude of d(2) nonlinear coefficients of KTP from second-harmonic-generation measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 750–757 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-J. Zondy, M. Abed, A. Clairon, “Type-II frequency doubling at λ = 1.30 μm and λ = 2.53 μm in flux-grown potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2004–2015 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. C. Cheung, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, J. M. Liu, “Measurements of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients from spectral brightness of parametric fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 19, 168–170 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, G. You, “A new type ultraviolet SHG crystal β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).
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  13. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Jerphagnon, S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. W. Terhune, P. D. Maker, C. M. Savage, “Observation of saturation effects in optical harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 54–55 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of continuous optical harmonic generation with gas masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 14–17 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. E. Francois, “cw measurement of the optical nonlinearity of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,” Phys. Rev. 143, 597–600 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. Bjorkholm, A. E. Siegman, “Accurate cw measurement of optical second-harmonic generation in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and calcite,” Phys. Rev. 154, 851–860 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Ducuing, N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Bloembergen, “Second harmonic reflected light,” Opt. Acta 13, 311–322 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. L. Byer, S. E. Harris, “Power and bandwidth of spontaneous parametric emission,” Phys. Rev. 168, 1064–1068 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. J. Campillo, C. L. Tang, “Spontaneous parametric scattering of light in LiIO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 242–244 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. N. Herman, L. M. Hayden, “Maker fringes revisited: second-harmonic generation from birefringent or absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 416–427 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322–1324 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 9, p. 118.
  28. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed., Vol. 16 of Springer Series in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137.
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Chap. 11, p. 235.
  30. A. V. Smith, M. S. Bowers, “Phase distortions in sum- and difference-frequency mixing in crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 49–57 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2253–2267 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, M. M. Fejer, “Laser-induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1318–1320 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. B. Angert, V. M. Garmash, N. I. Pavlova, A. V. Tarasov, “Influence of color centers on the optical properties of KTP crystals and on the efficiency of laser radiation frequency conversion in these crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 426–428 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Ref. 27, Chap. 7, p. 86.

1995 (3)

1994 (4)

1992 (4)

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. tegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17, 28–30 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bielein, “Magnitude of the nonlinear-optical coefficients of KTiOPO4,” Opt. Lett. 17, 982–984 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Asaumi, “Second-harmonic power of KTiOPO4 with double refraction,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 265–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 μm in KTP pumped at 1.064 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Angert, V. M. Garmash, N. I. Pavlova, A. V. Tarasov, “Influence of color centers on the optical properties of KTP crystals and on the efficiency of laser radiation frequency conversion in these crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 426–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (2)

J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322–1324 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, G. You, “A new type ultraviolet SHG crystal β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

1970 (2)

J. Jerphagnon, S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campillo, C. L. Tang, “Spontaneous parametric scattering of light in LiIO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 242–244 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

R. L. Byer, S. E. Harris, “Power and bandwidth of spontaneous parametric emission,” Phys. Rev. 168, 1064–1068 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. E. Siegman, “Accurate cw measurement of optical second-harmonic generation in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and calcite,” Phys. Rev. 154, 851–860 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

G. E. Francois, “cw measurement of the optical nonlinearity of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,” Phys. Rev. 143, 597–600 (1966).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, “Second harmonic reflected light,” Opt. Acta 13, 311–322 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (3)

J. Ducuing, N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Terhune, P. D. Maker, C. M. Savage, “Observation of saturation effects in optical harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 54–55 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of continuous optical harmonic generation with gas masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 14–17 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Abed, M.

Ahmed, F.

J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322–1324 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alford, W. J.

A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2253–2267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Angert, N. B.

N. B. Angert, V. M. Garmash, N. I. Pavlova, A. V. Tarasov, “Influence of color centers on the optical properties of KTP crystals and on the efficiency of laser radiation frequency conversion in these crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 426–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Asaumi, K.

K. Asaumi, “Second-harmonic power of KTiOPO4 with double refraction,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 265–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of continuous optical harmonic generation with gas masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 14–17 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Chap. 11, p. 235.

Bielein, J. D.

Bierlein, J. D.

J. D. Bierlein, H. Vanherzeele, “Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 622–633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322–1324 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. E. Siegman, “Accurate cw measurement of optical second-harmonic generation in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and calcite,” Phys. Rev. 154, 851–860 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Blachman, R.

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, M. M. Fejer, “Laser-induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1318–1320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, “Second harmonic reflected light,” Opt. Acta 13, 311–322 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Ducuing, N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bonnin, C.

Bordui, P. F.

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, M. M. Fejer, “Laser-induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1318–1320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boulanger, B.

Bowers, M. S.

A. V. Smith, M. S. Bowers, “Phase distortions in sum- and difference-frequency mixing in crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 49–57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2253–2267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of continuous optical harmonic generation with gas masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 14–17 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, S. E. Harris, “Power and bandwidth of spontaneous parametric emission,” Phys. Rev. 168, 1064–1068 (1968).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, “Recent developments in barium borate,” in Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, L. G. DeShazer, ed., Proc. SPIE, 681, 12 (1986).

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed., Vol. 16 of Springer Series in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

Cabirol, X.

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, C. L. Tang, “Spontaneous parametric scattering of light in LiIO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 242–244 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, G. You, “A new type ultraviolet SHG crystal β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Chen, C.-T.

C.-T. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, “Recent developments in barium borate,” in Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, L. G. DeShazer, ed., Proc. SPIE, 681, 12 (1986).

Cheung, E. C.

Clairon, A.

Davis, L.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Ducuing, J.

J. Ducuing, N. Bloembergen, “Observation of reflected light harmonics at the boundary of piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 474–476 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of continuous optical harmonic generation with gas masers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 14–17 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, “Recent developments in barium borate,” in Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, L. G. DeShazer, ed., Proc. SPIE, 681, 12 (1986).

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Chen, Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, “Recent developments in barium borate,” in Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials, L. G. DeShazer, ed., Proc. SPIE, 681, 12 (1986).

Fejer, M. M.

R. Blachman, P. F. Bordui, M. M. Fejer, “Laser-induced photochromic damage in potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1318–1320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Féve, J. P.

Francois, G. E.

G. E. Francois, “cw measurement of the optical nonlinearity of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,” Phys. Rev. 143, 597–600 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Garmash, V. M.

N. B. Angert, V. M. Garmash, N. I. Pavlova, A. V. Tarasov, “Influence of color centers on the optical properties of KTP crystals and on the efficiency of laser radiation frequency conversion in these crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 426–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Graham, E. K.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Harris, S. E.

R. L. Byer, S. E. Harris, “Power and bandwidth of spontaneous parametric emission,” Phys. Rev. 168, 1064–1068 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed., Vol. 16 of Springer Series in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

Herman, W. N.

Jerphagnon, J.

J. Jerphagnon, S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A.

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, G. You, “A new type ultraviolet SHG crystal β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 μm in KTP pumped at 1.064 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Koch, K.

Kurtz, S. K.

J. Jerphagnon, S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

Maker, P. D.

R. W. Terhune, P. D. Maker, C. M. Savage, “Observation of saturation effects in optical harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 54–55 (1963).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Marnier, G.

Masuda, H.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ménaert, B.

Moore, G. T.

Nisenoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pavlova, N. I.

N. B. Angert, V. M. Garmash, N. I. Pavlova, A. V. Tarasov, “Influence of color centers on the optical properties of KTP crystals and on the efficiency of laser radiation frequency conversion in these crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 426–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, T. D.

A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2253–2267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

R. W. Terhune, P. D. Maker, C. M. Savage, “Observation of saturation effects in optical harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 54–55 (1963).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 9, p. 118.

Siegman, A. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. E. Siegman, “Accurate cw measurement of optical second-harmonic generation in ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and calcite,” Phys. Rev. 154, 851–860 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

A. V. Smith, M. S. Bowers, “Phase distortions in sum- and difference-frequency mixing in crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 49–57 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2253–2267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

A. J. Campillo, C. L. Tang, “Spontaneous parametric scattering of light in LiIO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 242–244 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tarasov, A. V.

N. B. Angert, V. M. Garmash, N. I. Pavlova, A. V. Tarasov, “Influence of color centers on the optical properties of KTP crystals and on the efficiency of laser radiation frequency conversion in these crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 426–428 (1991).
[CrossRef]

tegeman, G.

Terhune, R. W.

R. W. Terhune, P. D. Maker, C. M. Savage, “Observation of saturation effects in optical harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 54–55 (1963).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vanherzeele, H.

Velsko, S.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Villeval, P.

Wu, B.

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, G. You, “A new type ultraviolet SHG crystal β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

You, G.

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, G. You, “A new type ultraviolet SHG crystal β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. Ser. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Zalkin, A.

D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J.-J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Asaumi, “Second-harmonic power of KTiOPO4 with double refraction,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 265–270 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of parametric gain experiment used to make absolute measurements of d eff for KTP and BBO. HR, highly reflective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical signal gain data (squares) plotted against the square root of pump irradiance I p with the least-squares fit (solid curves) for KTP-3. (b) Typical data with the least-squares fit for BBO-5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantities involved in determining the peak pump irradiance: (a) 200-ps gate superposed on a typical pump pulse with a FWHM of 8 ns, (b) measured pump beam irradiance profile, (c) 0.525-mm-diameter Gaussian cap on a pump beam profile calculated with the measured beam diameter (the cap denotes the top of the cylindrical volume of pump energy that mixed with and amplified the signal beam).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (boxes) and calculated (solid curves) signal gain as a function of ΔkL/π for (a) KTP-3, a crystal with a single ferroelectric domain; (b) KTP-4, assuming two equal length domains; (c) KTP-7, assuming four equal length domains. See text for additional details.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured d eff Values of KTP Crystals for the Mixing Process 532 nm (o) → 800 nm (e) + 1588 nm (o), with Phase-Matching Angle θ = 58.6° in the X–Z Plane

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Table 2 Measured d eff Values for BBO Crystals

Equations (10)

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E s ( L ) = E s ( 0 ) ( cosh g L - i Δ k 2 g sinh g L ) exp ( i Δ k L / 2 ) ,
g = [ Γ 2 - ( Δ k / 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
Δ k = k p - k s - k i ,
Γ 2 = 2 d eff 2 w s w i I p 0 n s n i n p c 3 .
I s = I s 0 exp [ - 2 ( r / b ) 2 ] ,
I p = I p 0 exp [ - 2 ( r / a ) 2 ] ,
G av = 0 R exp [ - 2 ( r / b ) 2 ] cosh 2 { Γ 0 L exp [ - ( r / a ) 2 } ] 2 π r d r 0 R exp [ - 2 ( r / b ) 2 ] 2 π r d r ,
E s ( L ) = E s ( 0 ) ( cosh g L - i Δ k 2 g sinh g L ) exp ( i Δ k L / 2 ) + i κ 1 E p E i * ( 0 ) g ( sinh g L ) exp ( i Δ k L / 2 ) ,
E i ( L ) = E i ( 0 ) ( cosh g L - i Δ k 2 g sinh g L ) exp ( i Δ k L / 2 ) + i κ 2 E p E s * ( 0 ) g ( sinh g L ) exp ( i Δ k L / 2 ) ,
κ i = d eff w i n i c

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