Abstract

The narrowing of the spectral linewidth and the increasing of the peak intensity characteristic of laser action were observed in emission spectra of dye-infused biological tissues. The tissue was infused with a solution of Rhodamine 640 perchlorate in ethanol and then excited with frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses. The dependence of emission linewidth on the excitation radiant exposure and dye concentration was investigated. Laser action was also observed in biologically compatible fluorescein sodium dye dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline mixed with scattering polystyrene spheres. The sharp spectral peaks of laser action in tissues may find applications in the detection of superficial disease.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Suvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 12, p. 282 ff.
  4. M. Siddiq, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in biological tissue,” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 1994.
  5. M. Siddiq, Q. Z. Wang, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action from optically pumped dye-treated tissues,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE7.
  6. C. O. Tse, J. K. W. Leung, W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Linewidth broadening of laser action in biological and random gain media,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE8.
  7. L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues in standard C,” (U. of Texas Press, Houston, Tex., 1992).
  9. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, E. R. Beck, “A CCD and neural network based instrument for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in-vivo,” in Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases, R. R. Alfano, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2135, 117–128 (1994).

1995 (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Suvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

M. Siddiq, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in biological tissue,” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 1994.

M. Siddiq, Q. Z. Wang, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action from optically pumped dye-treated tissues,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE7.

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Suvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Beck, E. R.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, E. R. Beck, “A CCD and neural network based instrument for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in-vivo,” in Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases, R. R. Alfano, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2135, 117–128 (1994).

Cue, N.

C. O. Tse, J. K. W. Leung, W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Linewidth broadening of laser action in biological and random gain media,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE8.

Drake, J. M.

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[Crossref]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, E. R. Beck, “A CCD and neural network based instrument for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in-vivo,” in Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases, R. R. Alfano, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2135, 117–128 (1994).

Genack, A. Z.

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Suvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hayward, J. E.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, E. R. Beck, “A CCD and neural network based instrument for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in-vivo,” in Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases, R. R. Alfano, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2135, 117–128 (1994).

Jacques, S. L.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues in standard C,” (U. of Texas Press, Houston, Tex., 1992).

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Suvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Leung, J. K. W.

C. O. Tse, J. K. W. Leung, W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Linewidth broadening of laser action in biological and random gain media,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE8.

Patterson, M. S.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, E. R. Beck, “A CCD and neural network based instrument for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in-vivo,” in Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases, R. R. Alfano, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2135, 117–128 (1994).

Siddiq, M.

M. Siddiq, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in biological tissue,” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 1994.

M. Siddiq, Q. Z. Wang, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action from optically pumped dye-treated tissues,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE7.

Suvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Suvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tse, C. O.

C. O. Tse, J. K. W. Leung, W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Linewidth broadening of laser action in biological and random gain media,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE8.

Wang, L.-H.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues in standard C,” (U. of Texas Press, Houston, Tex., 1992).

Wang, Q. Z.

M. Siddiq, Q. Z. Wang, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action from optically pumped dye-treated tissues,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE7.

Wilson, B. C.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, E. R. Beck, “A CCD and neural network based instrument for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in-vivo,” in Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases, R. R. Alfano, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2135, 117–128 (1994).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 12, p. 282 ff.

Yoo, K. M.

C. O. Tse, J. K. W. Leung, W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Linewidth broadening of laser action in biological and random gain media,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE8.

Zhang, W.

C. O. Tse, J. K. W. Leung, W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Linewidth broadening of laser action in biological and random gain media,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE8.

Zheng, L.-Q.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L.-Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Meth. Programs Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (2)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, E. Suvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Genack, J. M. Drake, “Scattering for super-radiation,” Nature (London) 368, 400–401 (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), Chap. 12, p. 282 ff.

M. Siddiq, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action in biological tissue,” presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 1994.

M. Siddiq, Q. Z. Wang, R. R. Alfano, “Laser action from optically pumped dye-treated tissues,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE7.

C. O. Tse, J. K. W. Leung, W. Zhang, N. Cue, K. M. Yoo, “Linewidth broadening of laser action in biological and random gain media,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CFE8.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, “Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues in standard C,” (U. of Texas Press, Houston, Tex., 1992).

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, J. E. Hayward, B. C. Wilson, E. R. Beck, “A CCD and neural network based instrument for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties in-vivo,” in Advances in Laser and Light Spectroscopy to Diagnose Cancer and Other Diseases, R. R. Alfano, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2135, 117–128 (1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup. The thick and thin arrows represent optical and electronic signals, respectively. The thickness of the glass layer was 0.016 cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Emission spectra: (a) pure Rhodamine 640 perchlorate dye solution and the autofluorescence of the rat muscle tissue, (b) Rhodamine 640 perchlorate dye-infused muscle tissue with 0.07 and 3 mJ of excitation laser energy. The excitation laser energy values and the scaling factors of the spectra are listed in parentheses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral linewidth of the Rhodamine 640 perchlorate dye-infused rat muscle tissue as a function of excitation laser radiant exposure while the energy or spot area was kept constant.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral linewidth of the Rhodamine 640 perchlorate dye-infused rat muscle tissue as a function of the dye concentration in the rat muscle.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Setup that was used for Monte Carlo simulations of excitation light distribution in Rhodamine 640 perchlorate dyeinfused rat muscle. The diameter of the laser beam was 0.137 cm, corresponding to the 1.47-mm2 beam area. The pulse energy and pulse width were 3 mJ and 10 ns, respectively. The thickness of the glass layer was 0.016 cm. (b), (c), Fluence (J/cm2) of excitation light at a 532-nm wavelength, using the low-power absorption coefficient of the dye as the absorption coefficient of the tissue system (b), and using the intrinsic absorption coefficient of the tissue system and neglecting the dye absorption (c).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Monte Carlo simulated diffuse reflectance of light (photons/ps) from the glass surface as a function of time. The geometric setup is the same as that shown in Fig. 5(a). An impulse isotropic point source of light was buried 0.1 cm below the tissue surface on the z axis. The average time 〈t〉 that photons travel in the tissue system was 82 ps.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Emission spectra of biocompatible fluorescein sodium dye dissolved in two solutions: PBS (nonturbid), and PBS mixed with scattering polystyrene spheres (turbid). The excitation laser energy values are listed in the parentheses.

Metrics